Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes information on clinical, preventative, curative and social aspects of Transmittable diseases. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various infectious diseases and its epidemiology. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology focus on discovery and innovation in various aspects of Airborne Disease, Biological Contamination, Blood-borne Disease, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Mycology, Clinical Virology, Coinfection, Copenhagen Consensus, Disease Diffusion Mapping, Emerging Diseases, Epidemics, Foodborne Illness, Globalization and Disease, Human Microbiome Project, Infection Control, Infectious Disease Dynamics, Infectious Disease Eradication, Medical Bioinformatics for Infectious Diseases, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Pandemics, Pathology, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Threshold Host Density, Tropical Disease, Waterborne Diseases, Zoonotic Infections, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510161
Richard H Zou, MD, Vi Dam-Bao Nguyen, BS, Patrice A Zigrossi, MD, John M Beckham, MD, Brandon J Smith, MD, PharmD, Matthew J Gorgone, DO, Haris Zia, MD, Daniel Martinez Coconubo, MD, Michael S Landau, MD, Humberto E Trejo Bittar, MD, FACP, Roy W Semaan, MD, Georgios D Kitsios, MD, PhD and Christiane M Hadi, MD, MPH, MSc
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020
Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Classically, diagnosis relies on the combination of clinical history, exclusion of alternative infectious and neoplastic etiologies, and histopathologic confirmation of proliferating spindle cells staining positive for HHV-8. Tissue-based diagnosis requires bronchoscopy with biopsy and is associated with procedural complications, such as blee...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510160
Nasha Elavia, Si Li, Yichen Wang, Ibitola Yusuf and John Weisenreider
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020
A 63-year-old male from Northeastern Pennsylvania presented in fall with the complaint of sudden onset of blurred vision in the right eye. This was preceded by a history of Lyme arthritis diagnosed with positive immunoglobulin titers (IgG and IgM) on Western blot analyses of the synovial fluid four weeks ago. His past medical history was remarkable for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The sudden decrease in right eye visual acuity was moderate and reported at all distances. The patient denied an...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510159
Mujahed I Mustafa, Ayman Ahmed and Abdelrafie M Makhawi
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 13, 2020
The currently developing devastating pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has took over the global attention. Meanwhile, another virus with high potentiality to grow into a global pandemic has emerged in China, where human infections of the strain genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus had been reported. However, fortunately human-to-human transmission was not detected yet but we need to keep an eye out for such potential scenario particularly that by the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510158
Daniel Deborah O
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 13, 2020
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health; of which was reported to emerge in Wuhan, China at the end of the year 2019. It became alarming to Nigerians when Nigeria recorded her first index case in February 2020 in the city of Lagos which has led to a total number of 5162 confirmed cases, 1180 recovered with 167 death recorded as at May 14, 2020. This paper proposes a mathematical model SEIQCRW which adopt the SEIR model to study the current outbrea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510157
Afolabi Olajide Joseph
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 12, 2020
River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of Ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology which involve the use of structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510155
Mónica Prieto, Claudia Martínez, Lucía Cipolla, Florencia Rocca and Rita Armitano
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2020
One case of pregnancy-related listeriosis was defined as a pregnant woman or newborn infant aged < 28 days from whom L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a sterile site such as the blood, placenta or cerebrospinal fluid. Based on epidemiological and clinical data available, cases were classified as: Maternal infection with ongoing pregnancy, fetal loss and live born neonatal listeriosis. Fetal loss was defined as the death of the fetus that occurred prior to the complete expulsion or removal ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510156
Julius A Aminu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 05, 2020
The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in the world especially in African continent and Nigeria in particular has created negative effects on humanity. Continuous holding on to some misconceptions about the reality of the virus among people may create further problems for humankind. However, very few studies particularly in Nigeria have actually considered the implications of these misconceptions about the disease in relation to its daily increases; coupled with the fact that many people still hold o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510154
Sindayo Tefera, Molla Teferi, Assefa Ayalew, Tilahun Belete and Haven Hadush
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 03, 2020
Scabies is a skin infection that is a result of direct skin to skin contact and is primarily mediated by close and extended contact with scabies infested person. Scabies occurs worldwide among people of all ages, races, genders and social classes and has been identified as a neglected tropical infectious disease. Globally, it affects more than 130 million people at any time. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of scabies and associated factors among primary school children in Raya Alam...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510153
Neha K Gadhvi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2020
COVID-19 outbreak was first reported in Wuhan, China and has spread most of the countries of the world. The outbreak spreads are largely influenced by each country’s policy and social responsibility. According to WHO, the estimate of attack the rate on 23, June, 2020 to be between 1.4 to 2.5. In India the situation is somehow controllable compared to the situations of developed countries. It will be worth interesting to know about the fact and figures of corona cases in India. The different ty...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510139
Rony Shah, MD, Linda Klumpp, MD, Naeem Syed, DO, Parth Patel, MD and Jeffrey Jordan, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARSCoV- 2) is a novel coronavirus which has become a worldwide pandemic, the other common coronaviruses to cause deadly respiratory disease are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV are commonly transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 can present with varying severity from asymptomatic to multi-organ failure. We present a rare case of abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient suspe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510125
Michael Skelly, Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Jaime Mogollon, Ibrahim El Husseini, Yekaterina Sitnitskaya, Nicholas Caputo, Riyad Basir, Talya Toledano, Menachem Gold, Mohamed Ramadan, Edgardo Guzman, Isaac Boyack and Karen Hennessey
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 22, 2020
The second largest outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in United States history began in July, 2015 in Bronx County, NY. It was initially described as a single outbreak affecting 138 patients with 16 deaths. Subsequently, additional cases were noted in the same area and time period, officially attributed to different exposures, making the final total 155 patients and 17 deaths before ending in September, 2015. The largest portion of cases was seen at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center with...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510152
Miao-hang Shan, Yan-bin Pan, Wan-xian Lu, Jin-ling Wu, Wen-ying Li and Dong-yu Zeng
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 07, 2020
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection, showing a general susceptibility pattern and extremely high infectivity. It is currently a public health emergency of international concern. As the direct staff to deal with and control the pandemic situation, healthcare workers may experience physical, psychological, and social stresses at different levels. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the sub-health status of healthcare workers to provi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510151
Alhassane Diallo, MD, PhD, Marie Traoré, MD, Miguel Carlos-Bolumbu, MD, Mamadou Hassimiou Diallo, MSc and Boubacar Djelo Diallo, MD
Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 06, 2020
To date, there is no definite effective treatment for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. To compare and rank SARS-Cov-2 treatment according to their efficacy and safety. Using the terms Covid-19 or SARS-CoV-2 and treatment, a literature search was performed from MEDLINE, GOOGLE, and CENTRAL databases until July 01, 2020. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) against SARS-CoV-2 disease were included. The studies excluded were those with nonrandomized design or those with a lack of informati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510149
Vivian Gga Kwaghe, Zaiyad Garba Habib, Anthony Bawa, Francis Olayemi Adebayo, Alexander Agada Akor, Yunusa Thairu and Bissallah Ahmed Ekele
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 31, 2020
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The most serious complication of COVID-19 is a type of pneumonia that’s been called 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). COVID-19 pneumonia presents as an atypical pneumonia, with diffuse bilateral lung involvement. Severe cases present with acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510148
Andrew C Berry, DO, Madhuri S Mulekar, PhD and Bruce B Berry, MD
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: July 30, 2020
We did not design the election process as an experiment, we observed the outcome of the events. Using the voting age population for the United States (US), and Wisconsin (WI), and daily COVID-19 case reports from various dashboards, daily new case rates (all rates per 100,000 voting age adults) were calculated. With election day April 7, allowing for initial incubation, we choose to measure April 12-21. WI daily new case rates were 3.647 in the 10 day period leading up to the election and they f...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510147
Suneel Prajapati and Narasimha Kumar GV
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: July 25, 2020
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has first emerged in the province of Hubei, China, in late December 2019, and the contagious form of disease covered the whole world by the rapid spread. As of July 12, 2020, there are 12,879,107 confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and 5,68,422 deaths were reported globally. However, after its first appearance in China, the United States of America (USA) and Europe were worst hit by COVID-19 and emerged as the epic centr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510150
Luisetto M, Naseer Almukthar, A Yesvi Rafa, Manmohan Singh Jangdey, Fiazza C, Ferraiuolo A and Latischev Oleg Yu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2020
Aim of this work is to verify hypotesys of air-borne transmission on distance related some respiratory and other virus and to compare with actual Covid-19 pandemic diffusion. After an analysis of relevant literature involved and submitting an experimental hypotesys a global conclusion is submitted for further research activity. Some peculiarity in Covid-19 diffusion velocity and mortality rate in some high polluted world region contributes to increase the interest in these topics....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510146
Mohan BS and Vinod Nambiar
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2020
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), originated at Wuhan city of China in early December 2019 has rapidly widespread with confirmed cases in almost every country across the world and has become a new global public health crisis. The etiological agent was designated as Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The virus was originated in bats and transmits through respiratory droplets and surface contact and then by touching mouth, eyes, and nose. The World Health Organi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510145
Oluwaseun Awosolu and Oluwole Oladele
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 18, 2020
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was initially named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) have continued to spread at an alarming rate across the globe. It was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) due to its worldwide exponential spread and impact leading to high morbidity and mortality. Generalday- to-day activities was heavily destabilized due to lockdown and Movement Control Order (MCO) policy w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510144
Himel Talukder, Konad Debnath, Ahsan Raquib, Mohammod Misbah Uddin and Md Safwan Hussain
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 17, 2020
This study used Susceptible-Exposed-Infected- Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model and their differential equations for the calculation of Ro and for the favor of calculation assume that, all the cases that occurred before 15 April, 2020 occurs under free propagation without any intervention. This study calculated the Ro based on the real time confirmed cases and suspected cases in April 14 and also theoretical prediction of cases based on other studies. Other parameters for calculation were tak...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510143
Sampson E Akwafuo, Theresa Abah and Joseph R Oppong
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 17, 2020
The co-infection of Tuberculosis with HIV has continually placed an immense burden on public health systems, mostly in Low and Middle Income (LMIC) countries. We present a geographical analysis of current intervention programs and prevalence rates in two West African states (Ghana and Nigeria). In some regions with higher co-infection rates and dense population, interventions were seen to be relatively lower, relative to other less densely populated regions. A hybrid mathematical and agent-based...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510142
Kinley Gyem, Adeep Monger, Jit Bdr Darnal, Lila Maya Adhikari, Sonam Wangchuk and Tandin Dorji
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 13, 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has stretched into the tiny Himalayan country Bhutan and the first suspected case was seen on 27th January 2020. There are no reports available in the country till date. Therefore, a descriptive study was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bhutan as of 30th April 2020. Data were extracted from the Royal Center for Disease Control COVID-19 information database and analyzed using Epi Info 7.2....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510141
Mohammad Khalid Parvez
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 11, 2020
The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 is taking a toll on public health. The spread of Covid-19 is confirmed through person-to-person direct contact, aerosolized nasal or oral droplets, and fomites. The clinical symptoms of Covid-19 are cough, headache, fever and breathlessness, including mild to severe pneumonia and death. In addition, a proportion of individuals experience vomiting, stomach ache or diarrhoea with or without respiratory disease. Recent clinical studies have report...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510140
Blessed K Ajegena and Victor B Oti
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 04, 2020
The proper use of Insecticides treated nets (ITNs) has been adjudged an efficacious and cost-effective method for curbing malaria. Despite the distribution of ITNs in Nigeria, malaria remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children below 5-years-old. This systematic review was intended to document the factors mitigating the use of ITNs in Nigeria. Scholarly articles published from the year 2000 through 2018 were reviewed. Six (6) databases (Medline, PubMed, ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510138
Gary R Skankey, MD and Christopher Breeden, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020
We present a patient who is a 67-year-old female who is morbidly obese (BMI 62), but otherwise healthy, who was admitted on 4/6/2020 (day 0) with a five day history of fever and diarrhea, followed by 24 hours worth of increasing shortness of breath, dry cough, nausea, and dry heaves. A chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with congestive heart failure, however B-naturetic peptide was only 284 (NL < 125). Blood work was as follows: WBC - 3420, ABG - 7.43/34/64 on 6 liters O2, Quant...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510137
Oluwafolajimi Adetoye Adesanya and Ikponmwosa Gabriel Ebengho
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 03, 2020
Since its discovery in the Huanan Seafood Market, Hubei province, Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the 2019-novel Coronavirus has evolved rapidly into a global pandemic of devastating proportions. With the most developed health systems of the world struggling to contain the spread, there have been concerns raised about the relatively lower case and mortality figures coming out of the African continent, especially in the earlier days of the outbreak. While most institutions are quick to raise the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510136
Dr. Karan R Shah, Dr. Dipika B Utekar, Dr. Shital S Nikam, Dr. Ajay R Bhoosreddy and Dr. Seema R Patil
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 26, 2020
The coronaviruses have been found to affect the human life and ecosystem since past few years now. First the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), then MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and now the recent infection caused by yet another category of coronaviruses have proved to be fatal to human life. In December 2019, few cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were reported in the Hubei province of Wuhan City, China. Later after thorough investigations it was found that these patients wer...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510134
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2020
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in spring/summer air and water reach germicidal levels. It is proposed that variations in naturally occurring ROS are the primary cause of influenza seasonality. Recent NIH and DHS COVID-19 aerosol and droplet log kill measurements do not account for this natural germicidal effect leading to over estimations of halflife for the virus in real world conditions. A new formulation of the Wells Riley equation is proposed that includes ROS and viral load factors. It is pr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510135
Dmitry Stepanov, DESA and Peter Lierz, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 20, 2020
An emerging international outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already become a problem for physicians and scientists globally. Although the majority of patients withstand the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) without vital threats, many people develop severe respiratory failure, leading to fatal consequences. A clinical trial from Wuhan, China has demonstrated that 86% of the patients who required invasive ventilation and 79% among those who needed a non-invasive ventilatory...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510133
Sutharsika Thiyagalingam, Sasirekha Rengaraj and Saranya Rajamanickkam
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020
Dengue, the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection has a wide range of clinical presentation and the incidence is on the rise in the recent past. There is a concern that dengue infection in pregnancy might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome however there is paucity in the literature available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcome of dengue infection which required hospitalizations and were managed in a tertiary care center. A total of 52 pregnant ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510132
Mercy Jelagat Karoney, MBChB, MSc, MMed, Fatuma Faraj Some, MBChB, MBA MMed, Hellen Irusa Lukhaka Dip, Eric Wang'welo Dip, Laban Kipkemei Murgor BA and Adrian Gardner, MD, MPH
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020
Hepatitis B infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B infection has been on the rise since 1990 with the highest prevalence reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) are high risk groups for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Due to similar routes of transmission, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals are also at high risk for Hepatitis B infec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510130
Elisheva Rosner, MSN, RN-C
Article Type: Survey | First Published: June 01, 2020
In March 2020, New York City encountered its first official case of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This novel coronavirus, referred to as SARS-COV 2, originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Within a short amount of time, hundreds of thousands of cases were diagnosed around the world and the United States, causing the World Health Organization to announce it as an official infectious disease pandemic on January 30, 2020. COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets, and healthcare profes...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510129
Ibrahim Haddad, MD, Mohammad Alomari, MD, Bara El Kurdi, MD, Vindhya Sriramoju, MD and Rupal Shah, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 29, 2020
A 55-year-old man, who presented to our emergency department complaining of pleuritic chest pain for two days before admission. At the time of evaluation, he endorsed the presence of minimal sore throat and dry cough in the absence of fever, shortness breath, recent travel, or contact with sick people. His vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was positive for right-sided scattered wheezes but otherwise unremarkable. In the emergency department he had a chest X-ray which...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510131
Moses Katbi, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Adeoye Adegboye, Iyiola Faturiyele, Maryam Bello, Rose Khatri and Michele Russel
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 06, 2020
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in immeasurable disruptions in countries activities. Since the first reported case in December 2019, an estimated 140,000 people have died, with a case fatality rate of about 3%. The increasing rate of new cases and the evolving epidemiology of the COVID-19 virus means that the global health community is grappling to understand the current situation. The aim of this paper is to determine if the Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine used to protect aga...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510127
Amen Bawazir, Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, PhD, Omar B Da’ar and Hoda Jradi
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 22, 2020
Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses became an emerging worldwide health concern. Previously Coronaviruses caused mild infections in immunocompromised people and were not considered to be highly pathogenic in humans until they circulated in the Guangdong province of China in 2002 and 2003 during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. A decade following the aforementioned SARS outbreak, we witnessed the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510124
Peter Paul Lim, MD, Christina Rae Nguyen, MD, Daniel Rhoads, MD and Arlene Dent, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 21, 2020
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a potent toxin produced by shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that is commonly linked to development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). An extremely rare complication of shiga toxin associated (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome is concomitant infection with Clostridium septicum. The majority of pediatric patients with HUS complicated by C. septicum infection had complications including CNS involvement, severe renal insult often requiring hemodialysis, and myonecrosis war...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510123
Keutchazoue GG Igore, Vincent Khan Payne, Noumedem AC Nadia and Yamssi Cedric
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 21, 2020
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) remain a public health problem in rural areas of developing countries and are often associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor drinking water quality and unsanitary environmental handling of fecal materials in tropical and subtropical zones. This study was conducted with the objective to assess some epidemiological risk factors associated with prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasitic infections within households in Tonga Sub-Division, West...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510126
Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Sadaf Younis, Henry Chan, Nafees Haider, Abu Fahad Abbasi, Oladapo Ayodele, Stephanie Prakash and Aleksandra Marinkovic
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
COVID-19, a pandemic, is an expanding global threat that has nearly affected all the countries in the world. As the pandemic advances without any medical intervention in place, a global lockdown has been issued along with quarantine orders and social distancing restrictions to prevent further transmission. We discussed the transmission and control effort of COVID-19 based on available information since the disease outbreak. COVID-19 can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, spreading from person-to-pe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510121
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 04, 2020
COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a family of common RNA viruses that can cause serious lower respiratory tract infections, followed by bronchitis and pneumonia. Pulmonary inflammation, fever and fibrosis are symptoms of COVID-19 mediated by cytokine pro-inflammatory. Oxidative stress affect repair me...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510122
Marcus Taylor, MRCS, Denish Apparau, MRCS and Kandadai Rammohan, FRCS-CTh
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 14, 2020
A 21-year-old female presented with non-specific symptoms of cough and sore throat. She rapidly became profoundly unwell, requiring intubation and ventilation. Clinical and radiological appearances were felt to be in keeping with Lemierre’s Syndrome (LS). The diagnosis of LS was confirmed when pleural fluid samples were found to contain Prevotella veroralis and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Due to worsening respiratory function the patient was commenced on veno- venous extracorporeal membrane oxy...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510119
Mzee Said Abdulrahman Salim and Muslimat Kehinde Adebisi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2020
From herpes and legionnaires' disease in the 1970s to AIDS, Ebola, the severe acute and respiratory syndrome (SARS), contagious diseases continue to threaten and disrupt human societies. The end of last year (2019) doctors in Hubei province encountered patients with flu-like symptoms that are similar in characteristics to SARs having consistent aetiologies unfamiliar to them but with a possible link to their prior knowledge. A virus outbreak which has a genomic sequence similar to that of β vir...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510128
Umair Ali Wani, Aadil Bakshi and Moazam Ali Wani
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 23, 2020
This paper features the SEIR model that can accurately calculate and predict the size of COVID-19 pandemic. Other than classical parameters, the model takes into account lockdown imposed by the government, age composition of the population, testing rate, inflow of patients (immigrants) and availability of tertiary health care facilities measured in terms of number of ICUs. The research takes an overview of then severely affected Italy and less affected India and studies the impact of parameters ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510120
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 30, 2020
In this work we observe a number of cases supporting the possible correlation between the administration of BCG tuberculosis vaccine and the severity of Covid-19 effects in the population proposed in the earlier works. Based on the early preliminary analysis of the publicly available data we propose a number of arguments and observations providing further support for the correlation hypothesis and make an observation that the effectiveness of the protection effect of BCG immunization, if confirm...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510117
Bilal Mohamad Ali Obeid, MD, MBA, PHD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 29, 2020
While ozone is the trigger, several blood components such as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, platelets, and plasma components act as substrates and are responsible for setting in motion a number of biological effects that, directly or indirectly, are responsible for the clinical improvement observed after the autohaemotherapeutic treatment in chronic viral diseases...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510118
Emel Yürük Bal, (RN) MSc and Şenay Çetinkaya, PhD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 30, 2020
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Coronaviruses are single-chain, positive-polar, enveloped RNA viruses. Over the past 2 weeks, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has marched relentlessly westward. On March 13, WHO said that Europe was now the centre of the pandemic. A few days later, deaths in Italy surpassed those in China. Iran and Spain had also reported over 1000 deaths as of March 23, and many other European coun...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510115
Isaac Warnow Elon, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Ajani Ayomikun, Abubakar Joshua Difa, Oyeniyi C, Aremu John and Danlami Halilu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 09, 2020
Hepatitis B infection continues to be a serious global health problem with about 2 billion people infected worldwide, many of these in sub-Saharan Africa. Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen test results in adults attending the outpatient units and/ or admitted in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Hepatitis B surface antigen was tested for in 22,862 adults and children; 20375 (89.1%) were adults and 2487 (10.9%) were child...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510116
Jean-dAmour K Twibanire
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 22, 2020
The world is facing an unprecedented test by an enemy, a novel and deadly enemy, the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 continues to spread all around the world, social, political and serious economic consequences await this planet. After the introduction and a brief epidemiological summary, this article discusses the threat that is COVID-19 to major global urban centers. The impact of COVID-19 across the globe is particularly inimitable and more so in major global urban centers for several reasons ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510114
Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava, MD, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, MD and Danieal Patricia Trelles-Garcia, MD
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: March 14, 2020
We retrieved data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database, a national post-licensure vaccine safety surveillance system, through the CDC WONDER interface for reports of children aged 12 months to 6 years vaccinated with the MMR vaccine in the U.S. between January 1, 1989 and January 1, 2019. Specific ADRs evaluated in this analysis included anaphylaxis, febrile seizures, encephalitis, and orchitis. Disproportionate reporting of ADRs was assessed using proportional report...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510113
Robert Jay Rowen, MD and Howard Robins, DPM
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 06, 2020
Many viruses require reduced sulfhydryl groups for cell fusion and entry. Corona viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 (the cause of the condition now named coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19), are rich in cysteine, which residues must be intact for viral activity. Sulfhydryl groups are vulnerable to oxidation. Ozone therapy, a very inexpensive and safe modality may safely exploit this critical vulnerability in many viruses, inclusive of SARS-CoV-2. Mainstream medicine has little in its arsenal for vi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510112
Emilie Kennedy, DNP, CRNP, FNP-C
Article Type: Clinical Research Article | First Published: March 04, 2020
Unnecessary antibiotic use in nursing home patients leads to negative outcomes including the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, adverse drug events, polypharmacy and higher health care costs. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the effects of a pilot clinical staff educational intervention on best practices for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in nursing home residents. A multi-faceted educational intervention program on ASB was provided to Emergency Depa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510111
Vijayaraghavan, MD, Thay Wee Ying, MD, Foong Shing Weu, MD and Hafsa Palile
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 17, 2020
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the risk factors in dengue cases admitted from 2005 to 2010 in Tawau Hospital, Sabah. A total of 732 cases admitted as suspected dengue were analysed and out of it 203 patients were found to be positive for dengue serology. Clinical and Laboratory data’s were collected and analysed for the risk factors. In our observation over period of time we found APTT was raised in most of the DHF/DSS. So want to see the significance of APTT as a risk fact...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510110
Linda C Klumpp, MD, Gustine Liu-Young, MD, James Craig, MD, Leonard Hamera, MD, Jeffrey Jordan, MD, Srinivas Dantuluri, DO and Sunoj Abraham, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 12, 2020
Capnocytophaga is a rare bacteria found in the saliva of canines. C. canimorsus is present in the oral cavity of 67-86% of dogs. In vitro growth requires specialized media. Patients who are immunocompromised are at greatest risk for infection. There are no clinical trials examining the duration of antibiotics. Capnocytophaga species is a very rare fastidious, slow growing gram negative rod found in the saliva of canines and felines. It belongs to the genus flavobacteriacea, a capnophilic faculta...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510109
Asish Regmi and Pushpa Khanal
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2020
We present to you the case of 77 YO female with PMH of DM, A fib and recent H/O ascending cholangitis and cholecystectomy complicated by ruptured gallbladder with bile peritonitis and JP drain placement. After the discharge she was having diarrhea and was tested positive for C diff and was started on oral vancomycin. Almost about 2 weeks after the discharge she started to develop sudden onset of right leg pain, because of that she was taken to the ED of outside hospital where there was a suspici...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510108
Luo Li, Li Yuan, Gao Zhiyong, Zeng Jinshui, Lian Yiyao, Song Wentao, Lv Bin, Chen Qi, Liu Na, Jin Miao, Liao Qiaohong, Wu shuyu, Li Zhongjie, Shi Guoqing and Ran Lu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2020
Human astrovirus (HAstV) was first detected by Appleton and Higgins in 1975 in association with an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a maternity ward in England, and the same year named by Madeley and Cosgrove because of its star-like appearance. Astrovirus along with rotavirus, norovirus and sapovirus, is recognized as a common cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in adults and children. Similarly, with other enteric pathogens, the main clinical symptoms of astrovirus are vomiting, diarrhea,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510107
Kelvin Ngongolo, Gabriel Shirima, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2020
We undertook a cohort field study in three villages of the Maasai Steppe: Sukuro, Kimotorok and Oltukai. The study took place in July 2017 and October 2017 and utilized 50 cattle from each village. Pastoralists were asked questions during each visit when blood sampled were taken to seek their viewpoint on the relative abundance of wildlife, habitat types and cultivation observed in the areas their cattle grazed. In addition, the percentage cover of cultivated land and habitat types in the grazin...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510106
W John Martin
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 20, 2020
Much of the research on the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is misguided for two major reasons. First, it is falsely assumed that CFS is a distinct, definable illness, which can be reliably differentiated from other neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Second, in spite of compelling evidence to the contrary, CFS is not generally regarded as an infectious illness. This review addresses these two issues and is followed by a brief discussion on stealth adapted viruses and the alternative cellular...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510105
Osvaldo Batista Rojas, MSc
Article Type: Research Ar ticle | First Published: January 15, 2020
Among infectious diseases, those produced by intestinal parasites are an important health problem for man. To characterize intestinal parasitism clinically and epidemiologically in young patients. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Clinic 11 of the Finlay Polyclinic with schoolchildren diagnosed with intestinal parasitisms from the Hermanos Montalvo Primary School January-May 2019. There was a predominance of the male sex with 91%, with the age group m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510104
Diallo Mbaye K, Fortes L, Lakhe NA, Cisse Diallo VMP, Ka D, Kemi R, Massaly A, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Fall NM, Ndour CT, Soumaré M and Seydi M
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 21, 2019
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious and highly contagious viral disease. It constitutes a public health threat and emergency. Therefore, all medical staff, notably medical students, should be trained to lessen the health outcomes during an outbreak. The aims of this paperwork are to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding EVD of students at St Christopher Iba Mar Diop Medical School in Dakar in the one hand and identify the associated factors the other hand. We carried out ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510103
Fortes Deguenonvo L, Massaly A, Ngom Gueye NF, Diallo Mbaye K, Cisse Diallo VMP, Lakhe NA, Ka D, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Edzang TB, Fall NM, Dieye A, Massaly A, Diop M, Ndour CT, Soumare S and Seydi M
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2019
Senegal is among the most endemic countries for viral hepatitis B with 11% of chronic HBV carriers. Students in the health sector are among those most at risk. The objectives of this study were to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of students at a private university in Dakar regarding viral hepatitis B and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study has been conducted among students of the St Christopher Iba Mar Diop School from April...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510102
Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse Diallo, Louise Fortes Deguenonvo, Aminata Massaly, Ndeye Aissatou Lakhe, Daye Ka, Khardiata Diallo M Baye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Gueye, Assane Diouf, Farah Djamal Waberi, Alassane Dieye, Ndeye Maguette Fall, Cheikh Tacko Diop, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Sylvie Diop Nyafouna, Masserigne Soumare and Moussa Seydi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 09, 2019
The aim of our study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of patients admitted to tuberculosis re-treatment and managed at the The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department (SMIT) screening and tuberculosis treatment center (TTC), to determine the factors associated with unfavourable outcome. This is a descriptive and analytical retrospective cross sectional study covering all tuberculosis re-treatment cases monitored in the service of i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510101
Sarah Hackman, MD and Daniel D Mais, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 09, 2019
Granulomas in surgical specimens, especially within lung and lymph nodes, commonly have an infectious etiology. Granulomatous tissue is usually sent to both surgical pathology for tissue examination and to clinical microbiology laboratories for culture. We performed a retrospective review and comparison of histochemical stains and clinical microbiology culture results in 132 surgical pathology granuloma specimens to determine the utility of tissue morphological examination for detection and iden...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510100
Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany and Azza Galal Farghaly
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2019
Spontaneous clearance occurs in varying proportions in individuals infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the factors associated with this clearance are debatable. Their recognition may lead to a better understanding of HCV natural history and eventually improve associated prediction and management models. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the host-related factors associated with persistence of HCV infection. Among 1059 HCV-antibody-positive individuals who denied receiving HCV a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510098
Amaury de Souza, Flavio Aristone, Widinei A Fernandes, Zaccheus Olaofe, Marcel Carvalho Abreu, Jose Francisco de Oliveira Junio, Guilherme Cavazzana and Cícero Manoel dos Santos
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
Climate change has a high impact on health and morbidity/ mortality in respiratory system diseases and remains poorly investigated in probability distribution modeling. The objective of this study was to analyze the adjustments of Burr (Bu), Inv Gausian 3P (IG3P), Lognormal (LN), Pert (Pe), Rayleigh 2P (Ra 2P) and Weibull 3P (W3P) distributions of the historical series of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (total hospital admissions) for the period from 2004 to 2018, in Campo Grande, MS. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510097
Perez Contreras Irma, Alvarado Bravo Krystel Mariel, Barragan Gonzales Alin and Velasco Perez Daniel Alejandro
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
Climate variables are one of the main drivers of dengue epidemics and the proliferation of their vectors. Significant relationships have been found between fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, and the incidence of dengue. The interaction between high levels of these variables significantly influences the increase in the incidence after at least one month of this event. The confirmed cases of dengue reported in the epidemiological bulletins of the Epidemiology General Directorate were collected...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510096
Isaac Warnow Elon, Ajani Ayomikun, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Oyeniyi Christianah, Okolie Henry, Saidu Abubakar, Jibrin Bara, Aremu John, Kudi Ayuba, Danlami Halilu and Charanchi Musa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
HCV is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure related deaths among children, adolescents and adults worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers disproportionately from lack of access to both screening for HCV and treatment services with a resultant high rate of chronic hepatitis C related morbidity and mortality. Nigeria is considered among countries with high Hepatitis C burden and the national prevalence average in 2013 was estimated to be 2.2%. Routine screen...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510095
Carlos Matias Scavuzzo, Eliana Álvarez Di Fino, Alberto Ferral and Maria Daniela Defago
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 14, 2019
Human Security is a concept instituted by the United Nations and refers to the possibility that each person can satisfy basic needs of different kinds: Health, food, environment, education, economy, politics, institutional access, etc. Both WHO and FAO emphasize these concepts related to food and nutritional security (FNS), and relate it to the vulnerability derived from emergency and disaster situations. These are increasingly frequent and complex in a context of climate change, since they affe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510093
Helen Kest and Ashlesha Kaushik
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 21, 2019
Globally, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), notably methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin is considered a drug of last resort for severe MRSA and other resistant Gram-positive infections. Vancomycin enjoyed a high level of success for decades following MRSA outbreaks until recent reports of increasing S. aureus MICs culminating in high-level vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), first reported in 2002. Since then, there have been selected ca...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510092
Montilla Alvaro Mabel, Delgado Vidarte Ana and Alcantara Luna Sara
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019
Dermatofitosis are cutaneous infections caused by fungus. They affect the keratinized surface layers epidermis, hair and nails. We report a case of a 42-year-old female patient who presented with erythematous annular lesions with a raised edge on the chest, back, neck, hands and arms. These lesions were compatible with erythema multiforme, subacute lupus and/or ringworm infection. The biopsy of lesions was done and the study showed the structures suggestive of fungi in hematoxylin-eosin staining...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510091
Ben Haj Khalifa A, Jerbi A and Trabelsi A
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 06, 2019
Recent virological studies have shown the association between digestive diseases and some enteric viruses: adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, Our objectives were to show the impact of viral infections of the digestive complications and interactions between enteric viruses and digestive tract cells.During the study period, 64 samples were collected from children with gastrointestinal surgical pathologies. The AdV were detected in 9 cases (14%) and rotavirus in 1 case (1.5%). A male predominance ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510090
Teklemariam Ergat Yarinbab and Abebe Demissie Darcha
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 04, 2019
Soil-Transmitted Helminthes (STH) infection is a major public health problem among school-aged children in developing countries. In Ethiopia, school aged children have been identified as high risk group of population to be infected with Soil Transmitted Helminthes. Effective prevention and control of STH infection requires identification of risk factors among high risk groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of Soil Transmitted Helminthes infection ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510089
Adolf Lim-Teodoro, MD, Mabel Angela Sarita, MD, Russel Semeniano, MD and Miguel Ramos Jr, MD, Ph.D
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 04, 2019
Nutrition is an important determinant of health in elderly patients. It also contributes to their overall quality of life and longevity. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is used to provide enteral access in patients who are unable to swallow to improve nutrition. PEG site infection is an important healthcare-associated infection and this study aims to determine the incidence and clinical profile of PEG site wound infections among elderly patients admitted in a tertiary medical cent...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510088
Martina Fibbiani, Cristina Tuoni, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Serena Di Marco and Paolo Ghirri
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2019
Neonatal sepsis is an independent risk factor for the development of central nervous system injury, so preterm newborn, who is more exposed to infections, has a higher neurological risk. This research wanted to examine whether and how sepsis could influence preterm newborns neurodevelopmental outcome. Today prematurity is still a topical and globally discussed issue: 15 million preterm infants are born every year in the world and about 1 million of them dies because of the complications linked t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510087
Sofia Lanfri, Manuel Espinosa, Mario A Lanfri, Victoria M Periago, Marcelo Abril and Carlos M Scavuzzo
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 14, 2019
In Argentina, Aedes aegypti represents an important public health threat, since it is the vector responsible for the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever. Mundo Sano Foundation has been carrying out periodic surveys of immature vector stages in several cities of northern Argentina. The main tool to mitigate their spread is through vector control. Similarity between curves does not show spatial continuity in relation to the spatial arrangement of ovitraps, may be due to the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510086
Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2019
Neisseria meningitidis is recognized as the cause of Infection Meningococcal Disease (IMD) generally develops rapidly 20% of survivors suffer from neurological and disabling sequelae in spite of prompt antibiotic therapy. The disease is a major concern in public heath worldwide and can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Although in Mexico the invasive meningococcal disease is notifiable, reports about meningococcal diseases are scarce with no data available related to the p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510085
Boja Dufera Taddese, KumeraTerfa Kitila, Abay Sisay Misganaw, Daniel Melese Desalegn, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu and MeronSeifu Tebeje
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2019
In countries that have ensured effective External Quality Assessment (EQA) sputum smear microscopy, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the implementation of same-day smear sputum microcopy. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the status of the same-day sputum smear microcopy implementation was not yet assessed. In-depth interview of Health Care Providers (HCPs) at Outpatient Departments (OPDs), clinical laboratories and Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centres was conducted to ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510084
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2019
Thanks to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the number of older patients living with HIV, usually defined as individuals over 50 years of age, has markedly increased everywhere in the world. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology and special needs of older persons with HIV in Canada now and in the near future. It is estimated that, by 2025 in Canada, one in six of all HIV-infected adults will be over 50 years of age. Most will reside in Ontario, Quebec, and British Co...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510083
Mangouka Guingali Laurette, Iroungou Berthe A, Bivigou-Mboumba Berthold, Oura Landry, Mwanyombet Lucien and Nzenze Jean Raymond
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019
Extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) are on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a major public health problem. The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Involvement of the spine causes severe back pain and weakness in the lower extremities. We report 11 cases of TB spondylodiscitis, commonly referred to as Pott's disease, who presented to the internal medicine department at the Military Hospital of Gabon (HIA OBO)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510082
Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimsenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2019
Meningococcal disease in Mexico has a very low incidence; it is one of the countries with few reported cases as prevalence of the carrier state is unknown. Some studies have shown that many invasive meningococcal diseases are restricted to a specific number of hyper-virulent strains that contrast with carrier isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characterization of meningococcal carriage isolates among prisoner's inmates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained, Neisseri...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510081
Maria de Fatima Goncalves Lopez Silva, Francisco Alexsandro Sousa Mesquita, Bidiah Mariano da Costa Neves and Stefan Vilges de Oliveira
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 21, 2019
artonellosis or Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is defined as an infectious, benign illness that in most cases results from the scratching, licking or biting of animals carrying the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This study aims at describing the epidemiological profile of serologically reactive samples between the years 2011 and December 2017 in Brazil. Official data from the requests for diagnostic tests registered in GAL (Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial/Laboratory Environment Manager) in the M...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510080
Kriangsak Chaiwong, Wilawan Saekram, Panya Thunnok, Sineenart Oota, Sonu Bhatnagar and Ubonwon Charoonruangrit
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 03, 2019
Hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody is an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is an integral part of blood donor screening in many countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies among voluntary blood donors in Thailand and its significance to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. A total of 3,197 voluntary blood donor samples that were pre-screened non-reactive for HBs-Ag serology and HBV ID-NAT were tested for...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510079
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2019
Animal African Trypanosomosis is a Neglected Tropical Disease with significant impacts to pastoral community livelihoods. Our study sought to determine the influence of seasonal cattle movements on the prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle in the pastoral areas of the Maasai Steppe. Identification of spatial and temporal dynamics of trypanosome infections in cattle is essential for designing effective control strategies. To identify potential hotspots of trypanosome transmission, we wor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510078
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 04, 2019
Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne, tropical disease that causes mortality and morbidity in livestock and humans. In this study we investigated the risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. We assessed the influence of age, sex, herd size and history of treatment against trypanosomosis as risk factors of trypanosome infection. Cattle blood samples were collected from 150 cattle in three villages in the vicinity of Tarangire National Park, which act...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510077
Gedeyon Getahun, Tilahun Beyene Handiso and Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik
Article Type: Research article | First Published: April 06, 2019
Facility based cross sectional study triangulated by Qualitative data collection method. A total 340 PTB patients in Hadiya zone public health facilities included in the study. Health facilities were selected by Simple random sampling method from three woredas. DOTS user at the beginning of data collection was consecutively recruited in to the study until the intended sample size was fulfilled. Multivariable binary Logistic regression was used. A P-value < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510076
Alain C Juayang, Joseph Peter T Lim, Zeith Ceve B de los Reyes, Mary Dane B Tuante, Zia Isabel P Batiles, Jan Frances Nichole V Guino-o, Francis Raphael A Villanueva and Gemma B de los Reyes
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Candida species, a group of opportunistic infection-causing microorganisms, has shown an increasing pattern of resistance against certain antifungal drugs through time. Thus, this retrospective study was conducted to describe the antifungal resistance of Candida species isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines from July 2017 to July 2018. A total of 184 Candida species were isolated from clinical specimens with C. albicans (61%) having the highest frequency followed by C. t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510075
Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care uni...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510074
Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Omer Njajou and Joseph Besong Besong
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2109
This was an analytical cross sectional study among pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, carried out from April to May 2018 in the Kumbo West Health District (KWHD) of Cameroon. We used a multistage sampling design to select 6 health areas. In each of these 6 health areas selected, proportionate sampling method was employed to get 400 participants from the health areas. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 21. We adjusted for confounding varia...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510073
Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery and Mary Garvey
Article Type: March 15, 2019 | First Published: March 15, 2019
Iatrogenic disease represents an ongoing issue for veterinarians where animals manifest with secondary conditions as a result of medical treatment. Similarly, zoonotic disease and specifically resistant zoonotic pathogens represent an ongoing issue for public health safety. As an increasing number of zoonotic microbial species are being recognised as emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans, the issues relating to their antimicrobial resistance becomes more evident. This study reports on two ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510072
Tsegaw Agezew, MSC, Abilo Tadesse, MD, Lemma Derseh, MPH and Mekonnen Yimer, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 14, 2019
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. Patients on ART are recommended to periodic monitoring to ensure effective and durable treatment outcomes. Treatment failure is the main indication for ART switching and assessed by criteria used to define virologic, immunologic or clinical failure. A retrospective follow up study was conducted from June 1, to August 30, 2018 to determine the incidence and associated factors with first line ART failur...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510071
Senda Mezghani Maalej, Jihene Jdidi Trabelsi, Gustave Claude-alexandre, Ilhem Boutiba, Maha Mastouri, Sophia Besbes, Farouk Barguellil, Frederic Laurent and Adnene Hammami
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infections in hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characteristics of MRSA strains causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in Tunisia. A total of 135 non-duplicate MRSA strains were consecutively collected from five Tunisian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510070
John B Ochieng, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, Evans Apondi, Jane Juma, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Clayton Onyango, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, Richard Omore, Frank Odhiambo, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Jennifer R Verani, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Kayla F Laserson, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda and Robert F Breiman
Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 16, 2019
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children worldwide. Most fatal rotavirus-associated diarrhea cases among children under 5 years occur in Africa and Asia. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains among children less than 5 years in western Kenya to provide baseline data on the prevalence of each genotype prior to the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Kenya. From January 2010 to December 2013, stool samples w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510069
Natasha N Pettit, Zhe Han, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Jennifer Pisano and Vera Tesic
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019
Strategies to improve time to administration of appropriate, effective antimicrobial therapy can improve patient outcomes. We sought to retrospectively assess if the earlier identification of blood pathogens and their resistance determinants with multiplex PCR platforms could have an impact on time to initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy. All patients with monomicrobial positive blood cultures from March to June 2013 were included in the retrospective chart review analysis. We evaluated th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510068
Peter Asaga Mac, Adamu Chipago Suleiman and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2019
A total of 200 pregnant women subjects were selected for this study to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the risk factors among pregnant women attending ante natal care at FMC, Keffi, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The sero prevalence of HBV infection and its infectivity is high in Central Nigeria. This resear...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510067
Fabio Miglietta, Claudio Palumbo, Fernando Parente, Luciano Velardi, Rosella Matera, Luigi Conte, Michela Dargenio, Maurizio Quarta, Milva Maria Nuzzo, Nicola Di Renzo and Giambattista Lobreglio
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 18, 2019
The presence of yeast neutrophil inclusions was observed and discussed several times in other reports; moreover some works demonstrated how Toxic Granulation Neutrophils (TGNs) are especially helpful in predicting acute bacterial infection, while the development of candidaemia-related TGNs was rarely described and in-depth. We describe two occasional findings of neutrophil inclusions and marked TGNs respectively due to Candida tropicalis and Candida guillermondi on peripheral blood smear....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510066
Cissoko Y, Traore F, Dicko MS, Konate I, Sidibe AF, Dembele JP, Fongoro S and Dao S
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019
Infectious diseases remain major public health issues with their corollary of epidemic and endemic disease, principally in developing countries. In 2010, the number of infections diseases related deaths was estimated to 15 millions per year worldwide and the World Health Organization (WHO) fore-casts this number to 13 million in 2050. These various infectious diseases, from the most frequent like malaria to the less like neglected tropical diseases are a scourge for developing countries and are ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510065
Ellen Wolff, Bernice Aronsson, Markus Hultstrand and Lisa Brouwers
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 09, 2019
Pertussis is a drawn-out and troublesome respiratory disease. Infants have a greater burden of disease than older children and adults, and are more likely to suffer complications. New vaccination strategies need to be considered to reduce pertussis among infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of three alternative vaccination strategies, in comparison with current vaccination schedule....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510064
Kpongbo Etienne Angora, Vincent Djohan, Abibatou Konate, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Akoua Valerie Bedia-Tanoh, Kondo Fulgence Kassi, Abo Henriette Vanga-Bosson, Sebastien Miezan, Eby Herve Menan and William Yavo
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 04, 2019
Malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections are morbidity causes in most tropical areas in the world. In Côte d'Ivoire, their association greats a major public health problem and their coexistence is the subject of very few studies. The current study investigated uncomplicated malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 children aged 2 to 15 recruited at the Anonkoua - Kouté Urban and Comm...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510063
Selcuk Nazik, Esma Cingoz, Ahmet Riza Sahin and Selma Ates
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2018
Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is a member of the normal flora and rarely causes infection. This study aims at evaluating, accompanied by the literature, Gemella-associated infections that are also present in the normal flora. This study is a cross-sectional study. Gemella infections recorded in 2014-2018 in University Hospital, Turkey. Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is parti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510062
Jennifer E MacDonald, Ashley E Glode and Luciano J Costa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2018
Diarrhea is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) due to multiple etiologies, including toxicity from the conditioning regimen and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. We hypothesized that C. difficile infection is uncommon in recipients of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and testing for C. difficile is over utilized at our institution. We performed a retrospective, single center analysis of the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for C. difficile a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510061
Yanning Ma, Jie Liu, Chunmei Bao, Xiuhong Hao, Jingui Cao, Yan Wang and Jiyong Yang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prevalent pathogens in China. However, little is known about the prevalence of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in China. BSI-causing P. aeruginosa (BSI-PA) was collected from six tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing. Genetic relatedness was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method, and sequence types (STs) were evaluated by multilocu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510060
Jing Liang, Kai Zhao, Liqin Zhu and Yihe Liu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 26, 2018
A 41-year-old female patient received tigecycline because of abdominal infection caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) after performing cholangiolithotomy by the endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). Subsequently she developed cholestatic liver injury as substantiated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Tigecycline was switched to dual carbapenems. Her liver function tests improved. We suggest that bilirubin levels should be cared in pat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510059
Sangeeta Mookherji and Kei Alegria-flores
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 05, 2018
Controlling multidrug and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) poses a grave challenge to public health, globally. Studies repeatedly show that effective M/XDR-TB management goes beyond strategies recommended in global TB control plans, uniformly pointing to patient-centred care as critical to progress in controlling the epidemic. We aim to describe patient-centred care in M/XDR-TB management in Peru, which presented a context where M/XDR-TB remains a persistent problem, even with in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510058
Norberto Sugaya and Dante Migliari
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2018
This article reports a case of secondary stage syphilis involving the oral mucosa and the skin (the palms). The lesion's clinical aspects of both sites could possibly be misdiagnosed for some common inflammatory diseases, among them oral lichenoid contact lesion or drug reaction. As a standard procedure, the differential diagnosis required to rule out syphilis. The treponemal and anti-treponemal tests confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis. The patient was successfully treated, but, unfortunately, ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510057
Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Zhizhong Jing, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen and Xiao-Bing He
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 29, 2018
Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic breeds. Mostly the disease is transmitted by dire...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510056
Ernest Tambo, Shang Xia, Xin-Yu Feng and Zhou Xiao-Nong
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2018
Investing in digital technologies to support health-based research, modelling and planning, preparedness and timely effective response, and long-term management benefits has been recognized in improving epidemiological analysis, disease prevention, control to elimination, health education and promotion. This paper provides valuable insights and approaches for public health in collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of health surveillance data, resource allocation, for guiding...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510055
Guenifi Wahiba, Gasmi Abdelkader, Boukhrissa Houda, Rais Mounira, Hachani Abderahmen, Ouyahia Amel, Mechakra Saleh and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 26, 2018
Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. Neurological localization is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors; its diagnosis is hampered by the absence of rapid and accurate tools, therefore it is often evoked and treated on presumption arguments. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome features in patients with cereb...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510054
Huang Yu-Fen and Su Hui-Chen
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 23, 2018
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the main leading causes of mortality associated with liver disease worldwide. Different predominant modes of transmission in the local area play an important role for the disease burden. Several cofactors are identified to accelerate the disease progression. Besides, several comorbidities are common in patients with CHC and also have poor response to the traditional combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510053
Aaron R Casha, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Andre Navarro and Emanuel Farrugia
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2018
The pathophysiological factors that make the upper lobe "vulnerable" to various different pathologies are additive, and not mutually exclusive. They include a tall, thin body habitus with an antero-posteriorly flattened chest as associated with a low BMI, compounded by the poor apical blood supply and concomitant limited lymphatic drainage, possibly accentuated by a physically tall lung and a deep first rib furrow that makes the apex appear prominent....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510052
Aaron R Casha, Roberto Caruana-Gauci, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, Hannah-Marie Casha-Gauci and Joseph N Grima
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018
A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB is presented based on the biomechanics of pleural stress in the context of the lung as a pressure vessel. This hypothesis modelled pleural stress as a marker of pleural tissue destruction and subsequent repair. It identified five predictors of TB reactivation, namely adolescent and young adult age, male gender, apical location, low antero-posterior chest diameter or low thoracic-index rib-cage shape and the presence of pre-existing apical blebs.....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510051
Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Victoria Nneka Asogwa and Uche Ezenwaka
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 15, 2018
Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are emerging health challenges worldwide, especially among immunocompromised hosts. This study investigated systemic fungal infections in diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were recruited from the Diabetic Clinics; Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic and risk factors from the subjects....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510050
Ahmad Dimassi, Katia Iskandar, Roula Matta, Nathalie Lahoud, Pierre Abi Hanna, Mira Jbeily and Pascale Salameh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 07, 2018
Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are related to medical practices that prevent or minimize spreading of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IPC measures on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in infectious diseases service at Lebanese hospitals....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510049
Jia Bainga Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh, Matilda King, Josephine Alpha Rogers and Sulaiman Lansanah Mandoh
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018
Globally it is estimated that 10% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In countries with high HBV endemicity the seroprevalence rate can be as high as 25% with approximately 10% of the HIV infected population coinfected with HBV....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510048
Elizabeth Salazar, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Diana Vega and Roberto Arenas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018
Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is very rare in adults, and may affect those with immunosuppressive diseases or menopausal elderly women. Clinical manifestations along with trichoscopy and Wood’s light, can help the clinician to determine the correct diagnosis, in order to reduce irreversible sequelae and decrease multiple contagion....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510047
Joshua Awogbemi, Moses Adeyeye and Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 24, 2018
Compared to other livestock, domestic fowls are much more commonly reared and consumed in Nigeria. The emergence of serious live-threatening infections from veterinary sources and treatment failures occurring with the available antibiotics warrants investigation into the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms and how they contribute to the menace of antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms by poultry farmers in Il...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510046
María M Cameranesi, Adriana S Limansky, Jorgelina Moran-Barrio, Guillermo D Repizo and Alejandro M Viale
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2017
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections. Its success in the hospital environment obeys to multiple causes, among them, the ability to resist antimicrobial compounds. It can rapidly evolve Multidrug Resistance (MDR) when confronted with antibiotic therapy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510045
H Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias and RA Nonato Alfonso
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2017
Descriptive study was carried out in a 75-bed public hospital in Western Qatar. The study included the patients underwent selected procedures who required antibiotic prophylaxis from Jan-2013 to June 2016. Data was collected by the infection control practitioner....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510044
Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, Ahmed El-Sohemy and Alaa Badawi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 13, 2017
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes influencing hypercytokinemia have been implicated in the clinical manifestations of severe influenza infection. Genotype-phenotype studies in healthy subjects may help to identify biomarkers of early prediction for severe disease outcome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510043
Article Type: editorial | First Published: November 08, 2017
Infection is the common pathology in medicine. The new emerging infection is the present problem worldwide. Within the past few years, there are several new emerging infections. The diseases are usually problematic and need good management and control....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510042
Mei Chen Chen, Che Kim Tan and Wen Liang Yu
Article Type: letter to the editor | First Published: November 06, 2017
Aspergillosis is well known in a patient with perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis and pulmonary renal syndromes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510041
Hsin-Ju Tang and Wen-Liang Yu
Article Type: Editor | First Published: October 26, 2017
This is a 45-year-old man, who has been working in China for several years and denied any systemic diseases before. He has suffered from the right axillary mass for 3 weeks, which was film and associated with mild tenderness. He was admitted to the Hematology department of the hospital on May 1, 2017. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan from neck to the chest showed a large enhancing mass over right axillary area, favoring lymphoma or metastatic lymphadenopathy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510040
Kei Numazaki and Maho Ichikawa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017
Serious gastrointestinal infection of Rotavirus (RV) is usually prevalent during winter months and often seen in infants and young children. Studies on genotypes of prevalent rotavirus strains are quite important for preventing infection, developing vaccines, and its evaluation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510039
Susana Sousa, Andres Puime, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa and Marie-Laure Darde
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2017
Toxoplasma gondii genotypes display high genetic diversity in South America with levels of diversity not yet seen in Europe. Indeed, highly virulent strains even for immunocompetent humans have been described. However, limited or no information appears to be available dealing with strains of T. gondii circulating in Uruguay....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510038
Reena Dhansukh Mohanlal and Alan Karstaedt
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2017
Despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. CMV gastrointestinal tract infection is poorly described. This retrospective study was undertaken to describe the clinical and histological features of biopsy confirmed CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a large teaching hospital with a high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510037
Linda Nwachukwu, Courtney Armstrong, Zachary Mulkey, Kristen Fuhrmann and Charles F Seifert
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017
Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) continues to be the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious colitis in the United States, replacing oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510036
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Nawaf Almalki, Abdualziz Alghamdi and Housain A Alqarni Alqarni
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2017
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important and serious global health problem. Despite the fact that there is a decrease in the prevalence rate of HBV infection in Saudi Arabia, but still it causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to measure the level of knowledge and to identify attitude and practice on HBV....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510035
Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro, Ana Carla Gomes Soares, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Patricia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2017
Dengue Virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus and has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Brazil is considered hyperendemic for dengue, and all serotypes have been identified....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510034
Brahmaputra Marjadi, John Doan Nguyen, Peter Hoppett and Mary-Louise McLaws
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 16, 2017
Needlestick Injuries (NSI) commonly occurs in the hospital setting. Medical students are at risk of NSI due to lack of clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and knowledge, attitudes, awareness and practices of NSI among medical students at an Australian university....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510033
Sydney Marsh, Felicia Ratnaraj, Roy Norris, Jason Gass and Renuga Vivekanandan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2017
Nocardia, a gram positive bacteria, is found primarily in the immunocompromised population. We present a case of nocardia causing mastoiditis in a patient with a history of recurrent otitis media, with a focus on appropriate treatment selection. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510032
Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Xiaodong Li and Xing-Hua Gao
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2017
Human cutaneous warts are prevalent worldwide and are caused by Human Papillomavirus. Most cutaneous warts can be clinically diagnosed without any auxiliary examination, but additional tests are required to confirm the infection of Human Papillomavirus in some atypical cases. The aim of this study was to measure the applicability of HPV DNA detection in cutaneous warts in a clinical setting....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510031
Leonard Sama Fonkeng, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Michel Noubom, Roland Bamou, Assoua HSR Sterve, Ayuk Leo, JR Kuiate and Christopher B Tume
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 21, 2017
There is a growing awareness on a global scale on the possible relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a prospective study in sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in two TB management clinics in Bamenda and Bafoussam in the North West and West regions of Cameroon respectively to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, associated risk factors and the impact of diabetes in the treatment outcome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510030
Mary Fairchok, Christina Schofield, Wei-Ju Chen, Mary Pugh, Hugh Bigg, John C Arnold and Eugene V Millar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2017
25-OH vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL activate HCAP-18, which impacts the immune response to respiratory viruses. While emerging data suggests a link between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and an increased incidence of respiratory infections, the relationship between these levels and severity of infection is unknown. We hypothesized that infants with insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels would have more severe viral respiratory infections....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510029
Narcisa L Nhamitambo, Sharadhuli I Kimera and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017
Trypanosomosis is a major neglected disease of animals and man that causes great negative socio-economic impact in many African countries. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the blood from the genus Trypanosoma. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of trypanosomosis in Tanzania, but none has been done in the human/livestock/wildlife interface areas of Mikumi National Park....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510028
Chia Peck Kee, Petrick Periyasamy, Zhe Kang Law, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Wan Nur Nafisah WanYahya, Hazlina Mahadzir, Shahrul Azmin Md Rani, Ramesh Sahathevan, Rabani Remli, Raymond Azman Ali, Hui Jan Tan, Syazarina Sharis Osman, Shahizon Azura Mohamed Mukari and Shamsul Azhar Shah
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 17, 2017
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been one of the major extrapulmonary manifestation with high morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to study the clinical features, prognostic factors and clinical outcome of TBM in a local tertiary hospital. This was an observational study on TBM in patients who were diagnosed in a local tertiary hospital....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510027
Ardigleusa Alves Coêlho, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Emannuela Maria Nunes Freitas, Paulo Henrique Lima, Ewerton Willian Gomes Brito, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves and Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017
A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) with self-administered treatment (SAT) in people with pulmonary tuberculosis. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the Scielo/Lilacs were searched for studies published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2013....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510026
Pamela J Kennedy, Sajata Outin, Tomas R Rodriguez, Lauren Polansky, Margaret McCarron and Karen R Siener, Ann C Moen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 08, 2017
As Global Health Security partners endeavor to support capacity building globally, it is important to examine prior efforts for building surveillance and laboratory systems for emerging infectious diseases. CDC provides financial support and technical assistance to foreign governments for the development or improvement of influenza surveillance networks in over fifty countries through cooperative agreements....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510025
Hubert E Blum
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 06, 2017
Based on molecular, genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and microbiological analyses it is increasingly possible to identify individual disease-related characteristics that define disease pathogenesis, disease disposition or prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies (personalized medicine/precision medicine')....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510024
Nur Ain A, Abdul Rahman O and Aini I
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 28, 2017
The virus infection result in apoptosis of cells included mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis. It seems that both cellular and viral factors are involved depending on types of cells. Edible bird nest (EBN) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that contained various bioactive compounds with health benefits in human. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510023
Lhor Youssef, Kyriaki Nomikou, Khayli Mounir, Bouslikhane Mohammed, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa and El Harrak Mehdi
Article Type: Overview | First Published: February 18, 2017
Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Due to the segmented nature of genome, there is existence of high diversity in BT virus serotypes too as a consequence of genetic reassortments....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510022
Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2016
The colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health problem of major importance in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Active decolonization measures are performed in MRSA-colonized patients; infections caused by MRSA are treated with vancomycin and other reserve antibiotics. The administration of bacteriophages could prevent the formation of MRSA biofilms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510021
Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Nasima Mehraban, Oladapo Ayodele, Sarah K Tshitenge, Rochelle Knox, Elda Mullaj, Aaron Nandzo, Ayman El-Samman, Steven Neshewat and Sinthy Vivek
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2016
Zoonotic diseases or infections (Zoonoses) are ailments that are naturally transmitted from animals to humans (or vice versa). These diseases are transmitted either by the consumption of contaminated food and water, exposure to the pathogen during preparation, processing or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Zoonotic diseases have a significant effect on public health worldwide, showing a higher incidence rate in developing countries due to lack of control strategies, as well as ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510020
Jean-Benoit Arlet, Cloe Comarmond, Anoosha Habibi, Katia Stankovic, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Marilucy Lopez Sublet, Louis Affo, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Justine Gellen-Dautremer, Sylvain Le Jeune, Elena Fois, Latifatou Boukari, Veronique Perronne, Denis Vincent, Jacques Pouchot, Djamal Khimoud, Francois Lionnet and Patrice Cacoub
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 14, 2016
The relationship between HCV infection and complications of sickle cell disease SCD has not been reported. To determine prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adult patients with SCD, and to analyze the relationship between HCV infection and SCD complications. A total of 267 SCD patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was filled out, including history and complications of SCD, and the status and main characteristics of HCV infection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510019
Mia N Barnes, Monika N Daftary, Mary K Maneno and Faria F Farhat
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 14, 2016
Although clinical advances have been demonstrated through the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the management of an HIV infected patient within the intensive care unit (ICU) has been a topic of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines to assist in the management of HIV patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to examine ART utilization in the medical ICU and to assess relationships between therapy, clinical characteristics and mor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510018
Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Irene Ayi, John Larbi, Takashi Suzuki and Nobuo Ohta
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 13, 2016
Malaria and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are each reported to cause severe negative consequences in both mother and child. In Ghana, efforts are ongoing to control malaria from all facets but there is no such effort yet for control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp and T. gondii infections in mothers at delivery and their neonates in a malaria holo-endemic area where Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510017
Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Josephine Adunse, Odunayo Olorunfemi and Nashwa Abdulsalam
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 16, 2016
A previously healthy 23-year-old male presented with fever and shortness of breath. His illness initially started six days before presentation with a sore throat. Two days later he developed fevers with associated chills, rigors, and night sweats. He also complained of myalgias, non-productive cough, a right-sided chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. His symptoms continued to worsen until he became dyspneic at rest and was br...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510016
James D MacKinnon
Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 15, 2016
Malaria remains one of the most destructive communicable diseases worldwide. In the campaign towards global malaria eradication, the development of effective vaccinees has become paramount with the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance to primary treatment and prophylactic regimens. Of particular focus are vaccinees specific to Plasmodium falciparum....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510015
Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 02, 2016
Dengue fever remains an important mosquito-borne viral illness resulting in substantial human and economic costs. Despite rising incidence rates in recent decades, there is cause for hope, particularly in light of recent advancements in dengue vaccine and vector control research. This article reviews past dengue control efforts and discusses current and future strategies for dengue control....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510014
Graciela Borthagaray, Melina Mondelli and Maria H Torre
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016
In order to maintain the capacity to treat infections it is necessary to adopt strategies for the development of new drugs. The use of metal ions in medicine for their antimicrobial effects was prevalent for many years before the advent of antibiotics. During the second half of the twentieth century, active metal complexes with different chemical, physicochemical and biochemical properties than the constituents reborn by the threat posed by microbial multidrug resistance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510013
Li Yan, Zhu Limei, Cheng Chen, Lu Wei, Booker G.W, Yu Hao and Polyak S.W
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem for thousands of years. It took almost 200 years after the discovery of the disease in early 1689 to identify the causative pathogen, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch who was awarded a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his work in this area. Currently, TB is a global pandemic that outranks HIV-AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death by infectious disease. In 1993 the World Health Organization declared TB a g...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510012
Mouhamadou Lamine Dia, Sow AI, Cisse MF, Gueye Pal, Ba F, Cisse NN, Balde O, Diouf B and Sarr M
Article Type: Short Note | First Published: April 01, 2016
Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medication is a major public health problem worldwide and Senegal is not spared. Indeed, the WHO reported 13,186 cases of tuberculosis in Senegal (including new cases and relapses) for 2013, 2.1% of which were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new cases and 17% in retreatment patients. Elsewhere in the world, the WHO estimates the number of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) at around 2 billion and the number of cases o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510011
John G. Bruno, Taylor Phillips, Alicia M. Richarte, Tiffany Montez, Adrian Garcia and Jeffrey C. Sivils
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28. 2016
This report extends fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead-based sandwich assays developed and published for ultrasensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes by adding prototype assays for pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shiga-like toxin-1 and Salmonella enterica. These tests are assessed by a highly portable fluorometer, thus enabling on-site detection and tracking or epidemiology of major foodborne pathogen outbreaks potentially from "farm to fork"....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510010
Harunur Rashid, Shereen Shoma and Mahbubur Rahman
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2016
A total of 255 NPS specimens were collected from every seventh of 1786 children with meningitis (n = 293) and pneumonia (n = 1493). One hundred and twenty one (47.5%) H. influenzae were isolated from 255 NPS specimens. Among 121 isolates, 15 (38%) were recovered from meningitis compared to 106 (49%) from pneumonia cases (P < 0.3). Fifteen percent of isolates (18/121) were serotype b (Hib) and the rest were non-Hib....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510009
Jon M Riggs, Robert JC McLean, Rodney E Rohde and Gary M Aron
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal commonly found in polymicrobial biofilms with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the increasing drug resistance in Staphylococci, we explored combination therapy with teicoplanin and bacteriophage type 92 (Siphoviridae) on the survival and antibiotic tolerance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis to teicoplanin and bacteriophage in 48-h pure and mixed culture biofilms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510008
Fiseha Lemango, Terefe Gone, Yohannes H/Michael and Shimeles Ololo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016
HIV/AIDS has significantly affected the well-being of adolescents and has posed serious concern for their parents. Parent-adolescent communication on HIV/AIDS is a key tool to prevent and control the disease among young people. However, information about parental involvement on adolescent HIV prevention activities is scarce in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510007
Soraya Jodra Sanchez, Jacinto Ramos Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Santos Jimenez, Rosa Cordovilla Perez, Jose Maria Gonzalez Ruiz, Ana Maria Sanchez Hernandez, Sergio Cadenas Menendez and Miguel Barrueco Ferrero
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: February 27, 2016
Since the microorganism Legionella pneumophila (Lp) was identified during an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in 1976, it has been recognised as a common cause of both extra- and intra-hospital pneumonia . The incidence of community-associated pneumonia (CAP) due to Lp varies widely from one area to another, hovering around 1% in subjects treated on an outpatient basis and 15-28% in hospitalised patients. Of these, approximately a quarter require admission to an intensive care unit ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510006
Bethel Shiferaw, Ebisa Bekele, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin and Marianne Frieri
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2016
Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection. PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune system....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510005
Zuzeca Magalhaes, Rita Castro and Filomena Martins Pereira
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 09, 2016
Individuals between 15 and 24 years of age are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of this study were to describe risk taking sexual behaviour and the presence of C. trachomatis in health sciences university students in Lisbon....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510004
Kamran Baig, Shaikh Muhammad Saif Din, Noura A Elkhizzi and Daifallah J Al Nakhli
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2015
Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials and gaps in infection control practices have resulted in alarmingly high prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) globally. The objective of our study was to highlight the incidence of hospital acquired MDROs in our facility. Method: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected from January - December 2013 in a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia. The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) surveillance definitions were...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510003
Marc P Girard
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 28, 2015
As of 2014, UNAIDS estimated that some 35 million people were living with HIV-1 worldwide, of whom more than 25 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a preventative manner has allowed to at least partially limit the extension of the disease. The best example is the major success that was achieved with the implementation of ART in HIV-1-infected pregnant mothers to prevent the infection of their baby....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510002
Adelshin RV, Melnikova OV, Trushina Yu N and Andaev EI
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 28, 2015
Pribaikalie is a mountainous area in the South of Eastern Siberia that borders Lake Baikal between the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to the area. Human cases occur usually within regional centers (Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude) and large industrial centers (Bratsk, Angarsk, Cheremkhovo), where the majority of the population is concentrated....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510001
Michael J. Mahande, Habib O. Ramadhani and Rune N. Phimemon
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015
HIV counselling and testing (HTC) is an integral component of HIV preventive strategies. Despite an increase in the number of HTC sites, HIV testing uptake among young women in Tanzania is relatively low compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with changes in HIV testing uptake using Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Surveys of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12....
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