Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes information on clinical, preventative, curative and social aspects of Transmittable diseases. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various infectious diseases and its epidemiology. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology focus on discovery and innovation in various aspects of Airborne Disease, Biological Contamination, Blood-borne Disease, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Mycology, Clinical Virology, Coinfection, Copenhagen Consensus, Disease Diffusion Mapping, Emerging Diseases, Epidemics, Foodborne Illness, Globalization and Disease, Human Microbiome Project, Infection Control, Infectious Disease Dynamics, Infectious Disease Eradication, Medical Bioinformatics for Infectious Diseases, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Pandemics, Pathology, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Threshold Host Density, Tropical Disease, Waterborne Diseases, Zoonotic Infections, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510079
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2019
Animal African Trypanosomosis is a Neglected Tropical Disease with significant impacts to pastoral community livelihoods. Our study sought to determine the influence of seasonal cattle movements on the prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle in the pastoral areas of the Maasai Steppe. Identification of spatial and temporal dynamics of trypanosome infections in cattle is essential for designing effective control strategies. To identify potential hotspots of trypanosome transmission, we wor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510078
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 04, 2019
Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne, tropical disease that causes mortality and morbidity in livestock and humans. In this study we investigated the risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. We assessed the influence of age, sex, herd size and history of treatment against trypanosomosis as risk factors of trypanosome infection. Cattle blood samples were collected from 150 cattle in three villages in the vicinity of Tarangire National Park, which act...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510077
Gedeyon Getahun, Tilahun Beyene Handiso and Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik
Article Type: Research article | First Published: April 06, 2019
Facility based cross sectional study triangulated by Qualitative data collection method. A total 340 PTB patients in Hadiya zone public health facilities included in the study. Health facilities were selected by Simple random sampling method from three woredas. DOTS user at the beginning of data collection was consecutively recruited in to the study until the intended sample size was fulfilled. Multivariable binary Logistic regression was used. A P-value < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510076
Alain C Juayang, Joseph Peter T Lim, Zeith Ceve B de los Reyes, Mary Dane B Tuante, Zia Isabel P Batiles, Jan Frances Nichole V Guino-o, Francis Raphael A Villanueva and Gemma B de los Reyes
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Candida species, a group of opportunistic infection-causing microorganisms, has shown an increasing pattern of resistance against certain antifungal drugs through time. Thus, this retrospective study was conducted to describe the antifungal resistance of Candida species isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines from July 2017 to July 2018. A total of 184 Candida species were isolated from clinical specimens with C. albicans (...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510075
Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care uni...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510074
Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Omer Njajou and Joseph Besong Besong
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2109
This was an analytical cross sectional study among pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, carried out from April to May 2018 in the Kumbo West Health District (KWHD) of Cameroon. We used a multistage sampling design to select 6 health areas. In each of these 6 health areas selected, proportionate sampling method was employed to get 400 participants from the health areas. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and analysed using ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510073
Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery and Mary Garvey
Article Type: March 15, 2019 | First Published: March 15, 2019
Iatrogenic disease represents an ongoing issue for veterinarians where animals manifest with secondary conditions as a result of medical treatment. Similarly, zoonotic disease and specifically resistant zoonotic pathogens represent an ongoing issue for public health safety. As an increasing number of zoonotic microbial species are being recognised as emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans, the issues relating to their antimicrobial resistanc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510072
Tsegaw Agezew, MSC, Abilo Tadesse, MD, Lemma Derseh, MPH and Mekonnen Yimer, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 14, 2019
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. Patients on ART are recommended to periodic monitoring to ensure effective and durable treatment outcomes. Treatment failure is the main indication for ART switching and assessed by criteria used to define virologic, immunologic or clinical failure. A retrospective follow up study was conducted from June 1, to August 30, 2018 to determine the incidence and associated factors with first line ART failur...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510071
Senda Mezghani Maalej, Jihene Jdidi Trabelsi, Gustave Claude-alexandre, Ilhem Boutiba, Maha Mastouri, Sophia Besbes, Farouk Barguellil, Frederic Laurent and Adnene Hammami
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infections in hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characteristics of MRSA strains causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in Tunisia. A total of 135 non-duplicate MRSA strains were consecutively collected from five Tunisian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510070
John B Ochieng, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, Evans Apondi, Jane Juma, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Clayton Onyango, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, Richard Omore, Frank Odhiambo, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Jennifer R Verani, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Kayla F Laserson, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda and Robert F Breiman
Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 16, 2019
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children worldwide. Most fatal rotavirus-associated diarrhea cases among children under 5 years occur in Africa and Asia. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains among children less than 5 years in western Kenya to provide baseline data on the prevalence of each genotype prior to the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Kenya. From January 2010 to December 2013, stool samples w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510069
Natasha N Pettit, Zhe Han, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Jennifer Pisano and Vera Tesic
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019
Strategies to improve time to administration of appropriate, effective antimicrobial therapy can improve patient outcomes. We sought to retrospectively assess if the earlier identification of blood pathogens and their resistance determinants with multiplex PCR platforms could have an impact on time to initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy. All patients with monomicrobial positive blood cultures from March to June 2013 were included in the retrospective chart review analysis. We evaluated th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510068
Peter Asaga Mac, Adamu Chipago Suleiman and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2019
A total of 200 pregnant women subjects were selected for this study to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the risk factors among pregnant women attending ante natal care at FMC, Keffi, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The sero prevalence of HBV infection and its infectivity is high in Central Nigeria. This resear...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510067
Fabio Miglietta, Claudio Palumbo, Fernando Parente, Luciano Velardi, Rosella Matera, Luigi Conte, Michela Dargenio, Maurizio Quarta, Milva Maria Nuzzo, Nicola Di Renzo and Giambattista Lobreglio
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 18, 2019
The presence of yeast neutrophil inclusions was observed and discussed several times in other reports; moreover some works demonstrated how Toxic Granulation Neutrophils (TGNs) are especially helpful in predicting acute bacterial infection, while the development of candidaemia-related TGNs was rarely described and in-depth. We describe two occasional findings of neutrophil inclusions and marked TGNs respectively due to Candida tropicalis and Cand...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510066
Cissoko Y, Traore F, Dicko MS, Konate I, Sidibe AF, Dembele JP, Fongoro S and Dao S
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019
Infectious diseases remain major public health issues with their corollary of epidemic and endemic disease, principally in developing countries. In 2010, the number of infections diseases related deaths was estimated to 15 millions per year worldwide and the World Health Organization (WHO) fore-casts this number to 13 million in 2050. These various infectious diseases, from the most frequent like malaria to the less like neglected tropical diseases are a scourge for developing countries and are ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510065
Ellen Wolff, Bernice Aronsson, Markus Hultstrand and Lisa Brouwers
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 09, 2019
Pertussis is a drawn-out and troublesome respiratory disease. Infants have a greater burden of disease than older children and adults, and are more likely to suffer complications. New vaccination strategies need to be considered to reduce pertussis among infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of three alternative vaccination strategies, in comparison with current vaccination schedule....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510064
Kpongbo Etienne Angora, Vincent Djohan, Abibatou Konate, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Akoua Valerie Bedia-Tanoh, Kondo Fulgence Kassi, Abo Henriette Vanga-Bosson, Sebastien Miezan, Eby Herve Menan and William Yavo
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 04, 2019
Malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections are morbidity causes in most tropical areas in the world. In Côte d'Ivoire, their association greats a major public health problem and their coexistence is the subject of very few studies. The current study investigated uncomplicated malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 children aged 2 to 15...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510063
Selcuk Nazik, Esma Cingoz, Ahmet Riza Sahin and Selma Ates
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2018
Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is a member of the normal flora and rarely causes infection. This study aims at evaluating, accompanied by the literature, Gemella-associated infections that are also present in the normal flora. This study is a cross-sectional study. Gemella infections recorded in 2014-2018 in University Hospital, Turkey. Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is parti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510062
Jennifer E MacDonald, Ashley E Glode and Luciano J Costa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2018
Diarrhea is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) due to multiple etiologies, including toxicity from the conditioning regimen and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. We hypothesized that C. difficile infection is uncommon in recipients of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and testing for C. difficile is over utilized at our institution. We performed a retrospective, single center analysis of the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for C. difficile a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510061
Yanning Ma, Jie Liu, Chunmei Bao, Xiuhong Hao, Jingui Cao, Yan Wang and Jiyong Yang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prevalent pathogens in China. However, little is known about the prevalence of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in China. BSI-causing P. aeruginosa (BSI-PA) was collected from six tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing. Genetic relatedness was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method, and sequence types (STs) were evaluated by multilocu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510060
Jing Liang, Kai Zhao, Liqin Zhu and Yihe Liu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 26, 2018
A 41-year-old female patient received tigecycline because of abdominal infection caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) after performing cholangiolithotomy by the endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). Subsequently she developed cholestatic liver injury as substantiated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Tigecycline was switched to dual carbapenems. Her liver function tests improved. We su...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510059
Sangeeta Mookherji and Kei Alegria-flores
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 05, 2018
Controlling multidrug and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) poses a grave challenge to public health, globally. Studies repeatedly show that effective M/XDR-TB management goes beyond strategies recommended in global TB control plans, uniformly pointing to patient-centred care as critical to progress in controlling the epidemic. We aim to describe patient-centred care in M/XDR-TB management in Peru, which presented a context where M/XDR-TB remains a persistent problem, even with in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510058
Norberto Sugaya and Dante Migliari
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2018
This article reports a case of secondary stage syphilis involving the oral mucosa and the skin (the palms). The lesion's clinical aspects of both sites could possibly be misdiagnosed for some common inflammatory diseases, among them oral lichenoid contact lesion or drug reaction. As a standard procedure, the differential diagnosis required to rule out syphilis. The treponemal and anti-treponemal tests confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis. The pati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510057
Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Zhizhong Jing, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen and Xiao-Bing He
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 29, 2018
Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510056
Ernest Tambo, Shang Xia, Xin-Yu Feng and Zhou Xiao-Nong
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2018
Investing in digital technologies to support health-based research, modelling and planning, preparedness and timely effective response, and long-term management benefits has been recognized in improving epidemiological analysis, disease prevention, control to elimination, health education and promotion. This paper provides valuable insights and approaches for public health in collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of health surveillance data, resource allocation, for guiding...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510055
Guenifi Wahiba, Gasmi Abdelkader, Boukhrissa Houda, Rais Mounira, Hachani Abderahmen, Ouyahia Amel, Mechakra Saleh and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 26, 2018
Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. Neurological localization is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors; its diagnosis is hampered by the absence of rapid and accurate tools, therefore it is often evoked and treated on presumption arguments. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome features in patients with cereb...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510054
Huang Yu-Fen and Su Hui-Chen
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 23, 2018
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the main leading causes of mortality associated with liver disease worldwide. Different predominant modes of transmission in the local area play an important role for the disease burden. Several cofactors are identified to accelerate the disease progression. Besides, several comorbidities are common in patients with CHC and also have poor response to the traditional combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510053
Aaron R Casha, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Andre Navarro and Emanuel Farrugia
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2018
The pathophysiological factors that make the upper lobe "vulnerable" to various different pathologies are additive, and not mutually exclusive. They include a tall, thin body habitus with an antero-posteriorly flattened chest as associated with a low BMI, compounded by the poor apical blood supply and concomitant limited lymphatic drainage, possibly accentuated by a physically tall lung and a deep first rib furrow that makes the apex appear promi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510052
Aaron R Casha, Roberto Caruana-Gauci, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, Hannah-Marie Casha-Gauci and Joseph N Grima
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018
A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB is presented based on the biomechanics of pleural stress in the context of the lung as a pressure vessel. This hypothesis modelled pleural stress as a marker of pleural tissue destruction and subsequent repair. It identified five predictors of TB reactivation, namely adolescent and young adult age, male gender, apical location, low antero-posterior chest diameter or low thoracic-index rib-cage sha...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510051
Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Victoria Nneka Asogwa and Uche Ezenwaka
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 15, 2018
Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are emerging health challenges worldwide, especially among immunocompromised hosts. This study investigated systemic fungal infections in diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were recruited from the Diabetic Clinics; Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic and risk factors from the subjects....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510050
Ahmad Dimassi, Katia Iskandar, Roula Matta, Nathalie Lahoud, Pierre Abi Hanna, Mira Jbeily and Pascale Salameh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 07, 2018
Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are related to medical practices that prevent or minimize spreading of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IPC measures on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in infectious diseases service at Lebanese hospitals....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510049
Jia Bainga Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh, Matilda King, Josephine Alpha Rogers and Sulaiman Lansanah Mandoh
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018
Globally it is estimated that 10% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In countries with high HBV endemicity the seroprevalence rate can be as high as 25% with approximately 10% of the HIV infected population coinfected with HBV....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510048
Elizabeth Salazar, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Diana Vega and Roberto Arenas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018
Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is very rare in adults, and may affect those with immunosuppressive diseases or menopausal elderly women. Clinical manifestations along with trichoscopy and Wood’s light, can help the clinician to determine the correct diagnosis, in order to reduce irreversible sequelae and decrease multiple contagion...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510047
Joshua Awogbemi, Moses Adeyeye and Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 24, 2018
Compared to other livestock, domestic fowls are much more commonly reared and consumed in Nigeria. The emergence of serious live-threatening infections from veterinary sources and treatment failures occurring with the available antibiotics warrants investigation into the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms and how they contribute to the menace of antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use of antimicrobia...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510046
María M Cameranesi, Adriana S Limansky, Jorgelina Moran-Barrio, Guillermo D Repizo and Alejandro M Viale
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2017
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections. Its success in the hospital environment obeys to multiple causes, among them, the ability to resist antimicrobial compounds. It can rapidly evolve Multidrug Resistance (MDR) when confronted with antibiotic therapy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510045
H Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias and RA Nonato Alfonso
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2017
Descriptive study was carried out in a 75-bed public hospital in Western Qatar. The study included the patients underwent selected procedures who required antibiotic prophylaxis from Jan-2013 to June 2016. Data was collected by the infection control practitioner....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510044
Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, Ahmed El-Sohemy and Alaa Badawi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 13, 2017
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes influencing hypercytokinemia have been implicated in the clinical manifestations of severe influenza infection. Genotype-phenotype studies in healthy subjects may help to identify biomarkers of early prediction for severe disease outcome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510043
Article Type: editorial | First Published: November 08, 2017
Infection is the common pathology in medicine. The new emerging infection is the present problem worldwide. Within the past few years, there are several new emerging infections. The diseases are usually problematic and need good management and control....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510042
Mei Chen Chen, Che Kim Tan and Wen Liang Yu
Article Type: letter to the editor | First Published: November 06, 2017
Aspergillosis is well known in a patient with perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis and pulmonary renal syndromes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510041
Hsin-Ju Tang and Wen-Liang Yu
Article Type: Editor | First Published: October 26, 2017
This is a 45-year-old man, who has been working in China for several years and denied any systemic diseases before. He has suffered from the right axillary mass for 3 weeks, which was film and associated with mild tenderness. He was admitted to the Hematology department of the hospital on May 1, 2017. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan from neck to the chest showed a large enhancing mass over right axillary area, favoring lymphoma or metastatic ly...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510040
Kei Numazaki and Maho Ichikawa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017
Serious gastrointestinal infection of Rotavirus (RV) is usually prevalent during winter months and often seen in infants and young children. Studies on genotypes of prevalent rotavirus strains are quite important for preventing infection, developing vaccines, and its evaluation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510039
Susana Sousa, Andres Puime, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa and Marie-Laure Darde
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2017
Toxoplasma gondii genotypes display high genetic diversity in South America with levels of diversity not yet seen in Europe. Indeed, highly virulent strains even for immunocompetent humans have been described. However, limited or no information appears to be available dealing with strains of T. gondii circulating in Uruguay....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510038
Reena Dhansukh Mohanlal and Alan Karstaedt
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2017
Despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. CMV gastrointestinal tract infection is poorly described. This retrospective study was undertaken to describe the clinical and histological features of biopsy confirmed CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a large teaching hospital with a high prevalence of Human Immu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510037
Linda Nwachukwu, Courtney Armstrong, Zachary Mulkey, Kristen Fuhrmann and Charles F Seifert
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017
Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) continues to be the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious colitis in the United States, replacing oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510036
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Nawaf Almalki, Abdualziz Alghamdi and Housain A Alqarni Alqarni
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2017
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important and serious global health problem. Despite the fact that there is a decrease in the prevalence rate of HBV infection in Saudi Arabia, but still it causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to measure the level of knowledge and to identify attitude and practice on HBV....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510035
Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro, Ana Carla Gomes Soares, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Patricia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2017
Dengue Virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus and has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Brazil is considered hyperendemic for dengue, and all serotypes have been identified....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510034
Brahmaputra Marjadi, John Doan Nguyen, Peter Hoppett and Mary-Louise McLaws
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 16, 2017
Needlestick Injuries (NSI) commonly occurs in the hospital setting. Medical students are at risk of NSI due to lack of clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and knowledge, attitudes, awareness and practices of NSI among medical students at an Australian university....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510033
Sydney Marsh, Felicia Ratnaraj, Roy Norris, Jason Gass and Renuga Vivekanandan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2017
Nocardia, a gram positive bacteria, is found primarily in the immunocompromised population. We present a case of nocardia causing mastoiditis in a patient with a history of recurrent otitis media, with a focus on appropriate treatment selection. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510032
Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Xiaodong Li and Xing-Hua Gao
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2017
Human cutaneous warts are prevalent worldwide and are caused by Human Papillomavirus. Most cutaneous warts can be clinically diagnosed without any auxiliary examination, but additional tests are required to confirm the infection of Human Papillomavirus in some atypical cases. The aim of this study was to measure the applicability of HPV DNA detection in cutaneous warts in a clinical setting....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510031
Leonard Sama Fonkeng, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Michel Noubom, Roland Bamou, Assoua HSR Sterve, Ayuk Leo, JR Kuiate and Christopher B Tume
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 21, 2017
There is a growing awareness on a global scale on the possible relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a prospective study in sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in two TB management clinics in Bamenda and Bafoussam in the North West and West regions of Cameroon respectively to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, associated risk factors and the impact of diabetes in the treatment outcome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510030
Mary Fairchok, Christina Schofield, Wei-Ju Chen, Mary Pugh, Hugh Bigg, John C Arnold and Eugene V Millar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2017
25-OH vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL activate HCAP-18, which impacts the immune response to respiratory viruses. While emerging data suggests a link between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and an increased incidence of respiratory infections, the relationship between these levels and severity of infection is unknown. We hypothesized that infants with insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels would have more severe viral respiratory infections....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510029
Narcisa L Nhamitambo, Sharadhuli I Kimera and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017
Trypanosomosis is a major neglected disease of animals and man that causes great negative socio-economic impact in many African countries. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the blood from the genus Trypanosoma. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of trypanosomosis in Tanzania, but none has been done in the human/livestock/wildlife interface areas of Mikumi National Park....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510028
Chia Peck Kee, Petrick Periyasamy, Zhe Kang Law, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Wan Nur Nafisah WanYahya, Hazlina Mahadzir, Shahrul Azmin Md Rani, Ramesh Sahathevan, Rabani Remli, Raymond Azman Ali, Hui Jan Tan, Syazarina Sharis Osman, Shahizon Azura Mohamed Mukari and Shamsul Azhar Shah
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 17, 2017
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been one of the major extrapulmonary manifestation with high morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to study the clinical features, prognostic factors and clinical outcome of TBM in a local tertiary hospital. This was an observational study on TBM in patients who were diagnosed in a local tertiary hospital....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510027
Ardigleusa Alves Coêlho, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Emannuela Maria Nunes Freitas, Paulo Henrique Lima, Ewerton Willian Gomes Brito, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves and Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017
A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) with self-administered treatment (SAT) in people with pulmonary tuberculosis. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the Scielo/Lilacs were searched for studies published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2013....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510026
Pamela J Kennedy, Sajata Outin, Tomas R Rodriguez, Lauren Polansky, Margaret McCarron and Karen R Siener, Ann C Moen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 08, 2017
As Global Health Security partners endeavor to support capacity building globally, it is important to examine prior efforts for building surveillance and laboratory systems for emerging infectious diseases. CDC provides financial support and technical assistance to foreign governments for the development or improvement of influenza surveillance networks in over fifty countries through cooperative agreements....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510025
Hubert E Blum
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 06, 2017
Based on molecular, genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and microbiological analyses it is increasingly possible to identify individual disease-related characteristics that define disease pathogenesis, disease disposition or prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies (personalized medicine/precision medicine')....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510024
Nur Ain A, Abdul Rahman O and Aini I
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 28, 2017
The virus infection result in apoptosis of cells included mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis. It seems that both cellular and viral factors are involved depending on types of cells. Edible bird nest (EBN) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that contained various bioactive compounds with health benefits in human. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510023
Lhor Youssef, Kyriaki Nomikou, Khayli Mounir, Bouslikhane Mohammed, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa and El Harrak Mehdi
Article Type: Overview | First Published: February 18, 2017
Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Due to the segmented nature of genome, there is existence of high diversity in BT virus serotypes too as a consequence of genetic reassortments....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510022
Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2016
The colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health problem of major importance in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Active decolonization measures are performed in MRSA-colonized patients; infections caused by MRSA are treated with vancomycin and other reserve antibiotics. The administration of bacteriophages could prevent the formation of MRSA biofilms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510021
Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Nasima Mehraban, Oladapo Ayodele, Sarah K Tshitenge, Rochelle Knox, Elda Mullaj, Aaron Nandzo, Ayman El-Samman, Steven Neshewat and Sinthy Vivek
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2016
Zoonotic diseases or infections (Zoonoses) are ailments that are naturally transmitted from animals to humans (or vice versa). These diseases are transmitted either by the consumption of contaminated food and water, exposure to the pathogen during preparation, processing or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Zoonotic diseases have a significant effect on public health worldwide, showing a higher incidence rate in developing countr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510020
Jean-Benoit Arlet, Cloe Comarmond, Anoosha Habibi, Katia Stankovic, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Marilucy Lopez Sublet, Louis Affo, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Justine Gellen-Dautremer, Sylvain Le Jeune, Elena Fois, Latifatou Boukari, Veronique Perronne, Denis Vincent, Jacques Pouchot, Djamal Khimoud, Francois Lionnet and Patrice Cacoub
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 14, 2016
The relationship between HCV infection and complications of sickle cell disease SCD has not been reported. To determine prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adult patients with SCD, and to analyze the relationship between HCV infection and SCD complications. A total of 267 SCD patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was filled out, including history and complications of SCD, and the status and main c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510019
Mia N Barnes, Monika N Daftary, Mary K Maneno and Faria F Farhat
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 14, 2016
Although clinical advances have been demonstrated through the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the management of an HIV infected patient within the intensive care unit (ICU) has been a topic of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines to assist in the management of HIV patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to examine ART utilization in the medical ICU and to assess relationships...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510018
Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Irene Ayi, John Larbi, Takashi Suzuki and Nobuo Ohta
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 13, 2016
Malaria and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are each reported to cause severe negative consequences in both mother and child. In Ghana, efforts are ongoing to control malaria from all facets but there is no such effort yet for control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp and T. gondii infections in mothers at delivery and their neonates in a malaria holo-endemic area where Sulphadoxine-pyrimethami...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510017
Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Josephine Adunse, Odunayo Olorunfemi and Nashwa Abdulsalam
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 16, 2016
A previously healthy 23-year-old male presented with fever and shortness of breath. His illness initially started six days before presentation with a sore throat. Two days later he developed fevers with associated chills, rigors, and night sweats. He also complained of myalgias, non-productive cough, a right-sided chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. His symptoms continued to ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510016
James D MacKinnon
Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 15, 2016
Malaria remains one of the most destructive communicable diseases worldwide. In the campaign towards global malaria eradication, the development of effective vaccinees has become paramount with the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance to primary treatment and prophylactic regimens. Of particular focus are vaccinees specific to Plasmodium falciparum....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510015
Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 02, 2016
Dengue fever remains an important mosquito-borne viral illness resulting in substantial human and economic costs. Despite rising incidence rates in recent decades, there is cause for hope, particularly in light of recent advancements in dengue vaccine and vector control research. This article reviews past dengue control efforts and discusses current and future strategies for dengue control....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510014
Graciela Borthagaray, Melina Mondelli and Maria H Torre
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016
In order to maintain the capacity to treat infections it is necessary to adopt strategies for the development of new drugs. The use of metal ions in medicine for their antimicrobial effects was prevalent for many years before the advent of antibiotics. During the second half of the twentieth century, active metal complexes with different chemical, physicochemical and biochemical properties than the constituents reborn by the threat posed by micro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510013
Li Yan, Zhu Limei, Cheng Chen, Lu Wei, Booker G.W, Yu Hao and Polyak S.W
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem for thousands of years. It took almost 200 years after the discovery of the disease in early 1689 to identify the causative pathogen, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch who was awarded a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his work in this area. Currently, TB is a global pandemic that outranks HIV-AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death by infectious disease. In ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510012
Mouhamadou Lamine Dia, Sow AI, Cisse MF, Gueye Pal, Ba F, Cisse NN, Balde O, Diouf B and Sarr M
Article Type: Short Note | First Published: April 01, 2016
Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medication is a major public health problem worldwide and Senegal is not spared. Indeed, the WHO reported 13,186 cases of tuberculosis in Senegal (including new cases and relapses) for 2013, 2.1% of which were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new cases and 17% in retreatment patients. Elsewhere in the world, the WHO estimates the number of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510011
John G. Bruno, Taylor Phillips, Alicia M. Richarte, Tiffany Montez, Adrian Garcia and Jeffrey C. Sivils
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28. 2016
This report extends fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead-based sandwich assays developed and published for ultrasensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes by adding prototype assays for pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shiga-like toxin-1 and Salmonella enterica. These tests are assessed by a highly portable fluorometer, thus enabling on-site detection and tracking or epidemiology of major foodborne pathogen outbreaks pote...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510010
Harunur Rashid, Shereen Shoma and Mahbubur Rahman
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2016
A total of 255 NPS specimens were collected from every seventh of 1786 children with meningitis (n = 293) and pneumonia (n = 1493). One hundred and twenty one (47.5%) H. influenzae were isolated from 255 NPS specimens. Among 121 isolates, 15 (38%) were recovered from meningitis compared to 106 (49%) from pneumonia cases (P < 0.3). Fifteen percent of isolates (18/121) were serotype b (Hib) and the rest were non-Hib....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510009
Jon M Riggs, Robert JC McLean, Rodney E Rohde and Gary M Aron
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal commonly found in polymicrobial biofilms with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the increasing drug resistance in Staphylococci, we explored combination therapy with teicoplanin and bacteriophage type 92 (Siphoviridae) on the survival and antibiotic tolerance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis to teicoplanin and bacteriophage in 48-h pure and mixed culture biofilms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510008
Fiseha Lemango, Terefe Gone, Yohannes H/Michael and Shimeles Ololo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016
HIV/AIDS has significantly affected the well-being of adolescents and has posed serious concern for their parents. Parent-adolescent communication on HIV/AIDS is a key tool to prevent and control the disease among young people. However, information about parental involvement on adolescent HIV prevention activities is scarce in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510007
Soraya Jodra Sanchez, Jacinto Ramos Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Santos Jimenez, Rosa Cordovilla Perez, Jose Maria Gonzalez Ruiz, Ana Maria Sanchez Hernandez, Sergio Cadenas Menendez and Miguel Barrueco Ferrero
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: February 27, 2016
Since the microorganism Legionella pneumophila (Lp) was identified during an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in 1976, it has been recognised as a common cause of both extra- and intra-hospital pneumonia . The incidence of community-associated pneumonia (CAP) due to Lp varies widely from one area to another, hovering around 1% in subjects treated on an outpatient basis and 15-28% in hospitalised patients. Of these, approximately a qu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510006
Bethel Shiferaw, Ebisa Bekele, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin and Marianne Frieri
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2016
Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection. PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune sy...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510005
Zuzeca Magalhaes, Rita Castro and Filomena Martins Pereira
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 09, 2016
Individuals between 15 and 24 years of age are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of this study were to describe risk taking sexual behaviour and the presence of C. trachomatis in health sciences university students in Lisbon....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510004
Kamran Baig, Shaikh Muhammad Saif Din, Noura A Elkhizzi and Daifallah J Al Nakhli
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2015
Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials and gaps in infection control practices have resulted in alarmingly high prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) globally. The objective of our study was to highlight the incidence of hospital acquired MDROs in our facility. Method: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected from January - December 2013 in a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia. The Centre for Disease Preventi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510003
Marc P Girard
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 28, 2015
As of 2014, UNAIDS estimated that some 35 million people were living with HIV-1 worldwide, of whom more than 25 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a preventative manner has allowed to at least partially limit the extension of the disease. The best example is the major success that was achieved with the implementation of ART in HIV-1-infected pregnant mothers to prevent the infect...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510002
Adelshin RV, Melnikova OV, Trushina Yu N and Andaev EI
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 28, 2015
Pribaikalie is a mountainous area in the South of Eastern Siberia that borders Lake Baikal between the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to the area. Human cases occur usually within regional centers (Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude) and large industrial centers (Bratsk, Angarsk, Cheremkhovo), where the majority of the population is concentrated....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510001
Michael J. Mahande, Habib O. Ramadhani and Rune N. Phimemon
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015
HIV counselling and testing (HTC) is an integral component of HIV preventive strategies. Despite an increase in the number of HTC sites, HIV testing uptake among young women in Tanzania is relatively low compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with changes in HIV testing uptake using Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Surveys of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12....
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