A Multicountry Level Comparison of BCG Vaccination Policy and COVID-19 Cases and Mortality
Moses Katbi, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Adeoye Adegboye, Iyiola Faturiyele, Maryam Bello, Rose Khatri and Michele Russel
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 06, 2020
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in immeasurable disruptions in countries activities. Since the first reported case in December 2019, an estimated 140,000 people have died, with a case fatality rate of about 3%. The increasing rate of new cases and the evolving epidemiology of the COVID-19 virus means that the global health community is grappling to understand the current situation. The aim of this paper is to determine if the Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine used to protect aga...
Epidemiological Trends, Characteristics, and Distribution of COVID-19: Lessons from SARS and MERS Outbreaks and Way Forward
Amen Bawazir, Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, PhD, Omar B Da’ar and Hoda Jradi
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 22, 2020
Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses became an emerging worldwide health concern. Previously Coronaviruses caused mild infections in immunocompromised people and were not considered to be highly pathogenic in humans until they circulated in the Guangdong province of China in 2002 and 2003 during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. A decade following the aforementioned SARS outbreak, we witnessed the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV...
Shiga Toxin 2 Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Complicated By Clostridium Septicum Bacteremia in a 4-Year-Old
Peter Paul Lim, MD, Christina Rae Nguyen, MD, Daniel Rhoads, MD and Arlene Dent, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 21, 2020
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a potent toxin produced by shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that is commonly linked to development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). An extremely rare complication of shiga toxin associated (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome is concomitant infection with Clostridium septicum. The majority of pediatric patients with HUS complicated by C. septicum infection had complications including CNS involvement, severe renal insult often requiring hemodialysis, and myonecrosis war...
Transmission and Control Efforts of COVID-19
Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Sadaf Younis, Henry Chan, Nafees Haider, Abu Fahad Abbasi, Oladapo Ayodele, Stephanie Prakash and Aleksandra Marinkovic
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
COVID-19, a pandemic, is an expanding global threat that has nearly affected all the countries in the world. As the pandemic advances without any medical intervention in place, a global lockdown has been issued along with quarantine orders and social distancing restrictions to prevent further transmission. We discussed the transmission and control effort of COVID-19 based on available information since the disease outbreak. COVID-19 can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, spreading from person-to-pe...
Strategies of the World Health Organization in the Covid 19 Outbreak
Emel Yürük Bal, (RN) MSc and Şenay Çetinkaya, PhD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 30, 2020
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Coronaviruses are single-chain, positive-polar, enveloped RNA viruses. Over the past 2 weeks, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has marched relentlessly westward. On March 13, WHO said that Europe was now the centre of the pandemic. A few days later, deaths in Italy surpassed those in China. Iran and Spain had also reported over 1000 deaths as of March 23, and many other European coun...
Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen in Adult Carriers of Chronic Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in a Tertiary Health Facility in North East Nigeria: 2000 - 2015
Isaac Warnow Elon, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Ajani Ayomikun, Abubakar Joshua Difa, Oyeniyi C, Aremu John and Danlami Halilu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 09, 2020
Hepatitis B infection continues to be a serious global health problem with about 2 billion people infected worldwide, many of these in sub-Saharan Africa. Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen test results in adults attending the outpatient units and/ or admitted in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Hepatitis B surface antigen was tested for in 22,862 adults and children; 20375 (89.1%) were adults and 2487 (10.9%) were child...
A Plausible "Penny" Costing Effective Treatment for Corona Virus - Ozone Therapy
Robert Jay Rowen, MD and Howard Robins, DPM
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 06, 2020
Many viruses require reduced sulfhydryl groups for cell fusion and entry. Corona viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 (the cause of the condition now named coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19), are rich in cysteine, which residues must be intact for viral activity. Sulfhydryl groups are vulnerable to oxidation. Ozone therapy, a very inexpensive and safe modality may safely exploit this critical vulnerability in many viruses, inclusive of SARS-CoV-2. Mainstream medicine has little in its arsenal for vi...
Deferring Antibiotic Prescribing in Nursing Home Residents with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Pilot Educational Intervention
Emilie Kennedy, DNP, CRNP, FNP-C
Article Type: Clinical Research Article | First Published: March 04, 2020
Unnecessary antibiotic use in nursing home patients leads to negative outcomes including the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, adverse drug events, polypharmacy and higher health care costs. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the effects of a pilot clinical staff educational intervention on best practices for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in nursing home residents. A multi-faceted educational intervention program on ASB was provided to Emergency Depa...
Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Formidable Threat or Silence before the Storm?
Helen Kest and Ashlesha Kaushik
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 21, 2019
Globally, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), notably methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin is considered a drug of last resort for severe MRSA and other resistant Gram-positive infections. Vancomycin enjoyed a high level of success for decades following MRSA outbreaks until recent reports of increasing S. aureus MICs culminating in high-level vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), first reported in 2002. Since then, there have been selected ca...
Spontaneous Skin Lesions: The Importance of Differential Diagnosis
Montilla Alvaro Mabel, Delgado Vidarte Ana and Alcantara Luna Sara
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019
Dermatofitosis are cutaneous infections caused by fungus. They affect the keratinized surface layers epidermis, hair and nails. We report a case of a 42-year-old female patient who presented with erythematous annular lesions with a raised edge on the chest, back, neck, hands and arms. These lesions were compatible with erythema multiforme, subacute lupus and/or ringworm infection. The biopsy of lesions was done and the study showed the structures suggestive of fungi in hematoxylin-eosin staining...
Implication of Enteric Viruses in the Digestive Surgical Pathologies in Tunisian Children
Ben Haj Khalifa A, Jerbi A and Trabelsi A
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 06, 2019
Recent virological studies have shown the association between digestive diseases and some enteric viruses: adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, Our objectives were to show the impact of viral infections of the digestive complications and interactions between enteric viruses and digestive tract cells.During the study period, 64 samples were collected from children with gastrointestinal surgical pathologies. The AdV were detected in 9 cases (14%) and rotavirus in 1 case (1.5%). A male predominance ...
Incidence of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Site Wound Infection among Frail Elderly Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Medical Center
Adolf Lim-Teodoro, MD, Mabel Angela Sarita, MD, Russel Semeniano, MD and Miguel Ramos Jr, MD, Ph.D
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 04, 2019
Nutrition is an important determinant of health in elderly patients. It also contributes to their overall quality of life and longevity. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is used to provide enteral access in patients who are unable to swallow to improve nutrition. PEG site infection is an important healthcare-associated infection and this study aims to determine the incidence and clinical profile of PEG site wound infections among elderly patients admitted in a tertiary medical cent...
Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Newborns: The Role of Neonatal Sepsis
Martina Fibbiani, Cristina Tuoni, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Serena Di Marco and Paolo Ghirri
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2019
Neonatal sepsis is an independent risk factor for the development of central nervous system injury, so preterm newborn, who is more exposed to infections, has a higher neurological risk. This research wanted to examine whether and how sepsis could influence preterm newborns neurodevelopmental outcome. Today prematurity is still a topical and globally discussed issue: 15 million preterm infants are born every year in the world and about 1 million of them dies because of the complications linked t...
Interaction between Spatial and Temporal Scales for Entomological Field Data: Analysis of Aedes Aegypti Oviposition Series
Sofia Lanfri, Manuel Espinosa, Mario A Lanfri, Victoria M Periago, Marcelo Abril and Carlos M Scavuzzo
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 14, 2019
In Argentina, Aedes aegypti represents an important public health threat, since it is the vector responsible for the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever. Mundo Sano Foundation has been carrying out periodic surveys of immature vector stages in several cities of northern Argentina. The main tool to mitigate their spread is through vector control. Similarity between curves does not show spatial continuity in relation to the spatial arrangement of ovitraps, may be due to the ...
Descriptive Study of Neisseria Meningitidis Isolates from Patients in Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico in 2010 and 2011
Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2019
Neisseria meningitidis is recognized as the cause of Infection Meningococcal Disease (IMD) generally develops rapidly 20% of survivors suffer from neurological and disabling sequelae in spite of prompt antibiotic therapy. The disease is a major concern in public heath worldwide and can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Although in Mexico the invasive meningococcal disease is notifiable, reports about meningococcal diseases are scarce with no data available related to the p...
Implementation of Same-Day Sputum Smears Microscopy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Programmatic Qualitative Study
Boja Dufera Taddese, KumeraTerfa Kitila, Abay Sisay Misganaw, Daniel Melese Desalegn, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu and MeronSeifu Tebeje
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2019
In countries that have ensured effective External Quality Assessment (EQA) sputum smear microscopy, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the implementation of same-day smear sputum microcopy. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the status of the same-day sputum smear microcopy implementation was not yet assessed. In-depth interview of Health Care Providers (HCPs) at Outpatient Departments (OPDs), clinical laboratories and Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centres was conducted to ...
Older Persons with HIV in Canada
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2019
Thanks to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the number of older patients living with HIV, usually defined as individuals over 50 years of age, has markedly increased everywhere in the world. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology and special needs of older persons with HIV in Canada now and in the near future. It is estimated that, by 2025 in Canada, one in six of all HIV-infected adults will be over 50 years of age. Most will reside in Ontario, Quebec, and British Co...
Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis in a Military Hospital in Gabon: Report of Eleven Patients
Mangouka Guingali Laurette, Iroungou Berthe A, Bivigou-Mboumba Berthold, Oura Landry, Mwanyombet Lucien and Nzenze Jean Raymond
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019
Extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) are on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a major public health problem. The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Involvement of the spine causes severe back pain and weakness in the lower extremities. We report 11 cases of TB spondylodiscitis, commonly referred to as Pott's disease, who presented to the internal medicine department at the Military Hospital of Gabon (HIA OBO)....
Frequency and Characterization Meningococcal Carriage Isolates, among Prisoner's Inmates from Mexico City
Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimsenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2019
Meningococcal disease in Mexico has a very low incidence; it is one of the countries with few reported cases as prevalence of the carrier state is unknown. Some studies have shown that many invasive meningococcal diseases are restricted to a specific number of hyper-virulent strains that contrast with carrier isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characterization of meningococcal carriage isolates among prisoner's inmates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained, Neisseri...
Epidemiological Notes about Bartonellosis Reactive Samples in Brazil
Maria de Fatima Goncalves Lopez Silva, Francisco Alexsandro Sousa Mesquita, Bidiah Mariano da Costa Neves and Stefan Vilges de Oliveira
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 21, 2019
artonellosis or Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is defined as an infectious, benign illness that in most cases results from the scratching, licking or biting of animals carrying the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This study aims at describing the epidemiological profile of serologically reactive samples between the years 2011 and December 2017 in Brazil. Official data from the requests for diagnostic tests registered in GAL (Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial/Laboratory Environment Manager) in the M...
Hepatitis B Core Antibody Prevalence among Voluntary Blood Donors in Thailand
Kriangsak Chaiwong, Wilawan Saekram, Panya Thunnok, Sineenart Oota, Sonu Bhatnagar and Ubonwon Charoonruangrit
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 03, 2019
Hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody is an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is an integral part of blood donor screening in many countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies among voluntary blood donors in Thailand and its significance to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. A total of 3,197 voluntary blood donor samples that were pre-screened non-reactive for HBs-Ag serology and HBV ID-NAT were tested for...
Influence of Seasonal Cattle Movement on Prevalence of Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2019
Animal African Trypanosomosis is a Neglected Tropical Disease with significant impacts to pastoral community livelihoods. Our study sought to determine the influence of seasonal cattle movements on the prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle in the pastoral areas of the Maasai Steppe. Identification of spatial and temporal dynamics of trypanosome infections in cattle is essential for designing effective control strategies. To identify potential hotspots of trypanosome transmission, we wor...
Assessing Risk Factors for Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in Wildlife Interface Areas in Northern Tanzania
Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 04, 2019
Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne, tropical disease that causes mortality and morbidity in livestock and humans. In this study we investigated the risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. We assessed the influence of age, sex, herd size and history of treatment against trypanosomosis as risk factors of trypanosome infection. Cattle blood samples were collected from 150 cattle in three villages in the vicinity of Tarangire National Park, which act...