Recurrence or Relapse of COVID 19 Infection
Gary R Skankey, MD and Christopher Breeden, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020
We present a patient who is a 67-year-old female who is morbidly obese (BMI 62), but otherwise healthy, who was admitted on 4/6/2020 (day 0) with a five day history of fever and diarrhea, followed by 24 hours worth of increasing shortness of breath, dry cough, nausea, and dry heaves. A chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with congestive heart failure, however B-naturetic peptide was only 284 (NL < 125). Blood work was as follows: WBC - 3420, ABG - 7.43/34/64 on 6 liters O2, Quant...
The Emergent Pandemic- A Review on Coronavirus SARSCov- 2: Virology, Pathogenesis and Outbreak
Dr. Karan R Shah, Dr. Dipika B Utekar, Dr. Shital S Nikam, Dr. Ajay R Bhoosreddy and Dr. Seema R Patil
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 26, 2020
The coronaviruses have been found to affect the human life and ecosystem since past few years now. First the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), then MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and now the recent infection caused by yet another category of coronaviruses have proved to be fatal to human life. In December 2019, few cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were reported in the Hubei province of Wuhan City, China. Later after thorough investigations it was found that these patients wer...
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Infectious Diseases
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2020
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in spring/summer air and water reach germicidal levels. It is proposed that variations in naturally occurring ROS are the primary cause of influenza seasonality. Recent NIH and DHS COVID-19 aerosol and droplet log kill measurements do not account for this natural germicidal effect leading to over estimations of halflife for the virus in real world conditions. A new formulation of the Wells Riley equation is proposed that includes ROS and viral load factors. It is pr...
Bromhexine Hydrochloride: Potential Approach to Prevent or Treat Early Stage Novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease
Dmitry Stepanov, DESA and Peter Lierz, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 20, 2020
An emerging international outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already become a problem for physicians and scientists globally. Although the majority of patients withstand the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) without vital threats, many people develop severe respiratory failure, leading to fatal consequences. A clinical trial from Wuhan, China has demonstrated that 86% of the patients who required invasive ventilation and 79% among those who needed a non-invasive ventilatory...
Burden of Hepatitis B Infection among High Risk Populations in Western Kenya
Mercy Jelagat Karoney, MBChB, MSc, MMed, Fatuma Faraj Some, MBChB, MBA MMed, Hellen Irusa Lukhaka Dip, Eric Wang'welo Dip, Laban Kipkemei Murgor BA and Adrian Gardner, MD, MPH
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020
Hepatitis B infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B infection has been on the rise since 1990 with the highest prevalence reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) are high risk groups for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Due to similar routes of transmission, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals are also at high risk for Hepatitis B infec...
Adverse Effects of Prolonged Mask Use among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19
Elisheva Rosner, MSN, RN-C
Article Type: Survey | First Published: June 01, 2020
In March 2020, New York City encountered its first official case of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This novel coronavirus, referred to as SARS-COV 2, originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Within a short amount of time, hundreds of thousands of cases were diagnosed around the world and the United States, causing the World Health Organization to announce it as an official infectious disease pandemic on January 30, 2020. COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets, and healthcare profes...
When Influenza A and COVID-19 Infections Co-exist: A Case Report
Ibrahim Haddad, MD, Mohammad Alomari, MD, Bara El Kurdi, MD, Vindhya Sriramoju, MD and Rupal Shah, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 29, 2020
A 55-year-old man, who presented to our emergency department complaining of pleuritic chest pain for two days before admission. At the time of evaluation, he endorsed the presence of minimal sore throat and dry cough in the absence of fever, shortness breath, recent travel, or contact with sick people. His vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was positive for right-sided scattered wheezes but otherwise unremarkable. In the emergency department he had a chest X-ray which...
Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) Used in the Management of Lemierre's Syndrome
Marcus Taylor, MRCS, Denish Apparau, MRCS and Kandadai Rammohan, FRCS-CTh
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 14, 2020
A 21-year-old female presented with non-specific symptoms of cough and sore throat. She rapidly became profoundly unwell, requiring intubation and ventilation. Clinical and radiological appearances were felt to be in keeping with Lemierre’s Syndrome (LS). The diagnosis of LS was confirmed when pleural fluid samples were found to contain Prevotella veroralis and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Due to worsening respiratory function the patient was commenced on veno- venous extracorporeal membrane oxy...
Past, Present and Future of Pandemics (COVID-19)
Mzee Said Abdulrahman Salim and Muslimat Kehinde Adebisi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2020
From herpes and legionnaires' disease in the 1970s to AIDS, Ebola, the severe acute and respiratory syndrome (SARS), contagious diseases continue to threaten and disrupt human societies. The end of last year (2019) doctors in Hubei province encountered patients with flu-like symptoms that are similar in characteristics to SARs having consistent aetiologies unfamiliar to them but with a possible link to their prior knowledge. A virus outbreak which has a genomic sequence similar to that of β vir...
Dynamics of COVID-19: Modelling and Analysis
Umair Ali Wani, Aadil Bakshi and Moazam Ali Wani
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 23, 2020
This paper features the SEIR model that can accurately calculate and predict the size of COVID-19 pandemic. Other than classical parameters, the model takes into account lockdown imposed by the government, age composition of the population, testing rate, inflow of patients (immigrants) and availability of tertiary health care facilities measured in terms of number of ICUs. The research takes an overview of then severely affected Italy and less affected India and studies the impact of parameters ...
Further Evidence of a Possible Correlation between the Severity of Covid-19 and BCG Immunization
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 30, 2020
In this work we observe a number of cases supporting the possible correlation between the administration of BCG tuberculosis vaccine and the severity of Covid-19 effects in the population proposed in the earlier works. Based on the early preliminary analysis of the publicly available data we propose a number of arguments and observations providing further support for the correlation hypothesis and make an observation that the effectiveness of the protection effect of BCG immunization, if confirm...
Ozone Autohemotherapy: Possible Mechanisms of Anti-Viral Action and Anti Oxidative
Bilal Mohamad Ali Obeid, MD, MBA, PHD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 29, 2020
While ozone is the trigger, several blood components such as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, platelets, and plasma components act as substrates and are responsible for setting in motion a number of biological effects that, directly or indirectly, are responsible for the clinical improvement observed after the autohaemotherapeutic treatment in chronic viral diseases...
COVID-19 Threat to Major Global Urban Centers
Jean-dAmour K Twibanire
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 22, 2020
The world is facing an unprecedented test by an enemy, a novel and deadly enemy, the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 continues to spread all around the world, social, political and serious economic consequences await this planet. After the introduction and a brief epidemiological summary, this article discusses the threat that is COVID-19 to major global urban centers. The impact of COVID-19 across the globe is particularly inimitable and more so in major global urban centers for several reasons ...
MMR Vaccine Adverse Drug Reactions Reports in the CDC WONDER System, 1989-2019
Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava, MD, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, MD and Danieal Patricia Trelles-Garcia, MD
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: March 14, 2020
We retrieved data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database, a national post-licensure vaccine safety surveillance system, through the CDC WONDER interface for reports of children aged 12 months to 6 years vaccinated with the MMR vaccine in the U.S. between January 1, 1989 and January 1, 2019. Specific ADRs evaluated in this analysis included anaphylaxis, febrile seizures, encephalitis, and orchitis. Disproportionate reporting of ADRs was assessed using proportional report...
Predictors of Dengue Shock Syndrome: APTT Elevation as a Risk Factor in Children with Dengue Fever
Vijayaraghavan, MD, Thay Wee Ying, MD, Foong Shing Weu, MD and Hafsa Palile
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 17, 2020
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the risk factors in dengue cases admitted from 2005 to 2010 in Tawau Hospital, Sabah. A total of 732 cases admitted as suspected dengue were analysed and out of it 203 patients were found to be positive for dengue serology. Clinical and Laboratory data’s were collected and analysed for the risk factors. In our observation over period of time we found APTT was raised in most of the DHF/DSS. So want to see the significance of APTT as a risk fact...
Dog Scratch Fever Secondary to Capnocytophaga Species in a Patient Without Risk Factors
Linda C Klumpp, MD, Gustine Liu-Young, MD, James Craig, MD, Leonard Hamera, MD, Jeffrey Jordan, MD, Srinivas Dantuluri, DO and Sunoj Abraham, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 12, 2020
Capnocytophaga is a rare bacteria found in the saliva of canines. C. canimorsus is present in the oral cavity of 67-86% of dogs. In vitro growth requires specialized media. Patients who are immunocompromised are at greatest risk for infection. There are no clinical trials examining the duration of antibiotics. Capnocytophaga species is a very rare fastidious, slow growing gram negative rod found in the saliva of canines and felines. It belongs to the genus flavobacteriacea, a capnophilic faculta...
Aeromonas Hydrophila Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient Leading to Necrotizing Fasciitis
Asish Regmi and Pushpa Khanal
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2020
We present to you the case of 77 YO female with PMH of DM, A fib and recent H/O ascending cholangitis and cholecystectomy complicated by ruptured gallbladder with bile peritonitis and JP drain placement. After the discharge she was having diarrhea and was tested positive for C diff and was started on oral vancomycin. Almost about 2 weeks after the discharge she started to develop sudden onset of right leg pain, because of that she was taken to the ED of outside hospital where there was a suspici...
An Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Astrovirus Serotype 4 in a School of Shenzhen City, China, 2017
Luo Li, Li Yuan, Gao Zhiyong, Zeng Jinshui, Lian Yiyao, Song Wentao, Lv Bin, Chen Qi, Liu Na, Jin Miao, Liao Qiaohong, Wu shuyu, Li Zhongjie, Shi Guoqing and Ran Lu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2020
Human astrovirus (HAstV) was first detected by Appleton and Higgins in 1975 in association with an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a maternity ward in England, and the same year named by Madeley and Cosgrove because of its star-like appearance. Astrovirus along with rotavirus, norovirus and sapovirus, is recognized as a common cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in adults and children. Similarly, with other enteric pathogens, the main clinical symptoms of astrovirus are vomiting, diarrhea,...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): An Imprecisely Defined Infectious Disease Caused by Stealth Adapted Viruses
W John Martin
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 20, 2020
Much of the research on the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is misguided for two major reasons. First, it is falsely assumed that CFS is a distinct, definable illness, which can be reliably differentiated from other neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Second, in spite of compelling evidence to the contrary, CFS is not generally regarded as an infectious illness. This review addresses these two issues and is followed by a brief discussion on stealth adapted viruses and the alternative cellular...
Pilot Study on Frequency in Schoolchildren with Parasitism
Osvaldo Batista Rojas, MSc
Article Type: Research Ar ticle | First Published: January 15, 2020
Among infectious diseases, those produced by intestinal parasites are an important health problem for man. To characterize intestinal parasitism clinically and epidemiologically in young patients. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Clinic 11 of the Finlay Polyclinic with schoolchildren diagnosed with intestinal parasitisms from the Hermanos Montalvo Primary School January-May 2019. There was a predominance of the male sex with 91%, with the age group m...
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Ebola Virus Disease among Students at a School of Medicine in Dakar, Senegal
Diallo Mbaye K, Fortes L, Lakhe NA, Cisse Diallo VMP, Ka D, Kemi R, Massaly A, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Fall NM, Ndour CT, Soumaré M and Seydi M
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 21, 2019
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious and highly contagious viral disease. It constitutes a public health threat and emergency. Therefore, all medical staff, notably medical students, should be trained to lessen the health outcomes during an outbreak. The aims of this paperwork are to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding EVD of students at St Christopher Iba Mar Diop Medical School in Dakar in the one hand and identify the associated factors the other hand. We carried out ...
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Medical Students Regarding Hepatitis B Infection at a Private University of Medicine in Senegal
Fortes Deguenonvo L, Massaly A, Ngom Gueye NF, Diallo Mbaye K, Cisse Diallo VMP, Lakhe NA, Ka D, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Edzang TB, Fall NM, Dieye A, Massaly A, Diop M, Ndour CT, Soumare S and Seydi M
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2019
Senegal is among the most endemic countries for viral hepatitis B with 11% of chronic HBV carriers. Students in the health sector are among those most at risk. The objectives of this study were to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of students at a private university in Dakar regarding viral hepatitis B and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study has been conducted among students of the St Christopher Iba Mar Diop School from April...
Tuberculosis Re-Treatment Cases and Factors Associated with Unfavourable Outcome at the Fann University Hospital of Dakar, Senegal between 2011 and 2016: A Follow-Up Study
Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse Diallo, Louise Fortes Deguenonvo, Aminata Massaly, Ndeye Aissatou Lakhe, Daye Ka, Khardiata Diallo M Baye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Gueye, Assane Diouf, Farah Djamal Waberi, Alassane Dieye, Ndeye Maguette Fall, Cheikh Tacko Diop, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Sylvie Diop Nyafouna, Masserigne Soumare and Moussa Seydi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 09, 2019
The aim of our study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of patients admitted to tuberculosis re-treatment and managed at the The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department (SMIT) screening and tuberculosis treatment center (TTC), to determine the factors associated with unfavourable outcome. This is a descriptive and analytical retrospective cross sectional study covering all tuberculosis re-treatment cases monitored in the service of i...
Histopathologic Detection and Identification of Infectious Agents in Granulomatous Inflammation: Comparison with Culture
Sarah Hackman, MD and Daniel D Mais, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 09, 2019
Granulomas in surgical specimens, especially within lung and lymph nodes, commonly have an infectious etiology. Granulomatous tissue is usually sent to both surgical pathology for tissue examination and to clinical microbiology laboratories for culture. We performed a retrospective review and comparison of histochemical stains and clinical microbiology culture results in 132 surgical pathology granuloma specimens to determine the utility of tissue morphological examination for detection and iden...
Host-Related Predictors of Persistence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany and Azza Galal Farghaly
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2019
Spontaneous clearance occurs in varying proportions in individuals infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the factors associated with this clearance are debatable. Their recognition may lead to a better understanding of HCV natural history and eventually improve associated prediction and management models. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the host-related factors associated with persistence of HCV infection. Among 1059 HCV-antibody-positive individuals who denied receiving HCV a...
Statistical Behavior of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases by Probability Distribution Functions
Amaury de Souza, Flavio Aristone, Widinei A Fernandes, Zaccheus Olaofe, Marcel Carvalho Abreu, Jose Francisco de Oliveira Junio, Guilherme Cavazzana and Cícero Manoel dos Santos
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
Climate change has a high impact on health and morbidity/ mortality in respiratory system diseases and remains poorly investigated in probability distribution modeling. The objective of this study was to analyze the adjustments of Burr (Bu), Inv Gausian 3P (IG3P), Lognormal (LN), Pert (Pe), Rayleigh 2P (Ra 2P) and Weibull 3P (W3P) distributions of the historical series of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (total hospital admissions) for the period from 2004 to 2018, in Campo Grande, MS. ...
Climate Variability and Its Impact on the Incidence by Dengue in Six Endemic States of the Mexican Republic
Perez Contreras Irma, Alvarado Bravo Krystel Mariel, Barragan Gonzales Alin and Velasco Perez Daniel Alejandro
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
Climate variables are one of the main drivers of dengue epidemics and the proliferation of their vectors. Significant relationships have been found between fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, and the incidence of dengue. The interaction between high levels of these variables significantly influences the increase in the incidence after at least one month of this event. The confirmed cases of dengue reported in the epidemiological bulletins of the Epidemiology General Directorate were collected...
Hepatitis C in Adults and Children: A Cross-Sectional Review from a Tertiary Hospital, Northeast Nigeria during the Period 2008-2015
Isaac Warnow Elon, Ajani Ayomikun, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Oyeniyi Christianah, Okolie Henry, Saidu Abubakar, Jibrin Bara, Aremu John, Kudi Ayuba, Danlami Halilu and Charanchi Musa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
HCV is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure related deaths among children, adolescents and adults worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers disproportionately from lack of access to both screening for HCV and treatment services with a resultant high rate of chronic hepatitis C related morbidity and mortality. Nigeria is considered among countries with high Hepatitis C burden and the national prevalence average in 2013 was estimated to be 2.2%. Routine screen...
Design and Validation of a Survey for the Study of Food and Nutritional Security to Climate Change Vulnerability
Carlos Matias Scavuzzo, Eliana Álvarez Di Fino, Alberto Ferral and Maria Daniela Defago
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 14, 2019
Human Security is a concept instituted by the United Nations and refers to the possibility that each person can satisfy basic needs of different kinds: Health, food, environment, education, economy, politics, institutional access, etc. Both WHO and FAO emphasize these concepts related to food and nutritional security (FNS), and relate it to the vulnerability derived from emergency and disaster situations. These are increasingly frequent and complex in a context of climate change, since they affe...
Antifungal Resistance of Candida Species in Bacolod City, Philippines
Alain C Juayang, Joseph Peter T Lim, Zeith Ceve B de los Reyes, Mary Dane B Tuante, Zia Isabel P Batiles, Jan Frances Nichole V Guino-o, Francis Raphael A Villanueva and Gemma B de los Reyes
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Candida species, a group of opportunistic infection-causing microorganisms, has shown an increasing pattern of resistance against certain antifungal drugs through time. Thus, this retrospective study was conducted to describe the antifungal resistance of Candida species isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines from July 2017 to July 2018. A total of 184 Candida species were isolated from clinical specimens with C. albicans (61%) having the highest frequency followed by C. t...
A Risk Factor Analysis for MRSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia to Guide Empiric Therapy in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care uni...
Zoonotic Antimicrobial Resistance as a Result of Iatrogenic Disease in Companion Animals - Case Study Reports
Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery and Mary Garvey
Article Type: March 15, 2019 | First Published: March 15, 2019
Iatrogenic disease represents an ongoing issue for veterinarians where animals manifest with secondary conditions as a result of medical treatment. Similarly, zoonotic disease and specifically resistant zoonotic pathogens represent an ongoing issue for public health safety. As an increasing number of zoonotic microbial species are being recognised as emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans, the issues relating to their antimicrobial resistance becomes more evident. This study reports on two ...
Incidence and Predictors of First Line Anti-Retroviral Therapy Failure among Adults Receiving HIV Care in North West Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Follow-Up Study
Tsegaw Agezew, MSC, Abilo Tadesse, MD, Lemma Derseh, MPH and Mekonnen Yimer, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 14, 2019
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. Patients on ART are recommended to periodic monitoring to ensure effective and durable treatment outcomes. Treatment failure is the main indication for ART switching and assessed by criteria used to define virologic, immunologic or clinical failure. A retrospective follow up study was conducted from June 1, to August 30, 2018 to determine the incidence and associated factors with first line ART failur...
Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Tunisia: Results of a Multicenter Study
Senda Mezghani Maalej, Jihene Jdidi Trabelsi, Gustave Claude-alexandre, Ilhem Boutiba, Maha Mastouri, Sophia Besbes, Farouk Barguellil, Frederic Laurent and Adnene Hammami
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infections in hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characteristics of MRSA strains causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in Tunisia. A total of 135 non-duplicate MRSA strains were consecutively collected from five Tunisian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc...