Journal of

Infectious Diseases and EpidemiologyISSN: 2474-3658

Early Online

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510181

Personal Protection Equipment Utilization and Hand Hygiene Practice during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review

Azmeraw Bekele and Yimenu Yitayih

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2020

Personal protective equipment and instant hand hygiene found the most effective preventive measures during coronavirus disease-19 and their utilization should depend upon contact-droplet exposure. The aim of the review was to evaluate when, where, and how the personal protective equipment utilized and hand hygiene practiced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The following databases were searched using keywords and related browsing terms: PubMed Central, Ovid Medline via PubMed, Cochrane database, WHO ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510180

Hybrid Autopsy Virology Laboratory Experimental Platform

Izak B Dimenstein, MD, PhD, HT (ASCP)

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 11, 2020

The SARS-CoV-2 aerosols’ transmission route is not still settled. Along with epidemiology data, there is an urgent necessity for reliable reproducible experimental methods for virus aerosolization studies. The autopsy table can form part of a hybrid autopsy virology laboratory as an investigative platform equipped with the necessary instruments for SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization studies. Wide open mucosa surfaces COVID-19 deceased can be a field for studying under experimental manipulations of air ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510179

Small Viral Particle Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and Measles: Dual Pandemics, Outbreaks and Public Health Protection with the Use of Face Shields and Face Coverings

Cameron Y S Lee, DMD, MD, PHD, MPH, MSEd

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

As the Covid-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread globally, the influenza virus circulates in communities capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality. Further, measles outbreaks are common events as well and may trail right behind the coronavirus that causes Covid-19 and the influenza virus. Recent aerosol studies have now demonstrated that respiratory pathogens less than 5 micrometers are able to be transmitted from human-to-human capable of causing great morbidity and mortal...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510178

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-1 Infected Patients in a High Risk Border Region of South West Cameroon

Adamu Ndongho Ndifontiayong, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Jerimiah Mbogwe Ndimumeh, Jean Baptiste Sokoudjou, Jules-Roger Kuiate and Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

Coinfection of HIV with human retroviruses such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with adverse liver disease outcomes including reduced survival, cancer and antiretroviral induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) among HIV-infected individuals diagnosed within six months in South West Cameroon and identified risk factors of coinfection. We performed a systematic screenin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510177

Tocilizumab Improves Survival in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 continues to be the main objective of hundreds of scientific societies and world organizations, to mitigate the impact it has generated on the human race, and to seek a solution definite eradication. Recent research on the pathophysiological process generated by this disease in humans has identified key molecular aspects for the creation of vaccines, or the specific use of some medicines that can control the inflammatory process produced at the multi-systemic leve...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510176

High Mutation Rate in SARS-CoV-2: Will It Hit Us the Same Way Forever?

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic that currently plagues the world has infected over 37,601,848 people, killed 1,077,799 over people, and daily infects around 300,000 people. Different genomic studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 originated from the bat or the pangolin, however, these conclusions are not substantial and it remains a global priority to detail all the characteristics of this agent, looking to discover therapeutic targets, explain the pathophysiological process it produces in humans, and describe ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510175

Remdesivir Mortality Benefit in Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Review

Sydney Asselstine, MD, Kevin Ly, MD, Zeeshan Khan, MD and Nirav Shah, DO

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 18, 2020

COVID-19 has presented unprecedented challenges due to the sparse availability of information surrounding the novel virus; continuing to gather data on the disease is vital for preventing further devastation. Remdesivir has been introduced as a potential treatment for the viral disease. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of Remdesivir on mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. This observational study analyzed outcomes of ventilated COVID-19 positi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510174

A Rare Etiology for Injection Related Gluteal Abscess

Arunpandiyan Veerpandiyan, MBBS, DNB, Balaji Subramanian Srinivasa Sekaran, MBBS, Haji Mohammed Rahamathullah, MD and Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, MD

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: November 18, 2020

Chromoblastomycosis is a rare, chronic, indolent, granulomatous fungal infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by dematiaceous fungi. Chromoblastomycosis, though can be found throughout the world, is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Primary lesions appears as an erythematous papule or a warty growth that gradually enlarges to various forms and sizes. The infection most frequently affects lower extremities, especially feet and shins, but can rarely affect buttocks, tru...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510173

Self-Swab and Saliva Collection for the Diagnosis of Covid-19. What Do Patients Feel About Them?

Hwang SY, Tan SY, Tan PT and Siau C

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 07, 2020

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus being detected for tests for the illness COVID-19. The current gold standard for diagnosis of COVID-19 is a healthcare worker (HCW) performed nasopharyngeal (NP) swab. The IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America) suggests using nasopharyngeal, mid-turbinate, or nasal specimens rather than an oropharyngeal (or saliva) specimen because of limited data suggesting lower sensitivity with oropharyngeal specimens. However, subsequent studies have suggested that saliva speci...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510172

Infectious Diseases in Times of Conflict and War: The Loyal Companions

Isaac I, Malaeb M, Bou khalil A, Musharrafieh U and Bizri AR3

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: November 04, 2020

The association between war, conflict, massive force displacement and infectious diseases has long been established. The influx of large numbers of syrian refugees to Lebanon burdened the country’s infrastructure on several levels, including the public health sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association between certain reportable infectious diseases, and the presence of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Data, from non-governmental organizations and the Lebanese Ministry of Public H...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510171

Liver Abscess and Septic Pulmonary Dissemination by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Hispanic Male: A Case Report

Jorge Cardenas, Galit Balayla and Carlos I Bustamante

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2020

Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS) is a life-threatening condition with rising incidence across the globe. It is characterized by a monobacterial primary pyogenic liver abscess with or without additional dissemination. Some of the possible metastatic complications include endophthalmitis, lung nodules, meningitis, and potentially inflammation of any organ. Despite the wide distribution of common K. pneumoniae, invasive syndrome is often overlooked due to low incidence of hypervirulen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510170

Factors Associated with Not Being Tested for HIV among MSM Population in Bamako, Mali

Telly N, Sangho O, Ballo T, Maiga M, Lahuerta M, Padmaja P, Diawara F, Tounkara M, Traore B, Traoré S and Doumbia S

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 28, 2020

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are known to have a higher risk of being infected by HIV. Clinical and public health programs need to incorporate strategies to increase regular HIV testing among MSM in order to control and prevent new infections. A cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey among MSM in Bamako, Mali, was conducted using respondent- driven sampling to study factors associated with not being HIV tested in this vulnerable population. The study participants were ≥ 18-years-old and had ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510169

Probable Factors Contributing to the Fast Spread of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Ethiopia

Tekalign Kejela, Ph.D

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 17, 2020

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been a major public health trait across the world since its first emergence in Wuhan, China in 29th December 2019. The fact that the disease is new little has been known about the virus and factors contributing to the fast spread of the virus. WHO recommendations to control the spread of the virus are universal and needs contextualization further analysis of contributing factors at country level. Hence, countries across the globe implemented different control...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510168

Exposure Incidents and Outcome of Lassa Fever Virus (LASV) Infection among Healthcare Workers in Nigeria, 2019

Muhammad Saleh, Chioma Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Winifred Ukponu, Sandra Mba, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Adunola Oyegoke, Usman Adekanye, Moses Tuko, Lateefat Amao, Adebola Olayinka, Lois Olajide, Osahogie Edeawe, Ibrahim Maigari, Patrick Echekwube Damian Nwidi, John Oladejo, Elsie Ilori and Chikwe Ihekweazu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 15, 2020

Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Nigeria. Primary infection through exposure to excreta, urine or saliva of infected rodents is the most common mode of infection. There is documented evidence of human to human (HTH) transmission, especially among healthcare workers (HCWs) who are more at risk of nosocomial transmission in a hospital environment. In the 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria, eight percent of all cases occurred among HCWs. This paper describes the patterns of expos...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510167

An Examination of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers in a Highly Affected Region of the Bronx, New York City

Adetokunbo Obayemi, MD, Rita Roure, MD, Brittany Taylor, MD, Brian Altonen, MS, MPH, Akinola Fisher, MD and Victoria E Banuchi, MD, MPH

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 07, 2020

Health care workers (HCWs) have been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but this specific population’s infection risk remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of COVID-19 infection and associated predictors among select hospital staff in the Bronx, New York City. 919 SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR results were retrospectively reviewed from 890 HCWs seeking testing between March 18th and April 24th, 2020. Demographic data, job title, clinical history, PCR r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510166

Prevalence of Malaria and Typhoid Coinfection in Relation to Haematological Profile of University Students in Akure, Nigeria

IA Simon-Oke and MO Akinbote

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 05, 2020

A cross-sectional study was conducted on Two hundred students. Venous blood samples were collected for Widal and Malaria test. The Widal agglutination test was performed by the rapid slide titration method using commercial antigen suspension (Cal-Test Diagnostic Inc. Chino, U.S.A.) and Malaria diagnosis was carried out using antigen based- Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). Of the 200 examined students, 121 (60.5%) were positive for malaria and 161 (80.5%) were positive for typhoid fever. Male were mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510165

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic; Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Effectiveness of Infection Control and Prevention: Precautions in California

Gurparsad Singh Suri, Gurleen Kaur and Myle Akshay Kiran, MD, PharmD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 03, 2020

The emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have led to governments, and public health organizations offer advisory on effective preventive measures that must be adopted in disease prevention. An inadequate response could impact regions and countries significantly with the potential of collapsing the public health systems. The main challenge facing the containment efforts is the lack of effective measures for prevention. Public health response to prev...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510164

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Covid-19 among a Cross-Sectional Sample from Karachi, Pakistan: Descriptive Data

Naseem Ahmed, Wardah Hassan, Rabia Rasool, Usman Fahim, Ayesha Shakil and Kiran Shafiq Khan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2020

COVID-19, short for coronavirus disease 2019 is responsible for causing coronavirus disease that has been declared as a pandemic. On 30th January it was declared as the worldwide emergency crisis. It is very similar to its previous strain SARS-CoV that was known to cause an outbreak in 2002. Another strain MERS-CoV was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. COVID-19 is first identified in Wuhan, China then it spread to multiple countries and become a significant danger for the globe. On 26th ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510163

An Atypical Case Presentation of a Mammary Pseudotumor in a Young Moroccan Woman

Ilyas El Kassimi, Meryem Zaizaa, Nawal Sahel, Zakaria Toufga, Amine Kessab, Amal Baicha, Adil Rkiouak and Youssef Sekkach

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 24, 2020

Some tuberculosis locations are rare or even exceptional and mammary tuberculosis (MT) is the least frequent one among visceral locations. MT still presents difficulties both in its diagnosis and treatment. We’re reporting the case of a 24-years-old female patient, with no medical history, for instance, no tuberculosis contact. She was admitted for exploration of a fever associated to a general state deterioration, and arthralgia, the physical examination found a lump in her right breast, an e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510162

Modelling and Forecasting of COVID-19 in India

Pradeep Mishra, Abdullah Mohammad Ghazi Al Khatib, Iqra Sardar, Jamal Mohammed, M Ray, Manish Kumar, Deepa Rawat, SA Pandey, Anurag Dubey, Jos Feys and Kipkoech Rono

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 18, 2020

Novel corona virus (Covid-19) is biggest challenge for whole world. World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned this is epidemic.Data has been collected from 209 different individual situation reports of World health organization for Covid-19 in India. First compared the forecasting models on the basis minimum AIC, MAPE, MAE and then best model have been used for forecasting on the India epidemiological data to anticipate the epidemiological pattern of the prevalence. New and total deaths and occu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510161

Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report

Richard H Zou, MD, Vi Dam-Bao Nguyen, BS, Patrice A Zigrossi, MD, John M Beckham, MD, Brandon J Smith, MD, PharmD, Matthew J Gorgone, DO, Haris Zia, MD, Daniel Martinez Coconubo, MD, Michael S Landau, MD, Humberto E Trejo Bittar, MD, FACP, Roy W Semaan, MD, Georgios D Kitsios, MD, PhD and Christiane M Hadi, MD, MPH, MSc

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Classically, diagnosis relies on the combination of clinical history, exclusion of alternative infectious and neoplastic etiologies, and histopathologic confirmation of proliferating spindle cells staining positive for HHV-8. Tissue-based diagnosis requires bronchoscopy with biopsy and is associated with procedural complications, such as blee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510160

Ocular Manifestation of Lyme Disease: A Rare Case of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Nasha Elavia, Si Li, Yichen Wang, Ibitola Yusuf and John Weisenreider

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

A 63-year-old male from Northeastern Pennsylvania presented in fall with the complaint of sudden onset of blurred vision in the right eye. This was preceded by a history of Lyme arthritis diagnosed with positive immunoglobulin titers (IgG and IgM) on Western blot analyses of the synovial fluid four weeks ago. His past medical history was remarkable for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The sudden decrease in right eye visual acuity was moderate and reported at all distances. The patient denied an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510159

Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Virus: Are We Ready for Another Global Threat or Pandemic?

Mujahed I Mustafa, Ayman Ahmed and Abdelrafie M Makhawi

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 13, 2020

The currently developing devastating pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has took over the global attention. Meanwhile, another virus with high potentiality to grow into a global pandemic has emerged in China, where human infections of the strain genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus had been reported. However, fortunately human-to-human transmission was not detected yet but we need to keep an eye out for such potential scenario particularly that by the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510158

Mathematical Model for the Transmission of Covid-19 with Nonlinear Forces of Infection and the Need for Prevention Measure in Nigeria

Daniel Deborah O

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 13, 2020

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health; of which was reported to emerge in Wuhan, China at the end of the year 2019. It became alarming to Nigerians when Nigeria recorded her first index case in February 2020 in the city of Lagos which has led to a total number of 5162 confirmed cases, 1180 recovered with 167 death recorded as at May 14, 2020. This paper proposes a mathematical model SEIQCRW which adopt the SEIR model to study the current outbrea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510157

Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State, Nigeria

Afolabi Olajide Joseph

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 12, 2020

River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of Ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology which involve the use of structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510155

Genetic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis Occurring in Argentina from 1986 to 2016

Mónica Prieto, Claudia Martínez, Lucía Cipolla, Florencia Rocca and Rita Armitano

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2020

One case of pregnancy-related listeriosis was defined as a pregnant woman or newborn infant aged < 28 days from whom L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a sterile site such as the blood, placenta or cerebrospinal fluid. Based on epidemiological and clinical data available, cases were classified as: Maternal infection with ongoing pregnancy, fetal loss and live born neonatal listeriosis. Fetal loss was defined as the death of the fetus that occurred prior to the complete expulsion or removal ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510156

The Implications of Misconceptions about Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in Relation to its Daily Increases from Nigerian Perspective

Julius A Aminu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 05, 2020

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in the world especially in African continent and Nigeria in particular has created negative effects on humanity. Continuous holding on to some misconceptions about the reality of the virus among people may create further problems for humankind. However, very few studies particularly in Nigeria have actually considered the implications of these misconceptions about the disease in relation to its daily increases; coupled with the fact that many people still hold o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510154

Prevalence of Scabies and Associated Factors among Primary School Children in Raya Alamata District, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2017/2018

Sindayo Tefera, Molla Teferi, Assefa Ayalew, Tilahun Belete and Haven Hadush

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 03, 2020

Scabies is a skin infection that is a result of direct skin to skin contact and is primarily mediated by close and extended contact with scabies infested person. Scabies occurs worldwide among people of all ages, races, genders and social classes and has been identified as a neglected tropical infectious disease. Globally, it affects more than 130 million people at any time. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of scabies and associated factors among primary school children in Raya Alam...

Volume 6
Issue 5