Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic breeds. Mostly the disease is transmitted by direct contact. After it enters, goatpox virus replicates locally in the tissues. In endemic areas the morbidity rate reaches 70-90% whereas the mortality rate is up to 5-10% and approaches 100% in newly imported animals. In Ethiopia, the disease is distributed in all parts of the country and in endemic areas it is economically important due to lose of production, loss of weight, decreased milk yield, damage to hide and skin, cause abortion and expose to other diseases, while also being a direct cause of death. Diagnosis of SGP depends on clinical signs, laboratory confirmation and post mortem examinations. Sheeppox and goatpox require an urgent and precise laboratory confirmation as the diseases are severe and contagious. Samples for test must be collected during the first week of illness. Sheeppox and goatpox (SGP) disease can affect trade, import export and intensive production of animals. Since the disease has no effective treatment, control measure is targeted by effective vaccination and limitation of animal movement and their products between different nations. Even though live attenuated vaccine has been produced at National veterinary institute in Ethiopia, there is low coverage of vaccination throughout the country.