Journal of

Infectious Diseases and EpidemiologyISSN: 2474-3658

Early Online

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510161

Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report

Richard H Zou, MD, Vi Dam-Bao Nguyen, BS, Patrice A Zigrossi, MD, John M Beckham, MD, Brandon J Smith, MD, PharmD, Matthew J Gorgone, DO, Haris Zia, MD, Daniel Martinez Coconubo, MD, Michael S Landau, MD, Humberto E Trejo Bittar, MD, FACP, Roy W Semaan, MD, Georgios D Kitsios, MD, PhD and Christiane M Hadi, MD, MPH, MSc

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Classically, diagnosis relies on the combination of clinical history, exclusion of alternative infectious and neoplastic etiologies, and histopathologic confirmation of proliferating spindle cells staining positive for HHV-8. Tissue-based diagnosis requires bronchoscopy with biopsy and is associated with procedural complications, such as blee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510160

Ocular Manifestation of Lyme Disease: A Rare Case of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Nasha Elavia, Si Li, Yichen Wang, Ibitola Yusuf and John Weisenreider

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

A 63-year-old male from Northeastern Pennsylvania presented in fall with the complaint of sudden onset of blurred vision in the right eye. This was preceded by a history of Lyme arthritis diagnosed with positive immunoglobulin titers (IgG and IgM) on Western blot analyses of the synovial fluid four weeks ago. His past medical history was remarkable for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The sudden decrease in right eye visual acuity was moderate and reported at all distances. The patient denied an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510159

Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Virus: Are We Ready for Another Global Threat or Pandemic?

Mujahed I Mustafa, Ayman Ahmed and Abdelrafie M Makhawi

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 13, 2020

The currently developing devastating pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has took over the global attention. Meanwhile, another virus with high potentiality to grow into a global pandemic has emerged in China, where human infections of the strain genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus had been reported. However, fortunately human-to-human transmission was not detected yet but we need to keep an eye out for such potential scenario particularly that by the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510158

Mathematical Model for the Transmission of Covid-19 with Nonlinear Forces of Infection and the Need for Prevention Measure in Nigeria

Daniel Deborah O

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 13, 2020

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health; of which was reported to emerge in Wuhan, China at the end of the year 2019. It became alarming to Nigerians when Nigeria recorded her first index case in February 2020 in the city of Lagos which has led to a total number of 5162 confirmed cases, 1180 recovered with 167 death recorded as at May 14, 2020. This paper proposes a mathematical model SEIQCRW which adopt the SEIR model to study the current outbrea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510157

Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State, Nigeria

Afolabi Olajide Joseph

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 12, 2020

River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of Ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology which involve the use of structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510155

Genetic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis Occurring in Argentina from 1986 to 2016

Mónica Prieto, Claudia Martínez, Lucía Cipolla, Florencia Rocca and Rita Armitano

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2020

One case of pregnancy-related listeriosis was defined as a pregnant woman or newborn infant aged < 28 days from whom L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a sterile site such as the blood, placenta or cerebrospinal fluid. Based on epidemiological and clinical data available, cases were classified as: Maternal infection with ongoing pregnancy, fetal loss and live born neonatal listeriosis. Fetal loss was defined as the death of the fetus that occurred prior to the complete expulsion or removal ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510156

The Implications of Misconceptions about Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in Relation to its Daily Increases from Nigerian Perspective

Julius A Aminu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 05, 2020

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in the world especially in African continent and Nigeria in particular has created negative effects on humanity. Continuous holding on to some misconceptions about the reality of the virus among people may create further problems for humankind. However, very few studies particularly in Nigeria have actually considered the implications of these misconceptions about the disease in relation to its daily increases; coupled with the fact that many people still hold o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510154

Prevalence of Scabies and Associated Factors among Primary School Children in Raya Alamata District, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2017/2018

Sindayo Tefera, Molla Teferi, Assefa Ayalew, Tilahun Belete and Haven Hadush

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 03, 2020

Scabies is a skin infection that is a result of direct skin to skin contact and is primarily mediated by close and extended contact with scabies infested person. Scabies occurs worldwide among people of all ages, races, genders and social classes and has been identified as a neglected tropical infectious disease. Globally, it affects more than 130 million people at any time. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of scabies and associated factors among primary school children in Raya Alam...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510153

Statistical Analyses of COVID-19 Cases in India

Neha K Gadhvi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2020

COVID-19 outbreak was first reported in Wuhan, China and has spread most of the countries of the world. The outbreak spreads are largely influenced by each country’s policy and social responsibility. According to WHO, the estimate of attack the rate on 23, June, 2020 to be between 1.4 to 2.5. In India the situation is somehow controllable compared to the situations of developed countries. It will be worth interesting to know about the fact and figures of corona cases in India. The different ty...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510139

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Patient Suspected of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)

Rony Shah, MD, Linda Klumpp, MD, Naeem Syed, DO, Parth Patel, MD and Jeffrey Jordan, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARSCoV- 2) is a novel coronavirus which has become a worldwide pandemic, the other common coronaviruses to cause deadly respiratory disease are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV are commonly transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 can present with varying severity from asymptomatic to multi-organ failure. We present a rare case of abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient suspe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510152

Investigation on the Sub-Health Status of Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Miao-hang Shan, Yan-bin Pan, Wan-xian Lu, Jin-ling Wu, Wen-ying Li and Dong-yu Zeng

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 07, 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection, showing a general susceptibility pattern and extremely high infectivity. It is currently a public health emergency of international concern. As the direct staff to deal with and control the pandemic situation, healthcare workers may experience physical, psychological, and social stresses at different levels. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the sub-health status of healthcare workers to provi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510151

Efficacy and Safety Data of Treatments for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (SARS-Cov-2): A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

Alhassane Diallo, MD, PhD, Marie Traoré, MD, Miguel Carlos-Bolumbu, MD, Mamadou Hassimiou Diallo, MSc and Boubacar Djelo Diallo, MD

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 06, 2020

To date, there is no definite effective treatment for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. To compare and rank SARS-Cov-2 treatment according to their efficacy and safety. Using the terms Covid-19 or SARS-CoV-2 and treatment, a literature search was performed from MEDLINE, GOOGLE, and CENTRAL databases until July 01, 2020. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) against SARS-CoV-2 disease were included. The studies excluded were those with nonrandomized design or those with a lack of informati...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510149

Fulminant COVID-19 Pneumonia in a 53-Yr-Old Man: A Case Report

Vivian Gga Kwaghe, Zaiyad Garba Habib, Anthony Bawa, Francis Olayemi Adebayo, Alexander Agada Akor, Yunusa Thairu and Bissallah Ahmed Ekele

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 31, 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The most serious complication of COVID-19 is a type of pneumonia that’s been called 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). COVID-19 pneumonia presents as an atypical pneumonia, with diffuse bilateral lung involvement. Severe cases present with acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510148

Increase in Daily New COVID-19 Cases Not Seen Following the Wisconsin Primary Election April 2020

Andrew C Berry, DO, Madhuri S Mulekar, PhD and Bruce B Berry, MD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: July 30, 2020

We did not design the election process as an experiment, we observed the outcome of the events. Using the voting age population for the United States (US), and Wisconsin (WI), and daily COVID-19 case reports from various dashboards, daily new case rates (all rates per 100,000 voting age adults) were calculated. With election day April 7, allowing for initial incubation, we choose to measure April 12-21. WI daily new case rates were 3.647 in the 10 day period leading up to the election and they f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510147

Assumption of Herd Immunity against COVID-19: A Plausibility and Hope or a Terrible Thought in Modern-Day to Save the Life

Suneel Prajapati and Narasimha Kumar GV

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: July 25, 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has first emerged in the province of Hubei, China, in late December 2019, and the contagious form of disease covered the whole world by the rapid spread. As of July 12, 2020, there are 12,879,107 confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and 5,68,422 deaths were reported globally. However, after its first appearance in China, the United States of America (USA) and Europe were worst hit by COVID-19 and emerged as the epic centr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510150

On Distance Respiratory Virus Transmission: Sate of Evidence

Luisetto M, Naseer Almukthar, A Yesvi Rafa, Manmohan Singh Jangdey, Fiazza C, Ferraiuolo A and Latischev Oleg Yu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2020

Aim of this work is to verify hypotesys of air-borne transmission on distance related some respiratory and other virus and to compare with actual Covid-19 pandemic diffusion. After an analysis of relevant literature involved and submitting an experimental hypotesys a global conclusion is submitted for further research activity. Some peculiarity in Covid-19 diffusion velocity and mortality rate in some high polluted world region contributes to increase the interest in these topics....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510146

COVID-19: An Insight into SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Originated at Wuhan City in Hubei Province of China

Mohan BS and Vinod Nambiar

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2020

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), originated at Wuhan city of China in early December 2019 has rapidly widespread with confirmed cases in almost every country across the world and has become a new global public health crisis. The etiological agent was designated as Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The virus was originated in bats and transmits through respiratory droplets and surface contact and then by touching mouth, eyes, and nose. The World Health Organi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510145

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Transmission, Risk Factors, Prevention and Control: A Minireview

Oluwaseun Awosolu and Oluwole Oladele

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 18, 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was initially named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) have continued to spread at an alarming rate across the globe. It was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) due to its worldwide exponential spread and impact leading to high morbidity and mortality. Generalday- to-day activities was heavily destabilized due to lockdown and Movement Control Order (MCO) policy w...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510144

Estimation of Basic Reproduction Number (Ro) of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from SEIR Model in Perspective of Bangladesh

Himel Talukder, Konad Debnath, Ahsan Raquib, Mohammod Misbah Uddin and Md Safwan Hussain

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 17, 2020

This study used Susceptible-Exposed-Infected- Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model and their differential equations for the calculation of Ro and for the favor of calculation assume that, all the cases that occurred before 15 April, 2020 occurs under free propagation without any intervention. This study calculated the Ro based on the real time confirmed cases and suspected cases in April 14 and also theoretical prediction of cases based on other studies. Other parameters for calculation were tak...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510143

Evaluation of the Burden and Intervention Strategies of TBHIV Co-Infection in West Africa

Sampson E Akwafuo, Theresa Abah and Joseph R Oppong

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 17, 2020

The co-infection of Tuberculosis with HIV has continually placed an immense burden on public health systems, mostly in Low and Middle Income (LMIC) countries. We present a geographical analysis of current intervention programs and prevalence rates in two West African states (Ghana and Nigeria). In some regions with higher co-infection rates and dense population, interventions were seen to be relatively lower, relative to other less densely populated regions. A hybrid mathematical and agent-based...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510142

A Descriptive Study of Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Bhutan

Kinley Gyem, Adeep Monger, Jit Bdr Darnal, Lila Maya Adhikari, Sonam Wangchuk and Tandin Dorji

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 13, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has stretched into the tiny Himalayan country Bhutan and the first suspected case was seen on 27th January 2020. There are no reports available in the country till date. Therefore, a descriptive study was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bhutan as of 30th April 2020. Data were extracted from the Royal Center for Disease Control COVID-19 information database and analyzed using Epi Info 7.2....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510141

Gut Feeling: The Plausible Faecal-Oral Transmission Route of Covid-19

Mohammad Khalid Parvez

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 11, 2020

The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 is taking a toll on public health. The spread of Covid-19 is confirmed through person-to-person direct contact, aerosolized nasal or oral droplets, and fomites. The clinical symptoms of Covid-19 are cough, headache, fever and breathlessness, including mild to severe pneumonia and death. In addition, a proportion of individuals experience vomiting, stomach ache or diarrhoea with or without respiratory disease. Recent clinical studies have report...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510140

The Challenges of Using Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) in Curbing Malaria in Nigeria: A 2000-2018 Systematic Review

Blessed K Ajegena and Victor B Oti

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 04, 2020

The proper use of Insecticides treated nets (ITNs) has been adjudged an efficacious and cost-effective method for curbing malaria. Despite the distribution of ITNs in Nigeria, malaria remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children below 5-years-old. This systematic review was intended to document the factors mitigating the use of ITNs in Nigeria. Scholarly articles published from the year 2000 through 2018 were reviewed. Six (6) databases (Medline, PubMed, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510138

Recurrence or Relapse of COVID 19 Infection

Gary R Skankey, MD and Christopher Breeden, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020

We present a patient who is a 67-year-old female who is morbidly obese (BMI 62), but otherwise healthy, who was admitted on 4/6/2020 (day 0) with a five day history of fever and diarrhea, followed by 24 hours worth of increasing shortness of breath, dry cough, nausea, and dry heaves. A chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with congestive heart failure, however B-naturetic peptide was only 284 (NL < 125). Blood work was as follows: WBC - 3420, ABG - 7.43/34/64 on 6 liters O2, Quant...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510137

Possible Correlation between Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) Vaccination Policy and SARS-Cov-2 Transmission, Morbidity and Mortality Rates: Implications for the African Continent

Oluwafolajimi Adetoye Adesanya and Ikponmwosa Gabriel Ebengho

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 03, 2020

Since its discovery in the Huanan Seafood Market, Hubei province, Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the 2019-novel Coronavirus has evolved rapidly into a global pandemic of devastating proportions. With the most developed health systems of the world struggling to contain the spread, there have been concerns raised about the relatively lower case and mortality figures coming out of the African continent, especially in the earlier days of the outbreak. While most institutions are quick to raise the ...

Volume 6
Issue 4