International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research is an open access peer reviewed journal that publishes articles on all aspects of pathology. This journal covers varies fields of pathology such as surgical pathology, molecular pathology, anatomic pathology, immunopathology and many more. The major focus of clinical research included patient outcome, new findings and also treatment responses pathological diseases.

International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research welcome submissions in the form original articles, research, reviews, cases, commentaries, reports, and short communications etc., covering the information on pathology. All the submitted articles pass through a rapid peer - review process before publication, which ensures the high quality of published work.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2469-5807

Editor-in-chief: Elisabetta ALBI

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Pathol Clin Res

ISO abbreviation: Int J Pathol Clin Res

Other titles: IJPCR

Category: General Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510081

Is p53 Overexpression a Predictor of Worse Outcomes in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinomas?

Raid Jastania and Tahani Nageeti

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 22, 2018

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common neoplasm of the female genital tract. Although immunohistochemical methods have been used for detecting several biomarkers for several cancer types, this method is still underutilized in EC. We conducted this review to identify the currently available published evidence to support the utilization of immunohistochemical for p53 protein overexpression as prognostic and predictive biomarkers of disease outcomes in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510080

Intratubular Large Cell Hyalinizing Sertoli Cell Tumor of the Testes in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A Case Report

Esra Polat, Yasemin Ozluk and Cagla Karaoglan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 12, 2018

Polyposis disorders of the bowel in the pediatric population are associated with elevated risks of various cancers. The most common sites of the malignancies were the gastrointestinal system, breast, gynecological organs, testis, pancreas and lung. Testicular lesions are often overlooked as PJS predominantly appear in females. A 9-year-old boy was presented to gastroenterology policlinic due to pallor. He had a history of diagnostic laparotomy wh...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510079

Common Laboratory Findings with Clinical Correlation and Follow Up in Patients with Genetically Proven Myeloproliferative Neoplasms at Age 50 and Younger

Ming Xie, Mary Wyrzykowski and Hongwei Ma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with shared gene mutations, excess blood production and wide range of clinicopathological changes. JAK2, CALR and MPL gene mutation study has become one of the major criteria in the diagnosis of MPNs. This study focused on the common laboratory findings in patients with genetically proven MPNs at age 50 and younger with clinical correlation and follow up. There were ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510078

Liver Fibrosis Quantification by Digital Whole Slide Imaging and Two Photon Microscopy with Second Harmonic Generation

Jolanta Jedrzkiewicz, Mary P Bronner, Mohamed E Salama, Jessica Kohan, Leslie R Rowe, Dean Tai, Elisabeth Malmberg and Erinn Downs-Kelly

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

The progression of fibrosis in liver disease is the single most important pathologic process guiding patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Unfortunately, its histologic assessment is subjective, descriptive and non-quantitative. A more objective and uniform method is needed to assess fibrosis in order to optimize patient care. To that end, we employed two new quantitative imaging technologies to evaluate fibrosis....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510077

Gastric Composite Tumor: A Mixed Adenocarcinoma and Neuroendocrine Tumor with Goblet Cell Carcinoid Component

Archana Lakshmanan, Ann Kurian and Annapurneswari Subramanyan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018

Goblet cell carcinoids are distinct neoplasms with combined histologic features of carcinoid and adenocarcinoma with the intermediate prognosis. They are initially thought to arise only from the appendix, however, in the recent past, a few cases have been described in extra appendiceal locations. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine tumors of the stomach are uncommon and that including Goblet cell carcinoid component is exceedingly rare. We report a case of...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510076

Hodgkin Lymphoma Involving the Oesophagus: A Case Report

Ban Sulaiman, Iram Naaz and Anne Crotty

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018

Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract are very rare. Primary and secondary oesophageal lymphoma account for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. Secondary oesophageal involvement is by contiguous spread from the stomach or surrounding lymph nodes. Patients with oesophageal lymphoma have varying presentations and complications which include perforation with a tracheo-oesophageal fistula, mass and haemorrhage....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510075

Chromatin Lipid Microdomains

Carmela Conte, Michela Codini and Elisabetta Albi

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 19, 2018

In nuclear membrane, the precise relation among these lipids is responsible for maintenance of normal fluidity in no stimulated cells. During rat liver regeneration, in which the cells are stimulated to proliferate, lipid composition and consequently fluidity of nuclear membranes modify, favoring an increase of mRNA transport that...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510074

The Study of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) with Microinvasion Using Myoepithelial Markers

Sana Firdous, Anjaneyulu, Daphne Fonseca, Sudha Murthy, Sundaram Challa and CK Naidu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 14, 2018

DCIS is a premalignant condition characterized by proliferation of neoplastic cells within the ducts with intact myoepithelial cell layer and when there is a breach in myoepithelial cell layer it indicates invasion and in both these condition treatment protocols and prognosis is different. Myoepithelial markers can be used to identify breach and hence invasion....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510073

Ambiguity in Diagnosis of Extra-Pulmonary Breast Tuberculosis as Breast Abscess/Duct Ectasia

Hemlata Panwar, T Santosh, Bharti Kumari, Vandita Singh and RK Ramchandani

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 03, 2018

Tubercular mastitis is a great masquerader and is an extremely rare entity as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis even in endemic countries like India and incidence accounts for 4% of breast lesions. We report a case of primary TB of breast in a elderly female presenting as diffuse upper left breast lump with indurated and ulcerated overlying skin along with retraction of nipple. Clinically suspicion was of abscess and duct ectasia. Fine needle aspirati...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510072

Malignant Melanoma Arising of Gland Pigmentary Disorders

Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos

Article Type: Letter To Editor | First Published: September 03, 2018

Malignant melanoma represents up to 5% of cutaneous cancers, but up to 75% of the cases have fatal outcomes. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the impressive mortality rate of this ominous malignancy. Both amelanotic and melanotic melanoma may be associated with delayed clinical suspicion and late diagnosis, harmful occurrence that may be related to lack of awareness of health care workers or unusual site of the tumors. The manuscripts herein commented described exceeding rare ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510071

Bilateral Vulvar Ectopic Breast Tissue in a 38-Year-Old Woman Who is Breastfeeding: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Maria Sol Peremateu, Maria Lucrecia Absi, Maria Celeste Sluga, Alejandra Wernicke and Claudia Marchitelli

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 29, 2018

Though long considered to be ectopic breast tissue representing the caudal remnants of the milk ridges, anogenital mammary-like glands are nowadays believed to represent a normal constituent of the anogenital area. Lesions involving these glands are histologically similar to their mammary counterparts and can develop the same benign and malignant tumors as the normally located breast. Because of their infrequent presentation, they represent a cha...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510070

A 68-Year-Old Man with Apathetic Hyperthyroidism and Lung Cancer

Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018

The case study of a non-small cell lung carcinoma confirmed by complete necropsy study is reported in an old man with apathetic hyperthyroidism, atrial fibrillation and heart failure. The authors emphasize diagnostic challenges related to effects of hyperthyroidism on nutritional status versus under nutrition caused by unsuspected development of a coexistent malignancy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510069

C3orf21 and Notch Signaling in Cancer:A Potential Biomarker

Yongjun Zhang, Dehou Deng and Wenlong Bao

Article Type: Perspective Article | First Published: June 11, 2018

C3orf21 (chromosome 3 open reading frame 21), also known as xyloside xylosyltransferase 1 (XXYLT1), is located on chromosome 3q29. C3orf21 belongs to the glycosyltransferase 8 family, furthermore, it is a retaining glycosyltransferase. In the extracellular domain of target proteins, XXYLT1 catalyzes addition of the second sylose, and then elongates the O-linked xylose-glucose disaccharide attached to EGF-like repeats. XXYLT1 negatively regulates ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510068

Improvement in the Selection of Patients for Anti-PD1 Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Analyzing Tumor Mutational Burden and Retrotransposon Activity as Possible New Biomarker of Effectiveness

Manuel Cobo-Dols

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 30, 2018

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death. Most patients are diagnosed during the late stages of the disease in several tumors. Unfortunately, current treatment options are limited. Habitually, patients receive first- or second-line chemotherapy and a few patients (5-7%) are candidates for treatment with target agents, that eventually go on to develop resistance to these agents....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510067

Cytological Diagnosis of Duodenal Gangliocytic Paraganglioma on Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspirate: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

Arti Easwar, Dion Middleton and Saverio Ligato

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 26, 2018

Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma (DGP) is a rare neoplasm usually found in the second portion of the duodenum and comprised of epithelioid neuroendocrine cells, Schwann cell-like spindle cells, and ganglion cells. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with a duodenal mass discovered incidentally during a staging PET scan for an oropharyngeal carcinoma. An ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) of the lesion revealed fascicles of spindle...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510066

Effects of Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) on the Development of Lung Cancer in Mice

Luis Fernando Antunes Pinheiro, Leonardo Fleury Orlandini, Mariana Scombatti Filipe, Jose Antonio Cordeiro and Patricia Maluf Cury

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

Relationship between environmental pollution and lung cancer has not been fully clarified. There are particles with aerodynamic mass below 2.5 m, capable of directly injuring the lung due to their small size. The majority arise from the burning of fossil combustibles, and are called "residual oil fly ash" (ROFA). They have been demonstrated to damage cells in different ways; however, their relationship with lung cancer etiology has not been clari...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510065

Clinical Risk Factors and Multi-Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Community-Acquired Outpatient Urinary Tract Isolates of Escherichia Coli

M Nadeem Ahmed, Debby Vannoy, Ann Frederick and Xuan Bi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 20, 2018

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most commonly treated bacterial infections in ambulatory care clinics and emergency departments (ED). The management of UTIs has been complicated by the emergent resistance to most commonly prescribed antibiotics causing increased patient morbidity, cost of reassessment and retreatment, and rates of hospitalization....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510064

Assessment of Hand-Cut Injuries among Pathologists and the Efficacy of Cut-Resistant Gloves in Preventing Them

Mohammed Alorini

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 03, 2018

Cutting injuries and needle-stick injuries constitute a potentially fatal danger to pathologists. We evaluated such injuries in four french university anatomic pathology laboratories and analyzed the effect of the using of cut-resistant gloves to prevent these injuries....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510063

Histologic Evidence of the "Sick Lobe" Carcinogenesis Theory and the Frequency of Intraepithelial Lesions in the Mammary Glands of Female Canines with no Clinical Signs of Neoplasia

Jahnier Andres Caicedo Martinez and Carlos Arturo Iregui Castro

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 16, 2017

Intraepithelial Lesions (IELs) are focal outgrowths of the Mammary Gland (MG), some of which are considered early precursors of tumors. The early detection of IELs has improved the survival rate in women. IELs in female canines have been proposed as a comparative model of IELs in humans....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510062

A Glance on Nail Involvement by Pemphigus Vulgaris

Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

Article Type: short commentary | First Published: November 13, 2017

Nail involvement by pemphigus vulgaris is uncommon and has been associated with the severity of disease. Paronychia, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, nail hemorrhages, cross riding, discoloration, hyperkeratosis, pitting, pterygium, onychodystrophy, onycholysis, onychorrhexis, onychoschizia and trachyonychia have been reported. These nail disorders may appear before, concomitantly or after the typical manifestations of pemphigus flare ups....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510061

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Role of the Site-Specific of Metastases

Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos

Article Type: COMMENTARY | First Published: October 26, 2017

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a severe malignant condition with a median survival lower than one year, and a five-year survival rate of about 30%, including tumors resected at early stage. Recurrences within two years occur in up to 80% of the resected tumors. More than two thirds of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomas have single site of metastases, mainly affecting the liver, lungs, bones and brain, by decreasing order of frequency....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510060

Empty Sella and Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis in a Woman with Subaortic Stenosise

Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Rafaela Pinheiro Weiber, Rosana Aparecida Rodrigues Cardoso, Mariely Fernanda da Silva Helbingen and Bruno César Rodrigues do Amaral

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 25, 2017

Cerebral venous thrombosis is not a frequent condition and may follow unsuspected, with unspecific manifestations. Neuroimaging studies are mandatory in differential diagnosis, which includes arterial strokes and other benign and malignant causes of intracranial hypertension, headaches, seizures, and hemiparesis....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510059

Decrease of Nitrergic Innervation in the Esophagus of Patients with Chagas Disease: Correlation with Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Jacqueline Garcia Duarte and Débora d'Ávila Reis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 13, 2017

The pathogenesis of megaesophagus in chronic Chagas disease, which is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is compelling. Individuals with megaesophagus often present achalasia and disturbances of peristalsis and neuronal loss....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510058

Malignant Melanoma Arising in Association with Sinonasal Melanosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Eric Ewing, Jeffrey B Jorgensen, Benjamin F Erhardt and Lester J Layfield

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2017

Malignant melanomas of the nasal mucosa represent approximately 1% of all melanomas and reported examples often arise in areas of pigmentation of the nasal mucosa. Melanin pigmentation has been reported to occur in the nasal glands and dendritic cells but melanomas arising from areas of pigmented (melanocyte containing) nasal glands have not been reported to our knowledge....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510057

Endometrioid Adenofibroma: A Case of This Uncommon Benign Tumor of the Ovary Not Associated to Borderline or Endometrioid Carcinoma

Santiago Ortiz and Francisco Tortosa

Article Type: Clinical Images | First Published: June 16, 2017

Endometrioid adenofibroma is a benign epithelial and stromal tumor with an endometrioid epithelial component. Less than 20% of the surface epithelial tumors of the ovary have endometrioid differentiation. The majority of endometrioid ovarian neoplasms are carcinomas and the benign form is rarely find....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510056

The "Second Opinion Medical Network"

Palmieri B, Laurino C and Vadala Maria

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 05, 2017

The "Second Opinion Medical Network" is a consultation referral web and Medical Office System involving a wide panel of specialists to which patients affected by different diseases not adequately satisfied in terms of diagnosis and treatment can submit records and data for a clinical update....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510055

Aliskiren and Losartan Study in Non Diabetic CKD- A 3 Year Second Phase Follow up Study on Proteinuria

Keng-Thye Woo, Choong-Meng Chan, Stephanie Fook-Chong, Cynthia Lim, Jason Choo, Hui-Lin Choong, Suhail Mohamad, Han-Kim Tan, Kok-Seng Wong and Marjorie Foo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 29, 2017

This is a 6 year retrospective analysis of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Combined Aliskiren (150 mg a day) and Losartan (100 mg a day) in non Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this Second (2nd) Phase study was to ascertain the proportion of patients who would remain in remission for the next 3 years and for those who had a relapse of proteinuria after stopping treatment in order to decide when would be an o...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510054

Exosomes in the Pathogenic Protozoan Trypanosoma Cruzi

Wanderley de Souza and Emile Barrias

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2017

Significant advances have recently occurred in the identification and characterization of different types of microvesicles released by eukaryotic cells into the extracellular space. Exosomes are one such type of these vesicles they originate from multivesicular bodies and have received much attention....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510053

Cystic Lymphangioma: an Uncommon Cause of Pediatric Abdominal Pain

Ivan Fernandez-Vega

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 12, 2017

Lymphangiomas are benign congenital malformations characterized by an abnormal dilatation and proliferation of lymphatic spaces, which are found predominantly in children. Symptomatic mesenteric cyst accounts for only 1 in 20,000 in acute pediatric admission. We describe hereby a case of a previously healthy 6-year-old girl who presented acute three-day pain localized over the right upper abdominal quadrant due to intestinal obstruction....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510052

Investigation of the Relationship between Malignant Tumors Originated from Peritoneal and Müllerian Epithelium with the Primary and Secondary Müllerian Systems-Immunohistochemical Analysis with Six Markers

Ayse Ciftci, Handan Aker and Hatice Ozer

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 20, 2017

The origin of ovarian epithelial tumors is still indistinct. Müllerian and coelomic hypothesis are controversial. Recently, there is also a small number of reports that tubo-peritoneal junction may play an important role in the development of tubo-ovarian tumors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between tumors originating from Mullerian epithelium and peritoneal mesothelium, in other words primary and secondary Müllerian syst...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510051

Aortopathy in Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Marfan Syndrome is Characterized by a Lack of Activation Potential of the Epicardium in the Ascending Aorta

Nimrat Grewal, Marie-Jose Goumans, Marco C DeRuiter, Robert JM Klautz, Robert E Poelmann, Barbara JM Mulder, Ad JJC Bogers, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 20, 2017

Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) have increased susceptibility for development of aortopathy. In the heart, epicardial cells expressing Wilms tumor suppressor protein (Wt1) are known to become activated after myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that epicardium covering the aorta might show a similar response in BAV and MFS in pathologic conditions....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510050

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy-like Neuropathological Findings without a History of Trauma

Andrew F Gao, David Ramsay, Richelle Twose, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Charles Tator and Lili-Naz Hazrati

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 12, 2017

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurocognitive decline and abnormal neuronal and glial deposition of hyperphosphorylated-tau in a pattern distinct from other tauopathies. These changes are hypothesized to occur following repeated mild traumatic brain injury. We report a case of CTE-like neuropathological changes, and features of motor neuron disease in a patient without history of either head...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510049

A Case of Dedifferentiated Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterus

Kanae Nosaka, Hiroaki Komatsu, Tetsuro Oishi, Yasushi Horie, Tasuku Harada and Yoshihisa Umekita

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 28, 2016

Dedifferentiation of leiomyosarcoma is a rare phenomenon that associates pleomorphic histology and loss of smooth muscle differentiation. Although the leiomyosarcoma is well known sarcoma in the uterus, and the dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma is well recognized in the soft parts, there are only a few reports of dedifferentiation of leiomyosarcoma in the uterus. Herein we present a case of dedifferentiated uterine leiomyosarcoma and discuss its re...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510048

A Battle against the Odds: Intensive Therapy in Thrombotic Storm

Priyanka Raheja, Pavel Olivera, Veronica Pons, Mercedes Perez, Joan Balcells, Romy Rossich and Amparo Santamaria

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 31, 2016

Thrombotic storm (TS) is a rare life-threatening entity that is characterized by multiple thrombotic events affecting diverse vascular sites occurring over a short period of time (days to weeks). We describe a case of a young boy who developed extensive and rapidly progressive thrombosis which required intensive treatment that included the use of triple antithrombotic therapy, pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, systemic thrombolytic therapy, and th...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510047

Intra-Abdominal Abscess Caused by Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Case Report

Sornsupha Limchareon, Chomsorn Suparuxjinda and Varachaya Sawasdeemongko

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 30, 2016

Jejunal diverticulitis with complication is a rare entity. Diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. A case of 46-year-old female with acute upper abdomen is presented. Computed tomography demonstrated jejunal perforation with abscess formation. Operative findings revealed perforating jejunal diverticulitis with abscess formation. Though jejunal diverticulitis is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of jejunal perforation....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510046

Spontaneous Duodeno-Colic Fistula: A Case Report and Literature Review

Meizhuo Gao, Tie Wang, Lining Tian and Jinlu Zhao

Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: October 30, 2016

Duodeno-colic fistula is an unnatural connect between the duodenum and the colon, which occurs rarely with the onset in the middle-aged. This report summarized the clinical manifestation and surgical treatment of the sixth case of spontaneous duodenum-colic fistula and reviewed the published other five cases....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510045

Evaluation of Hematologic Exams in Parturient Adolescents Assisted at a Public Hospital in Brazil

Ana Karina Marques Salge, Maria TheresaCeravolo Laguna Abreu, Janaina Valadares Guimaraes, Fabiola de Azevedo Mello, Renata Calciolari Rossi e Silva, Douglas Reis Abdalla, George Kemil Abdalla, Thaila Correa Castra, Marilia Cordeirode Souza, Livia Roberta Rodrigues Conceicao and Eumenia Costa da Cunha Castro

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 03, 2016

Pregnancy during adolescence is a high-risk condition that prompts research interest due to frequent obstetrics complications in this age group. We aimed to identify potentially significant hematologic alterations in parturient adolescent patients at a public hospital in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil. Data from the medical charts of 45 parturient adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) seen from 2013-2014 were analyzed, including their hemogram results,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510044

Clinicopathological Study of Angiogenesis in Gastric Cancer

Evangeli S Lampri, Anna C Goussia and Niki J Agnantis

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2016

Many models of multistage tumorigenesis have been proposed to explain the conversion of a normal cell into a neoplastic one. In addition to all genetic and epigenetic changes, angiogenesis is necessary for the growth and expansion of tumors. Besides, no neoplastic lesion could not exceed the size of 2 mm if not supported by a rich vascular network....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510043

A Review of Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Salivary Glands

Saeedeh Khalesi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2016

One of the malignant forms of pleomorphic adenomas (PA) is carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CA-ex-PA). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is an uncommon malignant tumor with high aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. However, there are a few studies in this topic in the recent literature. Furthermore, the lesions are uncommon and often have a difficult diagnosis by clinicians and pathologists, because the residual small PA component and various ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510042

Basaloid Salivary Gland-Analogue Tumors of the Mammary Gland: Clinicopathologic Assessment of a Rare Subtype

Andrew L Walls, Lavinia P Middleton, Adel K El-Naggar and Aysegul A Sahin

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 31, 2016

Salivary and mammary glands share common ontology, but variable prevalence of tumor subtype frequency. Common primary salivary gland-type tumors are rare and less recognized in breast. Analogous to primary basaloid salivary tumors, basaloid mammary carcinomas, as in primary salivary, exhibit a spectrum of features from benign to malignant. The rarity and unfamiliarity of these tumors may lead to diagnostic and management challenges....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510041

Images and Text Operation Records: Xi'an Agreement

Xiaopeng Yan, Liang Han, Xuemin Liu, Lin Fan, Zheng Wu and Yi Lv

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: June 30, 2016

Operation notes are a very important part of a patient's medical record. They not only record the operation process during the surgery, but also objectively describe the organs lesions. They play a useful role in the referral disease communication, pathological diagnosis, medical practice education, and cases review. However, the current operation notes are hand-written texts therefore many deficiencies as follows: 1. It is difficult to describe ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510040

Hypercholesterolemic Diet: Its Effect on Colorectal Precancerous Lesions Induced by Dimethylhydrazine

Franciane da Silva Franca, Rodrigo Zeni Cora, Helena Cristina Ferreira Franz and Flavia Martinello

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 30, 2016

Objective: Evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol, without the addition of cholic acid in the initial stage of carcinogenesis and on the bifidobacteria into the colon. Methods: Rats were grouped according to their diets and dimethylhydrazine treatment (DMH): standard diet (CN); CN + cholesterol 1% (CHOL); CN + DMH (CNDMH) and CN + cholesterol 1% + DMH (CHOLDMH). After eight weeks of treatment were analyzed weight gain, faecal pH, lipid profi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510039

Japanese Crisis of HPV Vaccination

Masayuki Sekine, Risa Kudo, Sosuke Adachi, Manako Yamaguchi, Yutaka Ueda, Tomomi Takata, Akiko Morimoto, Yusuke Tanaka, Asami Yagi, Etsuko Miyagi and Takayuki Enomoto

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 30, 2016

Cervical cancer has been increasing in younger generation, especially in 20's and 30's, so it has been a serious problem that the disease leads to loss of fertility as an urgent issue in Japan. HPV vaccine was added to the national list of routine vaccinations for Japanese girls aged 12 to 16 years by law since April, 2013. Three months later, however, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare suspended recommendations for HPV vaccinat...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510038

Myofibroblasts Role in Wound Healing of Εyelid Lesions

Trisevgeni Ntinioti, Georgia-Heleni Thomopoulou, Eugene Danas, Nikolaos G Kavantzas, Emmanuel Agapitos and Andreas C Lazaris

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: May 25, 2016

In injured tissues, the repair of the extracellular matrix is organized by activated myofibroblasts. The latter cells support harmonious mechanical tissue organization. At the end of the normal repair process, myofibroblasts disappear by apoptosis but in pathological situations, myofibroblasts likely remain leading to excessive scarring. The eyelids are movable folds of tissue the core of which is represented by a tarsal plate, composed of dense ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510037

Atypical Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm

Hans Hoerauf, Philipp Steven and Nicolas Feltgen

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2016

A patient with an atypical retinal arterial macroaneurysm masked by a persistent vitreous haemorrhage mimicking a neoplasm is presented. During vitrectomy a pigmented peripapillary tumour located at large vessels with circinate lipid exsudates was detected. Examination of removed tissue revealed haemosiderin-loaded macrophages resulting in pigmentation. The histologic finding of phagocytosis of intraretinal blood remnants allowed to diagnose an a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510036

BRAF V600E Immunohistochemistry in Cutaneous Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An Analysis of 20 Cases

Ryan C Romano, Wonwoo Shon, Sarah M Jenkins and Karen J Fritchie

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 25, 2016

Twenty dermatologic biopsy specimens from 14 patients (9 adults and 5 children) were retrieved. All cases were immunostained with BRAF mutation-specific antibody. Selected BRAF V600E IHC-positive cases were analyzed for BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. Clinical parameters were correlated with IHC status. BRAF V600E protein overexpression was identified in 15 of 20 (75%) cases (9/14 patients; 5 adults and 4 children). All pediatric patients ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510035

Severe Complication of POPS: Mesh Malposition in the Bladder

Sabine Kersting, Dirk Kusche, Klaus-PeterJung and Eugen Berg

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2016

The authors present a case of a 68-years-old woman suffering of persistent urinary tract infections accompanied by intermittent fever. She had a history of pelvic organ prolapse suspension (POPS) for descending perineal syndrome with rectal prolapse, carried out elsewhere 15 months ago. Cystoscopy revealed a part of the prolene mesh that was incrusted along the fundus of the bladder to be the source of symptoms. This is probably the first case th...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510034

Opana-Induced Renal and Hepatic Injury: A Case Report and Review

Yahya M Kurdi, Sergey Brodsky and Martha Yearsley

Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: April 30, 2016

A 34-year-old Caucasian female presented with headache, fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and dehydration. She admitted to intravenous abuse of "melted" Opana ER tablets (extended-release oral formulation of oxymorphone hydrochloride). Noted clinical signs included tachycardia, tachypnea, and trace peripheral edema. Abnormal laboratory tests included low creatinine clearance, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet. Histological studies of hepatorenal b...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510033

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma as a Potential Diagnostic Challenge and Pitfall in Aspiration Biopsies of Thoracic Tumours

Justin Bateman, Celeste Morley, Bruce F. Burns and Shahid Islam

Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: April 01, 2016

The patient is a 54 year-old male who presented in January 2015 with increasing dyspnea and weight loss over several months, eventually requiring intubation and admission to ICU for respiratory failure. He had a remote history of testicular seminoma and 'melanoma'. A trans-bronchial Wang needle aspirate biopsy of the right sub-carinal lymph node was preformed and showed sheets of large malignant cells with pleomorphic nuclei, multiple prominent n...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510032

Epigenomic Explanations for the Uncertainty of Cancer Biomarkers

Shou-Tung Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Yu-Wei Leu and Shu-Huei Hsiao

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2016

Inheritable epigenetic modifications, like histone modifications and DNA methylation, were once considered somatically stable and tissue-specific, yet accumulating evidence suggests the contrary. Environmental encounters are transduced into the cell through signaling pathways and these signals are relayed to the nucleus and memorized as epigenetic marks on target genes. Signaling-specific epigenomic changes provide selectable outlines for further...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510031

BerEP4 and AE1/3 are Reliable Markers of Epithelial Content for Biomarker Discovery Using Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA)

Ola H Negm, James C Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Alain Pitiot, Patrick J Tighe, Cedric Marchessoux and Mohammad Ilyas

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: April 01, 2016

Biomarker studies are notorious for their high failure rate. Despite huge investment by both academia and industry, very few biomarkers make the transition from interesting laboratory data to tests with clinical utility. The reasons for this are manifold. Some biomarkers are "true" biomarkers inasmuch as they are robust and reproducible but the information they provide does not help to improve patient management beyond that informed by traditiona...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510030

Reduced and Thinned Elastic Fibers in Skin Tag

Ahmed Abdullah Alhumidi

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: March 29, 2016

This is a retrospective study in which thirty histopathological specimens of fibroepithelial polyp (skin tag) were examined. Their paraffin blocks were collected from the archives of the Pathology Department, king khalid University hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2010 to 2012. Age of the patient, sex, and site, of the lesions as well as type of skin tag were recorded. Sections from each paraffin block were cut by a microtom...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510029

Micronutrients Deficiencies in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Graziela Biude Silva, Bruna Zavarize Reis and Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly involves synovial joints and affects up to 2% of adults worldwide. Poor nutrient status in RA patients has been reported and some drug therapies, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prescribed to alleviate RA symptoms, may increase the requirement for some nutrients and reduce their absorption. The importance of micronutrients in this disease is rela...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510028

Research Progress of STK33 in Cancer Biology

Chen Chen and Jianfeng Li

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016

In recent years, serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) has attracted considerable attention in tumor biology. STK33 displays a heterogenous expression pattern, and in most tissues, expression level is low. It belongs to the CAMK family, and differentiates itself from other members of the CAMK family due to its expression pattern. STK33 is likely to participate in the dynamic changes of intermediate filament cytoskeleton depolymerization by phosphory...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510027

JAK2V617F Mutation Affects Downstream LIN28A and HMGA2 Methylation in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Chih-Cheng Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Kuan-Der Lee, Chia-Chen Chiu, Hong-Chi Chen, Tim H.-M. Huang, Yu-Wei Leu and Shu-Huei Hsiao

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 29, 2016

The lineage/clonal selection theory for cellular transformation may help identify the effector genes whose functions are crucial for MPN tumorigenesis. MPNs originate from hematopoietic stem cells carrying compartmental mutations such as JAK2V617F. JAK2 signaling regulates target gene expression by altering the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STATs. To provide selectable gene expression that promotes transformation of certain cellular...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510026

The Cardiovascular Risk Prognostication in Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Myeloid-related Protein Complex Calprotectin

Alexander E. Berezin

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 26, 2016

The low-intense inflammation is discussed as a one of the clue of various faces of pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) including insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipotoxity, oxidation injury that contributed in cardiovascular (CV) disease and clinical outcomes. However, there are a lot of candidates for on early biological marker that could stratify DM patients at CV risk. The myeloid-related protein 8/14 known as calprotectin is...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510025

Integration to Advance Translation

Estela S. Estape

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 26, 2016

The science of translation has been taken over very fast by health stakeholders such as: investors, shareholders, sponsors, practitioners or any interested party in healthcare. The main reason is the demand to transfer discoveries faster to the ones who are in most need: the participants or patients. Translation can be seen as the art of transferring scientific knowledge into evidenced based everyday practice; paving the way to increased effectiv...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510024

Transforming the 24/7 Clinical Laboratories - Design Considerations, Workflow and Relocation to New Diagnostics Building

Ng Wai Yoong and Yeo Chin Pin

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: February 26, 2016

Laboratory services in Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a national referral centre, acute tertiary and teaching hospital has changed through the years with its beginning since 1821 and as a modern hospital in 1926. An opportunity to design new facilities to transform the delivery of clinical tests and embrace future challenges came up with the confirmation of a new purpose-built Pathology building in 2009....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510023

Glutamate Concentrations in Plasma and CSF in Patients with Glioma and Meningioma

George Dimogerontas, Alexia Polissidis, Petros Karkalousos, Epameinondas Konstantinidis, Zeta Papadopoulou-Daifoti and Charis Liapi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 07, 2016

Glioma, a malignant intra-axial brain tumor, can release glutamate that facilitates tumor expansion, stimulates tumor-cell proliferation and motility and promotes epileptic activity. Glutamate acid is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian Central Nervous System. We explore correlations of glutamate concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with glioma in comparison to patients with meningioma which is the most c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510022

Potential Clinical Applications of Next Generation Fluorescence Immunohistochemistry for Multiplexed and Quantitative Determination of Biomarker in Breast Cancer

Hiroshi Tada, Kohsuke Gonda, Minoru Miyashita and Noriaki Ohuchi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 03, 2016

Assessing breast cancer tissues for expression of multiple biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67, provides critical information for patient management. However, the predictive power of these biomarkers for the selection of personalized therapeutic approaches is still limited. Application of fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) has offered some promi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510021

Intracellular Effectors of Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's and other Neurodegenerative Diseases

Zen Kouchi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 01, 2016

Synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity are regulated by neuronal activity to form efficient neuronal networks based on somatosensory inputs or behavioral experiences. Enhanced neuronal activity triggers reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in presynaptic compartments and induces coordinated changes in apposed postsynaptic density with actin dynamics. Numerous cell-adhesion molecules are involved in these processes, and classical cadherins are ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510020

A De Novo Malignant Mixed Tumor (Carcinosarcoma) of the Parotid Gland: Case Report

Hussam F Tallab, David E Ricklan and Peter J Catalano

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 29, 2016

True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary gland origin are exceedingly rare and demonstrate malignant epithelial and stromal components. The subject of this case study is a 61 year-old male who presented with mild left facial swelling with minimal discomfort and without a mass of the parotid gland. He underwent CT imaging which demonstrated a cystic lesion of the parapharyngeal space. CT guided fine needle aspiration of the lesion...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510019

Anemia Investigation Reveals a Primary Sea-Blue Histiocyte Syndrome

Antonio Proenca Caetano, Ines de Figueiredo, Francisco Tortosa, Anabela Ferrao and Cristina Ferreira

Article Type: Case Report and Review of Literature | First Published: January 08, 2016

Sea-blue Histiocyte Syndrome (SBHS) is a rare and poorly understood systemic histiocytosis that is sometimes associated with haematological and lipid storage diseases as well as other miscellaneous conditions, but in most cases its cause is unknown. Patients often have very disparate clinical features but share the same histological findings of sea-blue histiocytosis in the bone marrow, i.e. characteristic lipid-laden macrophages with deep-blue o...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510018

Pathologic Reporting of the Surgical Margin after Radical Prostatectomy: Considerations for Improving Oncologic Prognostication

Michael J. Whalen and Michael B. Rothberg

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 06, 2016

Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been identified as an adverse pathological feature predictive of higher rates of biochemical recurrence, distant metastasis, and cancer-specific mortality compared to negative margins. Such observations underlie the rationale for adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced disease or positive margins. Even without adjuvant radiotherapy, however, not all patients who have a positive m...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510017

Radiological Pathology

Shoichi D. Takekawa

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2015

Pathology and radiology have become pivotal in the clinical practice of daily medicine. Diagnostic radiology and pathology are indeed indispensable wheels of medical practice. Clinicians achieve tentative diagnoses based on laboratory data and medical images in addition to their physical findings and patient medical history. Based on all available findings and on patient characteristics, clinicians finally decide on further therapeutic management...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510016

Orbital Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma: A Case Report

Hind M. Alkatan and Abdul Elah A. Al-Abdullah

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2015

Xanthogranulomatous ocular and periocular lesions in adults have been reported in 3 main forms: adult-onset xanthogranuloma (AXG), necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease. The three forms differ in regards to laterality, systemic associations, and prognosis. NXG is a rare chronic progressive disease considered to be systemic with mostly asymptomatic internal organ involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations include conjunctival,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510015

Squamous Morules (Microcarcinoids) in Gastroesophageal Polyps; a Mimicker of Invasive Carcinoma

Safia N Salaria and Elizabeth Montgomery

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015

Colorectal lesions termed squamous morules or microcarcinoids display predominantly squamous and variable endocrine differentiation and are often found in colorectal adenomas with high grade dysplasia thus mimicking invasion. Herein, we describe histopathologic, immunohistochemical classification and clinical correlation of analogous lesions in the esophagus and stomach. We identified five cases (3 men, 2 women) from November 2004-March 2013 of g...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510014

Cancer Stem Cell Microenvironment in Canine Glioblastoma Development: Animal Model for Human Disease

George Stoica

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015

Understanding the cancer stem cells (CSCs) role in malignancy is based on a comprehensive understanding of normal stem cells role and plasticity in maintaining the normal homeostasis or regeneration in various organ tissues. The niche microenvironment that sustains and regulates stem cells is tightly regulated by physical factors and hormonal signals. In the central nervous system (CNS) malignancy the CSCs niche is deregulated by intrinsic and ex...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510013

Liquid Biopsy: A Future Tool for Post Treatment Surveillance in Head and Neck Cancer?

Joost H Van Ginkel, Manon MH Huibers, Rob Noorlag, Remco de Bree, Robert JJ van Es and Stefan M Willems

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 30, 2015

The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely based on disease stage. Despite improvements in treatment, recurrence rates are still considered high. Currently, disease progression or regression after curative treatment is monitored by clinical evaluation combined with flexible endoscopy and/or imaging....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510012

Balancing the Harm and Benefit of Disclosure: A Laboratory Physician's Perspective

Chantale Pambrun

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 28, 2015

The four principles of medical ethics that so often appear in the literature encourage physicians to uphold them whenever possible. We are to respect the autonomy of our patients, try to bring them clinical benefit, refrain from harming them, and to be just and fair....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510011

An Uncommon Cause of Skin Discoloration: Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva

Charles Joseph Haddad, Judella Haddad Lacle and Charles Michael Haddad

Article Type: Case report | First Published: October 04, 2015

Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva is also known as Progressive Pigmentary Dermatitis or Schamberg's Disease. It is a disorder causing skin discoloration on the trunk and extremities, and is a lymphocytic capillaritis of unknown etiology. The disease can occur at any age. It is important to be aware of this disorder since it can mimic other diseases and problems including child and elder abuse, thrombocytopenia purpura....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510010

Overview of Coroner's Adult Autopsies in England

Husayn Al Mahdy

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 11, 2015

This article provides an overview of coroner's autopsies in England with the aim of improving the service and hence provide accurate death certification as well as a learning experience for clinicians caring for patients. The system that has evolved has neither improved the service nor has it led to a learning experience for the clinicians. Compatibility of clinical features ante-mortem combined with post-mortem findings are lacking and involveme...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510009

Factors Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy of Hepatic Metastasis from Colorectal Carcinoma

D. Cortes Guira,, MJ Fernandez-Acenero, Damian Garcia-Olmo and C. Pastor Idoate

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2015

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a widely used therapeutic option for patients with resectable hepatic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. In this setting, the intent of NAC is to reduce metastatic size and make surgery easier and/or less extensive, mostly in patients that are amenable to surgery. Several studies confirm that response to neoadjuvant therapy is indicative of a better prognosis for such patients and several methods have been pro...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510008

Ovarian Neoplasm in a Patient with Prior Breast Carcinoma - Challenges and Pitfalls in Diagnostic Process

Elena Arabadzhieva, Sasho Bonev, Lyubomira Dimitrova, Atanas Yonkov, Dimitar Bulanov, Vesela Ivanova and Violeta Dimitrova

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2015

We present a case of 58-year-old woman who underwent bilateral adnexectomy with small bowel resection during urgent operation for an incarcerated umbilical hernia. There was a slight enlargement in both ovaries and presence of cystic formation with some papillary structures in the right one. Histologically, bilateral infiltration of tumor cells with moderate cytological and nuclear atypia and tubular, nested and cystic growth pattern was observed...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510007

The Optimization of Igm In-House ELISA for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Melioidosis in Malaysia

Azura Mohd Noor, Norazah Ahmad and Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015

Melioidosis is a life-threatening infectious disease which can lead to high mortality and death within 48 hours if treatment is delayed. Detection of antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei may help in early diagnosis of melioidosis. This study was carried out to optimize an in-house ELISA for the detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) against B. pseudomallei in suspected acute melioidosis patients in Malaysia. Three different concentrations of...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510006

On Emerging Clinical Dental Specialties and Recognition

Ronald S Brown

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 24, 2015

Dentistry is mainly a surgical clinical profession and dental clinicians are primarily involved in the surgical management of oral diseases and conditions. There are a few American Dental Association (ADA)-recognized non-surgical dental specialties such as Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, and Public Health Dentistry. These non-surgical dental specialties are mainly supportive to the surgical dental specialties and g...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510005

Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cell Size in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Reliability and Potential Diagnostic Significance

Aaron Cotrell, Farzaneh Sayedian, Michelle Huang, Xia Chen, Ming Xie, Marc Smith and James Huang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2015

Evaluation of lymphoma cell size is a key step in the sub classification of B-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma cells can be classified as large, small or (less commonly) medium; but recognition of large B-cells is of particular importance because of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. Lymphomas with increased large cells are often associated with more aggressive clinical course. For instance, neoplastic B-cells of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510004

Proficiency Assessment Mechanism for Line-Probe Assay Testing for Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India

Raizada N, Sachdeva KS, Malhotra B, Thakur R, Kishore Reddy VC, Chauhan DS, Dave P, Mohammed F, Ram Das, Sharma P, Sharma SK, Wares F, Sahu S, O'Brien R, Mundade Y, Dewan PK and Paramasivan CN

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2015

GenoType MTBDRplus assay (LPA) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization for rapid screening of patients at risk of MDR-TB for an early diagnosis. A key constraint in the uptake of this technology in 2009 was the lack of LPA proficiency assessment system. To enable LPA scale-up, proficiency testing procedures were developed and implemented in India. Methods: After initial LPA training, each project site collected remnant sputum specimens...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510003

Histological Findings in the Kernicterus-Associated Vulnerable Brain Regions are Linked to Neurodegeneration, Alterations in Astrocyte and Pericyte Distribution, and Vascular Modifications

Ines Palmela, Pedro Pereira, Masaharu Hayashi, Dora Brites and Maria A. Brito

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 29, 2015

Kernicterus is a severe manifestation of neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the neuro-glia-vascular alterations in autopsy material from three infants with kernicterus. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed in the cerebellum, hippocampus and basal ganglia, the most vulnerable brain regions to bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. The data obtained were compared with the relatively spared temporal cortex, as...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510002

Clinical Applications of Leukocyte Morphological Parameters

Dongsheng Xu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 25, 2015

Leukocyte morphological parameters, also known as cell population data (CPD), are measured by Coulter automated hematology analyzers with VCS technology. In recent years, clinical applications of CPD have been extensively investigated. The studies have demonstrated that diagnostic utility of neutrophil CPD in acute bacterial infection, particularly their roles in differentiating post-surgical bacterial infection versus systemic inflammatory respo...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5807/1510001

Why the Hypocholesteremia must not be Neglected?

Elisabetta Albi

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 17, 2015

During the last ten years studies on the role of cholesterol in the development and progression of cancer process and observations of severe hypocholesterolemia in patients with solid tumours and hematologic malignancies have been extended. Th cancer cell incorporates cholesterol with avidity and reduces its serum level. In normal cells, cholesterol binds sphingomyelin with very long-chained saturated fatty acids to form membrane lipid raft that ...

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