International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research is an open access peer reviewed journal that publishes articles on all aspects of pathology. This journal covers varies fields of pathology such as surgical pathology, molecular pathology, anatomic pathology, immunopathology and many more. The major focus of clinical research included patient outcome, new findings and also treatment responses pathological diseases.
International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research welcome submissions in the form original articles, research, reviews, cases, commentaries, reports, and short communications etc., covering the information on pathology. All the submitted articles pass through a rapid peer - review process before publication, which ensures the high quality of published work.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510086
Аliev VA, Semenyutin VB and Panuntsev GK
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 08, 2019
The choice of treatment of carotid artery stenosis is firstly based on assessment of the degree of stenosis and embologeneity of the atherosclerotic plaque. But even in "good-risk" population it is still difficult to identify the patients who are particularly at high threat of stroke and would most benefit from carotid reconstruction. Along with common criteria numerous studies also focus on a prognostic role of a cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) and its state which allows to carry out more objecti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510085
Lineu Perrone Jr, Felipe Perozzo Daltoe, Luiz Carlos Areas Araujo, Fabio Daumas Nunes, Marina Helena Cury Gallottini and Andrea Mantesso
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 14, 2019
Mobius syndrome (MBS) is a rare congenital neurological disorder typically characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the 6th and 7th cranial nerves, causing a loss of facial expression and strabismus. Other cranial nerves may be affected in addition to other structures such as the jaw, limbs, and anterior chest. While the primary cause of MBS has not yet been identified different hypotheses have been enumerated, including a possible genetic alteration. The Hoxb1 gene may be a good cand...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510084
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Phillip Taderera Bwititi and Ross Stuart Richards
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: December 13, 2018
Plasma D-dimer data are often not normally distributed. In the research setting, such data is non-parametric and statistical analysis is often based on log-transformed data. In the clinical pathology, results are not transformed, but interpreted as it is. Plasma D-dimer data are often not normally distributed. In the research setting, such data is non-parametric and statistical analysis is often based on log-transformed data. In the clinical pathology, results are not transformed, but interprete...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510083
Nwose EU, Bwititi PT and Chalada MJ
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 12, 2018
H2O2 is supposed to be part of the laboratory test panel for assessment of oxidative stress. This molecule contributes to oxidative stress by reacting with Fe2+ ions to produce hydroxyl radicals. Anticoagulants, including citrate and EDTA chelate Fe2+, possibly have implications in oxidative stress studies especially when H2O2 is measured. This brief commentary is on the measurability of H2O2 in citrated and EDTA blood samples....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510082
Vanessa Szablewski, Natacha Merindol, Sophie Ballazin, Valerie Costes-Martineau and Nathalie Bonnefoy
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 08, 2018
Twist1 expression was investigated by both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and immunohistochemistry in 8 samples from reactive lymphoid tissues, 38 samples from DLBCL and 25 samples from FL patients. Results were correlated with clinicopathologic features. Both RT-QPCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased Twist1 in DLBCL and FL in comparison to benign lymph nodes, where only stromal cells expressed Twist1. Tw...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510081
Raid Jastania and Tahani Nageeti
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 22, 2018
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common neoplasm of the female genital tract. Although immunohistochemical methods have been used for detecting several biomarkers for several cancer types, this method is still underutilized in EC. We conducted this review to identify the currently available published evidence to support the utilization of immunohistochemical for p53 protein overexpression as prognostic and predictive biomarkers of disease outcomes in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510080
Esra Polat, Yasemin Ozluk and Cagla Karaoglan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 12, 2018
Polyposis disorders of the bowel in the pediatric population are associated with elevated risks of various cancers. The most common sites of the malignancies were the gastrointestinal system, breast, gynecological organs, testis, pancreas and lung. Testicular lesions are often overlooked as PJS predominantly appear in females. A 9-year-old boy was presented to gastroenterology policlinic due to pallor. He had a history of diagnostic laparotomy wh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510079
Ming Xie, Mary Wyrzykowski and Hongwei Ma
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with shared gene mutations, excess blood production and wide range of clinicopathological changes. JAK2, CALR and MPL gene mutation study has become one of the major criteria in the diagnosis of MPNs. This study focused on the common laboratory findings in patients with genetically proven MPNs at age 50 and younger with clinical correlation and follow up. There were ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510078
Jolanta Jedrzkiewicz, Mary P Bronner, Mohamed E Salama, Jessica Kohan, Leslie R Rowe, Dean Tai, Elisabeth Malmberg and Erinn Downs-Kelly
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The progression of fibrosis in liver disease is the single most important pathologic process guiding patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Unfortunately, its histologic assessment is subjective, descriptive and non-quantitative. A more objective and uniform method is needed to assess fibrosis in order to optimize patient care. To that end, we employed two new quantitative imaging technologies to evaluate fibrosis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510077
Archana Lakshmanan, Ann Kurian and Annapurneswari Subramanyan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018
Goblet cell carcinoids are distinct neoplasms with combined histologic features of carcinoid and adenocarcinoma with the intermediate prognosis. They are initially thought to arise only from the appendix, however, in the recent past, a few cases have been described in extra appendiceal locations. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine tumors of the stomach are uncommon and that including Goblet cell carcinoid component is exceedingly rare. We report a case of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510076
Ban Sulaiman, Iram Naaz and Anne Crotty
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018
Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract are very rare. Primary and secondary oesophageal lymphoma account for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. Secondary oesophageal involvement is by contiguous spread from the stomach or surrounding lymph nodes. Patients with oesophageal lymphoma have varying presentations and complications which include perforation with a tracheo-oesophageal fistula, mass and haemorrhage....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510075
Carmela Conte, Michela Codini and Elisabetta Albi
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 19, 2018
In nuclear membrane, the precise relation among these lipids is responsible for maintenance of normal fluidity in no stimulated cells. During rat liver regeneration, in which the cells are stimulated to proliferate, lipid composition and consequently fluidity of nuclear membranes modify, favoring an increase of mRNA transport that...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510074
Sana Firdous, Anjaneyulu, Daphne Fonseca, Sudha Murthy, Sundaram Challa and CK Naidu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 14, 2018
DCIS is a premalignant condition characterized by proliferation of neoplastic cells within the ducts with intact myoepithelial cell layer and when there is a breach in myoepithelial cell layer it indicates invasion and in both these condition treatment protocols and prognosis is different. Myoepithelial markers can be used to identify breach and hence invasion....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510073
Hemlata Panwar, T Santosh, Bharti Kumari, Vandita Singh and RK Ramchandani
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 03, 2018
Tubercular mastitis is a great masquerader and is an extremely rare entity as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis even in endemic countries like India and incidence accounts for 4% of breast lesions. We report a case of primary TB of breast in a elderly female presenting as diffuse upper left breast lump with indurated and ulcerated overlying skin along with retraction of nipple. Clinically suspicion was of abscess and duct ectasia. Fine needle aspirati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510072
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos
Article Type: Letter To Editor | First Published: September 03, 2018
Malignant melanoma represents up to 5% of cutaneous cancers, but up to 75% of the cases have fatal outcomes. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the impressive mortality rate of this ominous malignancy. Both amelanotic and melanotic melanoma may be associated with delayed clinical suspicion and late diagnosis, harmful occurrence that may be related to lack of awareness of health care workers or unusual site of the tumors. The manuscripts herein commented described exceeding rare ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510071
Maria Sol Peremateu, Maria Lucrecia Absi, Maria Celeste Sluga, Alejandra Wernicke and Claudia Marchitelli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 29, 2018
Though long considered to be ectopic breast tissue representing the caudal remnants of the milk ridges, anogenital mammary-like glands are nowadays believed to represent a normal constituent of the anogenital area. Lesions involving these glands are histologically similar to their mammary counterparts and can develop the same benign and malignant tumors as the normally located breast. Because of their infrequent presentation, they represent a cha...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510070
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018
The case study of a non-small cell lung carcinoma confirmed by complete necropsy study is reported in an old man with apathetic hyperthyroidism, atrial fibrillation and heart failure. The authors emphasize diagnostic challenges related to effects of hyperthyroidism on nutritional status versus under nutrition caused by unsuspected development of a coexistent malignancy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510069
Yongjun Zhang, Dehou Deng and Wenlong Bao
Article Type: Perspective Article | First Published: June 11, 2018
C3orf21 (chromosome 3 open reading frame 21), also known as xyloside xylosyltransferase 1 (XXYLT1), is located on chromosome 3q29. C3orf21 belongs to the glycosyltransferase 8 family, furthermore, it is a retaining glycosyltransferase. In the extracellular domain of target proteins, XXYLT1 catalyzes addition of the second sylose, and then elongates the O-linked xylose-glucose disaccharide attached to EGF-like repeats. XXYLT1 negatively regulates ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510068
Improvement in the Selection of Patients for Anti-PD1 Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Analyzing Tumor Mutational Burden and Retrotransposon Activity as Possible New Biomarker of Effectiveness
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 30, 2018
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death. Most patients are diagnosed during the late stages of the disease in several tumors. Unfortunately, current treatment options are limited. Habitually, patients receive first- or second-line chemotherapy and a few patients (5-7%) are candidates for treatment with target agents, that eventually go on to develop resistance to these agents....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510067
Arti Easwar, Dion Middleton and Saverio Ligato
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 26, 2018
Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma (DGP) is a rare neoplasm usually found in the second portion of the duodenum and comprised of epithelioid neuroendocrine cells, Schwann cell-like spindle cells, and ganglion cells. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with a duodenal mass discovered incidentally during a staging PET scan for an oropharyngeal carcinoma. An ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) of the lesion revealed fascicles of spindle...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510066
Luis Fernando Antunes Pinheiro, Leonardo Fleury Orlandini, Mariana Scombatti Filipe, Jose Antonio Cordeiro and Patricia Maluf Cury
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 07, 2018
Relationship between environmental pollution and lung cancer has not been fully clarified. There are particles with aerodynamic mass below 2.5 m, capable of directly injuring the lung due to their small size. The majority arise from the burning of fossil combustibles, and are called "residual oil fly ash" (ROFA). They have been demonstrated to damage cells in different ways; however, their relationship with lung cancer etiology has not been clari...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510065
M Nadeem Ahmed, Debby Vannoy, Ann Frederick and Xuan Bi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 20, 2018
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most commonly treated bacterial infections in ambulatory care clinics and emergency departments (ED). The management of UTIs has been complicated by the emergent resistance to most commonly prescribed antibiotics causing increased patient morbidity, cost of reassessment and retreatment, and rates of hospitalization....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510064
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 03, 2018
Cutting injuries and needle-stick injuries constitute a potentially fatal danger to pathologists. We evaluated such injuries in four french university anatomic pathology laboratories and analyzed the effect of the using of cut-resistant gloves to prevent these injuries....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510063
Jahnier Andres Caicedo Martinez and Carlos Arturo Iregui Castro
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 16, 2017
Intraepithelial Lesions (IELs) are focal outgrowths of the Mammary Gland (MG), some of which are considered early precursors of tumors. The early detection of IELs has improved the survival rate in women. IELs in female canines have been proposed as a comparative model of IELs in humans....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510062
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos
Article Type: short commentary | First Published: November 13, 2017
Nail involvement by pemphigus vulgaris is uncommon and has been associated with the severity of disease. Paronychia, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, nail hemorrhages, cross riding, discoloration, hyperkeratosis, pitting, pterygium, onychodystrophy, onycholysis, onychorrhexis, onychoschizia and trachyonychia have been reported. These nail disorders may appear before, concomitantly or after the typical manifestations of pemphigus flare ups....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510061
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos
Article Type: COMMENTARY | First Published: October 26, 2017
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a severe malignant condition with a median survival lower than one year, and a five-year survival rate of about 30%, including tumors resected at early stage. Recurrences within two years occur in up to 80% of the resected tumors. More than two thirds of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomas have single site of metastases, mainly affecting the liver, lungs, bones and brain, by decreasing order of frequency....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510060
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Rafaela Pinheiro Weiber, Rosana Aparecida Rodrigues Cardoso, Mariely Fernanda da Silva Helbingen and Bruno César Rodrigues do Amaral
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 25, 2017
Cerebral venous thrombosis is not a frequent condition and may follow unsuspected, with unspecific manifestations. Neuroimaging studies are mandatory in differential diagnosis, which includes arterial strokes and other benign and malignant causes of intracranial hypertension, headaches, seizures, and hemiparesis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510059
Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Jacqueline Garcia Duarte and Débora d'Ávila Reis
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 13, 2017
The pathogenesis of megaesophagus in chronic Chagas disease, which is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is compelling. Individuals with megaesophagus often present achalasia and disturbances of peristalsis and neuronal loss....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510058
Eric Ewing, Jeffrey B Jorgensen, Benjamin F Erhardt and Lester J Layfield
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2017
Malignant melanomas of the nasal mucosa represent approximately 1% of all melanomas and reported examples often arise in areas of pigmentation of the nasal mucosa. Melanin pigmentation has been reported to occur in the nasal glands and dendritic cells but melanomas arising from areas of pigmented (melanocyte containing) nasal glands have not been reported to our knowledge....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510057
Santiago Ortiz and Francisco Tortosa
Article Type: Clinical Images | First Published: June 16, 2017
Endometrioid adenofibroma is a benign epithelial and stromal tumor with an endometrioid epithelial component. Less than 20% of the surface epithelial tumors of the ovary have endometrioid differentiation. The majority of endometrioid ovarian neoplasms are carcinomas and the benign form is rarely find....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510056
Palmieri B, Laurino C and Vadala Maria
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 05, 2017
The "Second Opinion Medical Network" is a consultation referral web and Medical Office System involving a wide panel of specialists to which patients affected by different diseases not adequately satisfied in terms of diagnosis and treatment can submit records and data for a clinical update....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510055
Keng-Thye Woo, Choong-Meng Chan, Stephanie Fook-Chong, Cynthia Lim, Jason Choo, Hui-Lin Choong, Suhail Mohamad, Han-Kim Tan, Kok-Seng Wong and Marjorie Foo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 29, 2017
This is a 6 year retrospective analysis of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Combined Aliskiren (150 mg a day) and Losartan (100 mg a day) in non Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this Second (2nd) Phase study was to ascertain the proportion of patients who would remain in remission for the next 3 years and for those who had a relapse of proteinuria after stopping treatment in order to decide when would be an o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510054
Wanderley de Souza and Emile Barrias
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2017
Significant advances have recently occurred in the identification and characterization of different types of microvesicles released by eukaryotic cells into the extracellular space. Exosomes are one such type of these vesicles they originate from multivesicular bodies and have received much attention....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510053
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 12, 2017
Lymphangiomas are benign congenital malformations characterized by an abnormal dilatation and proliferation of lymphatic spaces, which are found predominantly in children. Symptomatic mesenteric cyst accounts for only 1 in 20,000 in acute pediatric admission. We describe hereby a case of a previously healthy 6-year-old girl who presented acute three-day pain localized over the right upper abdominal quadrant due to intestinal obstruction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510052
Investigation of the Relationship between Malignant Tumors Originated from Peritoneal and Müllerian Epithelium with the Primary and Secondary Müllerian Systems-Immunohistochemical Analysis with Six Markers
Ayse Ciftci, Handan Aker and Hatice Ozer
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 20, 2017
The origin of ovarian epithelial tumors is still indistinct. Müllerian and coelomic hypothesis are controversial. Recently, there is also a small number of reports that tubo-peritoneal junction may play an important role in the development of tubo-ovarian tumors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between tumors originating from Mullerian epithelium and peritoneal mesothelium, in other words primary and secondary Müllerian syst...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510051
Nimrat Grewal, Marie-Jose Goumans, Marco C DeRuiter, Robert JM Klautz, Robert E Poelmann, Barbara JM Mulder, Ad JJC Bogers, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 20, 2017
Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) have increased susceptibility for development of aortopathy. In the heart, epicardial cells expressing Wilms tumor suppressor protein (Wt1) are known to become activated after myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that epicardium covering the aorta might show a similar response in BAV and MFS in pathologic conditions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510050
Andrew F Gao, David Ramsay, Richelle Twose, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Charles Tator and Lili-Naz Hazrati
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 12, 2017
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurocognitive decline and abnormal neuronal and glial deposition of hyperphosphorylated-tau in a pattern distinct from other tauopathies. These changes are hypothesized to occur following repeated mild traumatic brain injury. We report a case of CTE-like neuropathological changes, and features of motor neuron disease in a patient without history of either head...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510049
Kanae Nosaka, Hiroaki Komatsu, Tetsuro Oishi, Yasushi Horie, Tasuku Harada and Yoshihisa Umekita
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 28, 2016
Dedifferentiation of leiomyosarcoma is a rare phenomenon that associates pleomorphic histology and loss of smooth muscle differentiation. Although the leiomyosarcoma is well known sarcoma in the uterus, and the dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma is well recognized in the soft parts, there are only a few reports of dedifferentiation of leiomyosarcoma in the uterus. Herein we present a case of dedifferentiated uterine leiomyosarcoma and discuss its re...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510048
Priyanka Raheja, Pavel Olivera, Veronica Pons, Mercedes Perez, Joan Balcells, Romy Rossich and Amparo Santamaria
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 31, 2016
Thrombotic storm (TS) is a rare life-threatening entity that is characterized by multiple thrombotic events affecting diverse vascular sites occurring over a short period of time (days to weeks). We describe a case of a young boy who developed extensive and rapidly progressive thrombosis which required intensive treatment that included the use of triple antithrombotic therapy, pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, systemic thrombolytic therapy, and th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510047
Sornsupha Limchareon, Chomsorn Suparuxjinda and Varachaya Sawasdeemongko
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 30, 2016
Jejunal diverticulitis with complication is a rare entity. Diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. A case of 46-year-old female with acute upper abdomen is presented. Computed tomography demonstrated jejunal perforation with abscess formation. Operative findings revealed perforating jejunal diverticulitis with abscess formation. Though jejunal diverticulitis is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of jejunal perforation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510046
Meizhuo Gao, Tie Wang, Lining Tian and Jinlu Zhao
Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: October 30, 2016
Duodeno-colic fistula is an unnatural connect between the duodenum and the colon, which occurs rarely with the onset in the middle-aged. This report summarized the clinical manifestation and surgical treatment of the sixth case of spontaneous duodenum-colic fistula and reviewed the published other five cases....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510045
Ana Karina Marques Salge, Maria TheresaCeravolo Laguna Abreu, Janaina Valadares Guimaraes, Fabiola de Azevedo Mello, Renata Calciolari Rossi e Silva, Douglas Reis Abdalla, George Kemil Abdalla, Thaila Correa Castra, Marilia Cordeirode Souza, Livia Roberta Rodrigues Conceicao and Eumenia Costa da Cunha Castro
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 03, 2016
Pregnancy during adolescence is a high-risk condition that prompts research interest due to frequent obstetrics complications in this age group. We aimed to identify potentially significant hematologic alterations in parturient adolescent patients at a public hospital in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil. Data from the medical charts of 45 parturient adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) seen from 2013-2014 were analyzed, including their hemogram results,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510044
Evangeli S Lampri, Anna C Goussia and Niki J Agnantis
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2016
Many models of multistage tumorigenesis have been proposed to explain the conversion of a normal cell into a neoplastic one. In addition to all genetic and epigenetic changes, angiogenesis is necessary for the growth and expansion of tumors. Besides, no neoplastic lesion could not exceed the size of 2 mm if not supported by a rich vascular network....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510043
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2016
One of the malignant forms of pleomorphic adenomas (PA) is carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CA-ex-PA). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is an uncommon malignant tumor with high aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. However, there are a few studies in this topic in the recent literature. Furthermore, the lesions are uncommon and often have a difficult diagnosis by clinicians and pathologists, because the residual small PA component and various ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510042
Andrew L Walls, Lavinia P Middleton, Adel K El-Naggar and Aysegul A Sahin
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 31, 2016
Salivary and mammary glands share common ontology, but variable prevalence of tumor subtype frequency. Common primary salivary gland-type tumors are rare and less recognized in breast. Analogous to primary basaloid salivary tumors, basaloid mammary carcinomas, as in primary salivary, exhibit a spectrum of features from benign to malignant. The rarity and unfamiliarity of these tumors may lead to diagnostic and management challenges....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510041
Xiaopeng Yan, Liang Han, Xuemin Liu, Lin Fan, Zheng Wu and Yi Lv
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: June 30, 2016
Operation notes are a very important part of a patient's medical record. They not only record the operation process during the surgery, but also objectively describe the organs lesions. They play a useful role in the referral disease communication, pathological diagnosis, medical practice education, and cases review. However, the current operation notes are hand-written texts therefore many deficiencies as follows: 1. It is difficult to describe ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510040
Franciane da Silva Franca, Rodrigo Zeni Cora, Helena Cristina Ferreira Franz and Flavia Martinello
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 30, 2016
Objective: Evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol, without the addition of cholic acid in the initial stage of carcinogenesis and on the bifidobacteria into the colon. Methods: Rats were grouped according to their diets and dimethylhydrazine treatment (DMH): standard diet (CN); CN + cholesterol 1% (CHOL); CN + DMH (CNDMH) and CN + cholesterol 1% + DMH (CHOLDMH). After eight weeks of treatment were analyzed weight gain, faecal pH, lipid profi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510039
Masayuki Sekine, Risa Kudo, Sosuke Adachi, Manako Yamaguchi, Yutaka Ueda, Tomomi Takata, Akiko Morimoto, Yusuke Tanaka, Asami Yagi, Etsuko Miyagi and Takayuki Enomoto
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 30, 2016
Cervical cancer has been increasing in younger generation, especially in 20's and 30's, so it has been a serious problem that the disease leads to loss of fertility as an urgent issue in Japan. HPV vaccine was added to the national list of routine vaccinations for Japanese girls aged 12 to 16 years by law since April, 2013. Three months later, however, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare suspended recommendations for HPV vaccinat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510038
Trisevgeni Ntinioti, Georgia-Heleni Thomopoulou, Eugene Danas, Nikolaos G Kavantzas, Emmanuel Agapitos and Andreas C Lazaris
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: May 25, 2016
In injured tissues, the repair of the extracellular matrix is organized by activated myofibroblasts. The latter cells support harmonious mechanical tissue organization. At the end of the normal repair process, myofibroblasts disappear by apoptosis but in pathological situations, myofibroblasts likely remain leading to excessive scarring. The eyelids are movable folds of tissue the core of which is represented by a tarsal plate, composed of dense ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510037
Hans Hoerauf, Philipp Steven and Nicolas Feltgen
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2016
A patient with an atypical retinal arterial macroaneurysm masked by a persistent vitreous haemorrhage mimicking a neoplasm is presented. During vitrectomy a pigmented peripapillary tumour located at large vessels with circinate lipid exsudates was detected. Examination of removed tissue revealed haemosiderin-loaded macrophages resulting in pigmentation. The histologic finding of phagocytosis of intraretinal blood remnants allowed to diagnose an a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510036
Ryan C Romano, Wonwoo Shon, Sarah M Jenkins and Karen J Fritchie
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 25, 2016
Twenty dermatologic biopsy specimens from 14 patients (9 adults and 5 children) were retrieved. All cases were immunostained with BRAF mutation-specific antibody. Selected BRAF V600E IHC-positive cases were analyzed for BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. Clinical parameters were correlated with IHC status. BRAF V600E protein overexpression was identified in 15 of 20 (75%) cases (9/14 patients; 5 adults and 4 children). All pediatric patients ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510035
Sabine Kersting, Dirk Kusche, Klaus-PeterJung and Eugen Berg
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2016
The authors present a case of a 68-years-old woman suffering of persistent urinary tract infections accompanied by intermittent fever. She had a history of pelvic organ prolapse suspension (POPS) for descending perineal syndrome with rectal prolapse, carried out elsewhere 15 months ago. Cystoscopy revealed a part of the prolene mesh that was incrusted along the fundus of the bladder to be the source of symptoms. This is probably the first case th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510034
Yahya M Kurdi, Sergey Brodsky and Martha Yearsley
Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: April 30, 2016
A 34-year-old Caucasian female presented with headache, fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and dehydration. She admitted to intravenous abuse of "melted" Opana ER tablets (extended-release oral formulation of oxymorphone hydrochloride). Noted clinical signs included tachycardia, tachypnea, and trace peripheral edema. Abnormal laboratory tests included low creatinine clearance, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet. Histological studies of hepatorenal b...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510033
Justin Bateman, Celeste Morley, Bruce F. Burns and Shahid Islam
Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: April 01, 2016
The patient is a 54 year-old male who presented in January 2015 with increasing dyspnea and weight loss over several months, eventually requiring intubation and admission to ICU for respiratory failure. He had a remote history of testicular seminoma and 'melanoma'. A trans-bronchial Wang needle aspirate biopsy of the right sub-carinal lymph node was preformed and showed sheets of large malignant cells with pleomorphic nuclei, multiple prominent n...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510032
Shou-Tung Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Yu-Wei Leu and Shu-Huei Hsiao
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2016
Inheritable epigenetic modifications, like histone modifications and DNA methylation, were once considered somatically stable and tissue-specific, yet accumulating evidence suggests the contrary. Environmental encounters are transduced into the cell through signaling pathways and these signals are relayed to the nucleus and memorized as epigenetic marks on target genes. Signaling-specific epigenomic changes provide selectable outlines for further...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510031
Ola H Negm, James C Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Alain Pitiot, Patrick J Tighe, Cedric Marchessoux and Mohammad Ilyas
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: April 01, 2016
Biomarker studies are notorious for their high failure rate. Despite huge investment by both academia and industry, very few biomarkers make the transition from interesting laboratory data to tests with clinical utility. The reasons for this are manifold. Some biomarkers are "true" biomarkers inasmuch as they are robust and reproducible but the information they provide does not help to improve patient management beyond that informed by traditiona...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510030
Ahmed Abdullah Alhumidi
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: March 29, 2016
This is a retrospective study in which thirty histopathological specimens of fibroepithelial polyp (skin tag) were examined. Their paraffin blocks were collected from the archives of the Pathology Department, king khalid University hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2010 to 2012. Age of the patient, sex, and site, of the lesions as well as type of skin tag were recorded. Sections from each paraffin block were cut by a microtom...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510029
Graziela Biude Silva, Bruna Zavarize Reis and Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly involves synovial joints and affects up to 2% of adults worldwide. Poor nutrient status in RA patients has been reported and some drug therapies, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prescribed to alleviate RA symptoms, may increase the requirement for some nutrients and reduce their absorption. The importance of micronutrients in this disease is rela...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510028
Chen Chen and Jianfeng Li
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016
In recent years, serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) has attracted considerable attention in tumor biology. STK33 displays a heterogenous expression pattern, and in most tissues, expression level is low. It belongs to the CAMK family, and differentiates itself from other members of the CAMK family due to its expression pattern. STK33 is likely to participate in the dynamic changes of intermediate filament cytoskeleton depolymerization by phosphory...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510027
Chih-Cheng Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Kuan-Der Lee, Chia-Chen Chiu, Hong-Chi Chen, Tim H.-M. Huang, Yu-Wei Leu and Shu-Huei Hsiao
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016
The lineage/clonal selection theory for cellular transformation may help identify the effector genes whose functions are crucial for MPN tumorigenesis. MPNs originate from hematopoietic stem cells carrying compartmental mutations such as JAK2V617F. JAK2 signaling regulates target gene expression by altering the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STATs. To provide selectable gene expression that promotes transformation of certain cellular...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510026
Alexander E. Berezin
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 26, 2016
The low-intense inflammation is discussed as a one of the clue of various faces of pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) including insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipotoxity, oxidation injury that contributed in cardiovascular (CV) disease and clinical outcomes. However, there are a lot of candidates for on early biological marker that could stratify DM patients at CV risk. The myeloid-related protein 8/14 known as calprotectin is...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510025
Estela S. Estape
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 26, 2016
The science of translation has been taken over very fast by health stakeholders such as: investors, shareholders, sponsors, practitioners or any interested party in healthcare. The main reason is the demand to transfer discoveries faster to the ones who are in most need: the participants or patients. Translation can be seen as the art of transferring scientific knowledge into evidenced based everyday practice; paving the way to increased effectiv...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510024
Ng Wai Yoong and Yeo Chin Pin
Article Type: Perspective | First Published: February 26, 2016
Laboratory services in Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a national referral centre, acute tertiary and teaching hospital has changed through the years with its beginning since 1821 and as a modern hospital in 1926. An opportunity to design new facilities to transform the delivery of clinical tests and embrace future challenges came up with the confirmation of a new purpose-built Pathology building in 2009....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510023
George Dimogerontas, Alexia Polissidis, Petros Karkalousos, Epameinondas Konstantinidis, Zeta Papadopoulou-Daifoti and Charis Liapi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 07, 2016
Glioma, a malignant intra-axial brain tumor, can release glutamate that facilitates tumor expansion, stimulates tumor-cell proliferation and motility and promotes epileptic activity. Glutamate acid is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian Central Nervous System. We explore correlations of glutamate concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with glioma in comparison to patients with meningioma which is the most c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510022
Hiroshi Tada, Kohsuke Gonda, Minoru Miyashita and Noriaki Ohuchi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 03, 2016
Assessing breast cancer tissues for expression of multiple biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67, provides critical information for patient management. However, the predictive power of these biomarkers for the selection of personalized therapeutic approaches is still limited. Application of fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) has offered some promi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510021
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 01, 2016
Synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity are regulated by neuronal activity to form efficient neuronal networks based on somatosensory inputs or behavioral experiences. Enhanced neuronal activity triggers reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in presynaptic compartments and induces coordinated changes in apposed postsynaptic density with actin dynamics. Numerous cell-adhesion molecules are involved in these processes, and classical cadherins are ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510020
Hussam F Tallab, David E Ricklan and Peter J Catalano
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 29, 2016
True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary gland origin are exceedingly rare and demonstrate malignant epithelial and stromal components. The subject of this case study is a 61 year-old male who presented with mild left facial swelling with minimal discomfort and without a mass of the parotid gland. He underwent CT imaging which demonstrated a cystic lesion of the parapharyngeal space. CT guided fine needle aspiration of the lesion...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510019
Antonio Proenca Caetano, Ines de Figueiredo, Francisco Tortosa, Anabela Ferrao and Cristina Ferreira
Article Type: Case Report and Review of Literature | First Published: January 08, 2016
Sea-blue Histiocyte Syndrome (SBHS) is a rare and poorly understood systemic histiocytosis that is sometimes associated with haematological and lipid storage diseases as well as other miscellaneous conditions, but in most cases its cause is unknown. Patients often have very disparate clinical features but share the same histological findings of sea-blue histiocytosis in the bone marrow, i.e. characteristic lipid-laden macrophages with deep-blue o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510018
Michael J. Whalen and Michael B. Rothberg
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 06, 2016
Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been identified as an adverse pathological feature predictive of higher rates of biochemical recurrence, distant metastasis, and cancer-specific mortality compared to negative margins. Such observations underlie the rationale for adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced disease or positive margins. Even without adjuvant radiotherapy, however, not all patients who have a positive m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510017
Shoichi D. Takekawa
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2015
Pathology and radiology have become pivotal in the clinical practice of daily medicine. Diagnostic radiology and pathology are indeed indispensable wheels of medical practice. Clinicians achieve tentative diagnoses based on laboratory data and medical images in addition to their physical findings and patient medical history. Based on all available findings and on patient characteristics, clinicians finally decide on further therapeutic management...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510016
Hind M. Alkatan and Abdul Elah A. Al-Abdullah
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2015
Xanthogranulomatous ocular and periocular lesions in adults have been reported in 3 main forms: adult-onset xanthogranuloma (AXG), necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease. The three forms differ in regards to laterality, systemic associations, and prognosis. NXG is a rare chronic progressive disease considered to be systemic with mostly asymptomatic internal organ involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations include conjunctival,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510015
Safia N Salaria and Elizabeth Montgomery
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
Colorectal lesions termed squamous morules or microcarcinoids display predominantly squamous and variable endocrine differentiation and are often found in colorectal adenomas with high grade dysplasia thus mimicking invasion. Herein, we describe histopathologic, immunohistochemical classification and clinical correlation of analogous lesions in the esophagus and stomach. We identified five cases (3 men, 2 women) from November 2004-March 2013 of g...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510014
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
Understanding the cancer stem cells (CSCs) role in malignancy is based on a comprehensive understanding of normal stem cells role and plasticity in maintaining the normal homeostasis or regeneration in various organ tissues. The niche microenvironment that sustains and regulates stem cells is tightly regulated by physical factors and hormonal signals. In the central nervous system (CNS) malignancy the CSCs niche is deregulated by intrinsic and ex...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510013
Joost H Van Ginkel, Manon MH Huibers, Rob Noorlag, Remco de Bree, Robert JJ van Es and Stefan M Willems
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely based on disease stage. Despite improvements in treatment, recurrence rates are still considered high. Currently, disease progression or regression after curative treatment is monitored by clinical evaluation combined with flexible endoscopy and/or imaging....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510012
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 28, 2015
The four principles of medical ethics that so often appear in the literature encourage physicians to uphold them whenever possible. We are to respect the autonomy of our patients, try to bring them clinical benefit, refrain from harming them, and to be just and fair....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510011
Charles Joseph Haddad, Judella Haddad Lacle and Charles Michael Haddad
Article Type: Case report | First Published: October 04, 2015
Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva is also known as Progressive Pigmentary Dermatitis or Schamberg's Disease. It is a disorder causing skin discoloration on the trunk and extremities, and is a lymphocytic capillaritis of unknown etiology. The disease can occur at any age. It is important to be aware of this disorder since it can mimic other diseases and problems including child and elder abuse, thrombocytopenia purpura....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510010
Husayn Al Mahdy
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 11, 2015
This article provides an overview of coroner's autopsies in England with the aim of improving the service and hence provide accurate death certification as well as a learning experience for clinicians caring for patients. The system that has evolved has neither improved the service nor has it led to a learning experience for the clinicians. Compatibility of clinical features ante-mortem combined with post-mortem findings are lacking and involveme...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510009
D. Cortes Guira,, MJ Fernandez-Acenero, Damian Garcia-Olmo and C. Pastor Idoate
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2015
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a widely used therapeutic option for patients with resectable hepatic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. In this setting, the intent of NAC is to reduce metastatic size and make surgery easier and/or less extensive, mostly in patients that are amenable to surgery. Several studies confirm that response to neoadjuvant therapy is indicative of a better prognosis for such patients and several methods have been pro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510008
Elena Arabadzhieva, Sasho Bonev, Lyubomira Dimitrova, Atanas Yonkov, Dimitar Bulanov, Vesela Ivanova and Violeta Dimitrova
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2015
We present a case of 58-year-old woman who underwent bilateral adnexectomy with small bowel resection during urgent operation for an incarcerated umbilical hernia. There was a slight enlargement in both ovaries and presence of cystic formation with some papillary structures in the right one. Histologically, bilateral infiltration of tumor cells with moderate cytological and nuclear atypia and tubular, nested and cystic growth pattern was observed...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510007
Azura Mohd Noor, Norazah Ahmad and Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015
Melioidosis is a life-threatening infectious disease which can lead to high mortality and death within 48 hours if treatment is delayed. Detection of antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei may help in early diagnosis of melioidosis. This study was carried out to optimize an in-house ELISA for the detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) against B. pseudomallei in suspected acute melioidosis patients in Malaysia. Three different concentrations of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510006
Ronald S Brown
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 24, 2015
Dentistry is mainly a surgical clinical profession and dental clinicians are primarily involved in the surgical management of oral diseases and conditions. There are a few American Dental Association (ADA)-recognized non-surgical dental specialties such as Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, and Public Health Dentistry. These non-surgical dental specialties are mainly supportive to the surgical dental specialties and g...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510005
Aaron Cotrell, Farzaneh Sayedian, Michelle Huang, Xia Chen, Ming Xie, Marc Smith and James Huang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2015
Evaluation of lymphoma cell size is a key step in the sub classification of B-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma cells can be classified as large, small or (less commonly) medium; but recognition of large B-cells is of particular importance because of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. Lymphomas with increased large cells are often associated with more aggressive clinical course. For instance, neoplastic B-cells of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510004
Raizada N, Sachdeva KS, Malhotra B, Thakur R, Kishore Reddy VC, Chauhan DS, Dave P, Mohammed F, Ram Das, Sharma P, Sharma SK, Wares F, Sahu S, O'Brien R, Mundade Y, Dewan PK and Paramasivan CN
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2015
GenoType MTBDRplus assay (LPA) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization for rapid screening of patients at risk of MDR-TB for an early diagnosis. A key constraint in the uptake of this technology in 2009 was the lack of LPA proficiency assessment system. To enable LPA scale-up, proficiency testing procedures were developed and implemented in India. Methods: After initial LPA training, each project site collected remnant sputum specimens...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510003
Ines Palmela, Pedro Pereira, Masaharu Hayashi, Dora Brites and Maria A. Brito
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 29, 2015
Kernicterus is a severe manifestation of neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the neuro-glia-vascular alterations in autopsy material from three infants with kernicterus. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed in the cerebellum, hippocampus and basal ganglia, the most vulnerable brain regions to bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. The data obtained were compared with the relatively spared temporal cortex, as...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510002
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 25, 2015
Leukocyte morphological parameters, also known as cell population data (CPD), are measured by Coulter automated hematology analyzers with VCS technology. In recent years, clinical applications of CPD have been extensively investigated. The studies have demonstrated that diagnostic utility of neutrophil CPD in acute bacterial infection, particularly their roles in differentiating post-surgical bacterial infection versus systemic inflammatory respo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510001
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 17, 2015
During the last ten years studies on the role of cholesterol in the development and progression of cancer process and observations of severe hypocholesterolemia in patients with solid tumours and hematologic malignancies have been extended. Th cancer cell incorporates cholesterol with avidity and reduces its serum level. In normal cells, cholesterol binds sphingomyelin with very long-chained saturated fatty acids to form membrane lipid raft that ...
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