International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research is an international open access, peer reviewed journal for visual science specialist and ophthalmologists. IJOCR serves the research field by publishing original articles in clinical and basic science research and other articles relating to the sense of sight. Excellence in IJOCR is attained through unbiased peer review, elevated learning, advancement in innovation and discovery. IJOCR reviews articles and innovative research reports from clinical observations, clinical investigations and relevant lab investigations apt in the field of ophthalmology. IJOCR themes to publish complete and reliable information on present discoveries.

The journal mainly focused on publishing of medical and clinical research of basic and modern sense of vision, which are involved in recent advances of diseases like glaucoma, uveitis, refractive surgery, cataract and other retina problems and also other related advances of eye science. IJOCR will be formally dispatched in June, 2014 are distributed as quarterly journal, on successive handling, while frequencies slowly secure the journal as bi-monthly to monthly along these lines. We are accepting article submissions for the approaching issue inside a month if articles are acknowledged for post-production. If an author interest lies between our necessities, generously go through author guidelines.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2378-346X

Editor-in-chief: Vernon Odom

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Ophthalmol Clin Res

ISO abbreviation: Int J Ophthalmol Clin Res

Other titles: IJOCR

Category: ophthalmology

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

DOI: 10.23937/2378-346X

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410093

Thorough Perioperative Laser Photocoagulation in Prevention of Neovascular Glaucoma after Vitrectomy for Diabetic Macular Edema

Yuka Aoyama-Araki, Fumiyuki Araki, Tomoyasu Shiraya and Satoshi Kato

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: September 20, 2018

Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a severe complication that may follow pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative fluorescein angiography (FA) and targeted photocoagulation of the non-perfused area (NPA) in preventing the occurrence of postoperative NVG....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410092

Giant Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma of Upper Eyelid - Case Report

Santosh Singh Patel, Reshu Malhotra, ML Garg, AK chandrakar and Dhanshree Kalway

Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: September 19, 2018

An eighty-year-old patient presented with right upper eyelid mass. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed large heterogeneously enhancing exophytic soft tissue density mass lesion with few hyperdense foci noted involving skin and subcutaneous tissue. An excisional biopsy was performed. A diagnosis of sebaceous cell carcinoma was confirmed on histopathology....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410091

Iron-Overload, Oxidative DNA Damage and Differential Transcript Expression of Iron Homeostasis Genes in Human Cortical Cataracts

Sankaranarayanan Rajkumar, Nair Gopinathan Vidya, Darshini Ankit Ganatra and Abhay Raghukant Vasavada

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: September 10, 2018

The purpose of the study is to determine the level of iron, its role in oxidative damage and to profile and measure the level of transcript expression of genes responsible for iron homeostasis in lenses of human cataracts. Human whole lenses (WLs) were obtained from donors' eyes (n = 33) within 8 hours of death. A total of 167 (control, n = 35 and cataract, n = 132) anterior central capsules (ACC) harboring lens epithelial cells (LECs) and lens a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410090

Therapeutic Efficacy of Subthreshold Laser Photocoagulation using a Conventional Pattern Scan Laser for Macular Edema in a Retrospective Study

Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato and Fumiyuki Araki

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 11, 2018

Subthreshold laser photocoagulation has emerged and is changing minimally invasive treatment for macular edema (ME) affected by retinal vascular diseases. However, this laser method requires specific photocoagulator, and it cannot be introduced at each facility. We investigated the efficacy of subthreshold laser photocoagulation using a conventional pattern scan laser (PS-STLT) in treating ME in clinical practice....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410089

Unusual Laser Blepharoplasty Complications: Sight and Life-Threatening!

Nazrin Nordin and Lott Pooi Wah

Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: August 11, 2018

A 53-years-old woman presented with bilateral severe periorbital swelling and reduce left eye visual acuity. She had undergone laser blepharoplasty 1 week prior to presentation. Ophthalmic examination revealed both eye periorbital swelling with pouring pus discharge from lower lid with underlying erythematous and ulcerative skin, limitation of extraocular muscles and chemosis....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410088

Effect of Topical Moxifloxacin on the Bacterial Flora of the Ocular Surface following Cataract Surgery: A Randomized, Single-Masked Clinical Trial

Erick Mendoza-Schuster, Guadalupe Cervantes-Coste, Virginia Vanzzini and Cecilio Velasco-BaronaD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 25, 2018

Postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis is one of the most devastating complications following cataract surgery. Fortunately, postoperative endophthalmitis is a rare condition, with reported rates ranging between 0.08% and 0.26%; however, when taking into account the millions of people who have cataract surgery every year, postoperative endophthalmitis becomes a significant public health issue....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410087

The Effect of Initial Visual Acuity on Visual Prognosis in Low Vision Aid and Rehabilitation Cases

Deniz Altinbay and Fatih Mehmet ADIBELLI

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 05, 2018

A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 869 eyes of 464 patients who were referred to our center due to low vision between December 2010 and May 2015. Distance acuities of the patients were measured with a distant vision chart prepared for patients with low vision, and the near acuities were measured with a Jaeger near vision chart. Patients with logMAR ≥ 0.5 [snellen ≤ 20/63] visual acuity were included in the study. Cases were separat...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410086

Isolated Ankyloblepharon Filiforme Adnatum in a Newborn

Saroj Gupta and Harsha Saxena

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 26, 2018

We report a case of a rare congenital eyelid abnormality, ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, in an otherwise healthy male neonate, born to healthy parents out of non-consanguineous marriage. Newborn presented with a single band of tissue connecting left upper and lower eyelid, resulting in limited palpebral aperture opening. Antenatal history was normal. The baby was operated on the seventh day of life under local anesthesia. The eyelid band was ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410085

The Visual Effects Associated with Head-Mounted Displays

Jing Yuan, Behzad Mansouri, Jeff H Pettey, Sarah Farukhi Ahmed and S Khizer Khaderi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 18, 2018

In recent years, Virtual Reality (VR) has become more commonplace, with rapid adoption into daily life. VR is a non-invasive simulation technology that provides an immersive, realistic, three-dimensional (3D) computer-simulated environment in which people perform tasks and experience activities as if they were in the real world. The most direct experience of VR is provided by fully immersive VR systems. The most widely adopted VR systems display ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410084

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogues on Central Corneal Thickness

Umut Duygu Uzunel

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018

Prostaglandin (PG) analogues are being widely used to reduce Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. These drugs reduce IOP by stimulation of aqueous humor drainage primarily through the uveoscleral outflow pathway but significant effects on trabecular outflow facility also have been reported. The suggested mechanism of IOP reduction involves aqueous humor outflow enhancement through the uveoscleral pathway accompanied by collagen degrad...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410083

Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effect of Ripasudil Hydrochloride Hydrate and Reasons for Discontinuation of Use in Clinical Practice

Kana Kawara, Akiyasu Kanamori, Sotaro Mori, Yukako Inoue, Takuji Kurimoto, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yuko Yamada and Makoto Nakamura

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 26, 2018

The median pre- and post-application IOP at 1, 3, and 6 months was 19.0, 17.5, 17.0, and 16.0 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly reduced after ripasudil application at all time points (P < 0.00001, the mixed effect model). The pre-application IOP and glaucoma type were associated with the IOP-lowering effect of ripasudil. Twenty-seven and 8 patients discontinued the application because of unsatisfactory IOP reduction and intolerable side e...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410082

Improved Visual Acuity and Retinal Integrity with Resveratrol Based Supplementation in Patients with Macular Degeneration

Diyana Ivanova, Stuart Richer and Anish Bhandari

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 30, 2017

Resveratrol (RV), the medicinal component found in red wine, was discovered in the 1940s. It was later found to have broad-spectrum anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular disease, and anti-inflammatory properties. This weak antioxidant is concentrated in red wine via fermentation, from grapes grown under stressful conditions of northern latitude, high altitude, and cold temperature. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410081

Selective Trabeculoplasty in the Management of Open Angle Glaucoma: Retrospective Analysis at 1 Year

Mathilde Boiche, Jean Baptiste Conart, Amandine Luc, Cedric Baumann, Karine Angioi and Toufic Maalouf

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2017

The objective of this study was to observe the 1-year pressure gain in a consecutive series of glaucoma patients treated by selective laser trabeculoplasty, along with the clinical and technical characteristics that influence the evolution of intraocular pressure after treatment....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410080

Ranibizumab versus Dexamethasone Implant in Macular Edema Secondary to Ischemic Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Real-Life Practice: A Retrospective Case Control Study

Abdullah Ozkaya, Hatice Nur Tarakcioglu, Ipek Tanir and Beril Tulu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 03, 2017

The aim of this study was to compare the real-life outcomes of Intravitreal Ranibizumab (IVR) and Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (IDI) treatments in patients with Macular Edema (ME) secondary to Ischemic Retinal Vein Occlusion (IRVO)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410079

Visual Acuity, Visual Field, and Factors Influencing Automobile Driving Status in One-Thousand Subjects Aged 18 to 59 Years

Laurent Levecq, Antoine Safi, Jacques Jamart, Patrick De Potter, Eva Oustabassidis, Lorèna Blondeau, Léopold Meeùs and Iris Van Hollebeke

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2017

To evaluate the number of people driving in accordance with European legal driving requirements, measured as far binocular visual acuity and the binocular visual field, to identify variables associated with driving habits that do not meet legal standards....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410078

Bacterial Conjunctivitis Secondary to Novel Party Game

Derek K-H Ho and Sejal Bhatt

Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: September 09, 2017

A 42-year-old female was referred to eye casualty for suspected left orbital cellulitis with swollen eyelids, photosensitivity, pain and yellow discharge. 24 hours previously, she had played a party game wherein whipped cream was flung into her left eye; she immediately wiped the eye clean....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410077

Optimization of Venturi Mode Phacoemulsification Settings of the Abbott Medical Optics WhiteStar Signature Pro in a Porcine Lens Model

Alex J Wright, Rhett S Thomson, Austin D Bohner, Ashlie A Bernhisel, Brian Zaugg, William R Barlow, Jeff H Pettey and Randall J Olson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2017

The optimization of cataract surgery is becoming ever more important as the prevalence of cataracts continues to rise. By 2050, prevalence of cataracts is projected to double in the United States to around 50 million. As the demand for cataract surgery continues to rise, it is increasingly essential to perform these surgeries efficiently and safely....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410076

Uniocular Trilateral Retinoblastoma with Spinal Metastases

Geng-Yi Yong and Humayun Akhter Faisal

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 01, 2017

Trilateral retinoblastoma is a syndrome consisting of bilateral (rarely unilateral) hereditary retinoblastoma in association with an intracranial neuroblastic tumour arising usually in the pineal region, infrequently at the suprasellar or parasellar region. It can arise from either hereditary or sporadic forms of retinoblastoma....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410075

The Relationship between Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage with Duration of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Status

Burcu Nurözler Tabakcı, Gülizar Demirok, Yasemin Topalak and Ahmet Şengün

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 21, 2017

This study demonstrates a significant GCIPL thinning at all segments of the macula in DM patients than in healthy controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference between group 1 and 2 in terms of GCIPL thickness. These results confirm that DM has a neurodegenerative effect on the retina before vascular changes occur. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410074

Periorbital Allergic Contact Dermatitis - The Most Common Allergens in the Czech Republic

Miroslav Nečas and Eliška Dastychová

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2017

Periorbital dermatitis is quite a common problem in dermatology and also in ophthalmology. It may be either of allergic or non-allergic origin. Non allergic diseases include irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis (Figure 1), and seborrheic dermatitis. Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis may be caused by cosmetic products, nail polishes, hair dyes, certain airborne contact allergens (plants, epoxyde and other resins) or by ophtalmologi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410073

Compressive Optic Neuropathy Due to Pituitary Adenoma: Case Series

Vonor Kokou, Ayena Koffi Didier, Maneh Nidain, Nononsaa Batomguela Kassoula, Santos Mak, Amedome Kokou Messan, Dzidzinyo Kossi, Kuaovi Ra, Banla Meba and Balo Komi Patrice

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 30, 2017

A 32-years-old patient with a previous history of surgically operated anal fistula has consulted for a worsening progressive decrease of visual acuity associated with eye pain which lasted 5 years. The corrected visual acuity was 1/50 Parinaud 20 right and 1/20 Parinaud 4 left....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410072

Role of Scheimpflug Imaging in the Diagnosis of Intraocular Lens Damage after Foldable Lens Implant: Case Report

Txomin Alberdi, Javier Mendicute, Lucía Bascaran, Juaristi L and Javier Ruiz-Ederra

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 02, 2017

Area and Linear densitometry methods are increasingly used methods to measure density of any structure of the anterior segment. The peak densitometry value is the point at which the lens densitometry is highest on the densitogram. Therefore, it is not useful to measure the average density of structures of the anterior segment; however, it has other utilities like the one we describe in this article....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410071

Cat Scratch Neuroretinitis

Nicky R Holdeman, Liang Ma and Rosa A Tang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 13, 2017

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Bartonella henselae. This uncommon disease is believed to be transmitted by a cat scratch or bite, when the bacterium is present on the cat’s claw or resides in the oral cavity. There are approximately 22,000 cases of CSD diagnosed in the United States annually....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410070

Neuro-Ophthalmic Training Centers in Brazil: Are There Enough?

Luciano M Simao

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: March 29, 2017

Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty of Ophthalmology representing an intersection of two Medical areas: neurology and ophthalmology. In fact, a neuro-ophthalmic disorder may be related to any area of internal Medicine. Unfortunately, neuro-ophthalmology is facing a human resource crisis, even in the USA....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410069

Can OCT Scan Averaging Induce a Loss of Information?

Desmettre T, Menard M, Colas E and Tadayoni R

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 25, 2017

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of retinal conditions. Final images arise from computed scans derived from the backscatter of short coherence light. An averaging of retina scans is regularly integrated in the algorithm of most OCT devices....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410068

Successful Results of Severe Corneal Perforation Using Long Term Glycerin Corneal Donor Cryopreserved At -80 °C: Case Report

Villalba R, Gimenez-Almenara J, Gallardo JM and Oyonarte S

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 24, 2017

There has been long interest in developing alternatives to donor corneas preservation for providing tissue during prolonged period of time. In recent years, accumulative evidence suggest that glycerin preserved cornea at -80 °C as alternative method for corneal preservation maintaining sterility, thickness, optical transparency and mechanical strength of the tissue....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410067

Study of Critical Flicker Fusion (CFF) Function and P100 latency of Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) in Normal subjects and Patients who Recovered from Acute Optic Neuritis

Yanjun Chen, Kevin A Buhr and James Ver Hoeve

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 28, 2017

Critical Flicker Fusion (CFF) function has been used to assess visual function in patients with impaired vision. The purpose of this study is to seek further evidence to support the role of the CFF in the assessment of optic nerve function by comparing CFF to implicit time of the P100 of Pattern Reversal Visual Evoked Potential (PRVEP) in normal subjects and patients who recovered from acute optic neuritis....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410066

Haemophilus Influenzae Endophthalmitis Associated with a Glaucoma Drainage Implant in an Adult

Bac T Nguyen, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Robert E Coffee and Benjamin J Frankfort

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 27, 2017

A 65-year-old male with primary open-angle glaucoma underwent tube shunt surgery with an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP-7 (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA) in the left eye for uncontrolled intraocular pressure, worsening visual field defects, and advanced glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In that eye, the patient had previously undergone selective laser trabeculoplasty, phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens placement, and pars...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410065

Visual and Functional Outcome of Pediatric Bilateral Cataract Surgery with Intraocular Lens Implantation in Rwanda

Stefan De Smedt, Ildephonse Ngabonziza, Niko Speybroeck, Yannick Fonteyne, Jean Baptiste Minani, Piet Noe, Susan Buergi, M Edward Wilson and Rupal H Trivedi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2016

Surgical, pre-, and postoperative data of bilateral pediatric cataract surgery cases performed between 1999 and 2007 were collected from the notes. During a prospective follow-up visit in 2008 full eye examination was done, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment and refraction. Functional vision in daily life was assessed using a questionnaire....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410064

Pseudo-Duane Retraction Syndrome Secondary to Orbital Trauma: Case Report

Aysel Pelit

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 08, 2016

The report presents a case of type 3 pseudo-Duane retraction syndrome secondary to orbital trauma. There was widening of the palpebral fissure in abduction and globe retraction accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure and up-shoot during attempted adduction. Orbital computed tomography scan was normal....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410063

Predictors of Visual Outcome in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A New Stratified Approach Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Antonio Polito, Emilia Maggio, Antonio Peroglio Deiro, Massimo Guerriero and Grazia Pertile

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 08, 2016

We reviewed a consecutive series of 70 patients after three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab treatments for primary neovascular AMD. Age, sex, baseline vision, choroidal neovascularization type as well as OCT characteristics were correlated to final vision. On OCT, baseline integrity of the fovea was studied using foveal thickness (FTH), external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone as hallmarks. Masked readers graded images. Multivariate a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410062

Next Generation Artificial Eyes with Dynamic Iris

Jerome Lapointe, Jean-Sebastien Boisvert and Raman Kashyap

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 01, 2016

The eye is a vital organ for vision and an important element of facial expression, but also as the first point of contact between people. The loss of an eye has a far-reaching impact on an individual's psyche. Additionally, it affects a patient's professional and social life. Cosmetic rehabilitation with custom made ocular prostheses gives such individuals social and professional acceptance and mitigates problems of re-integration in society. For...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410061

Flash Visual Evoked Potential versus Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in the Diagnosis of Strabismic Amblyopia

Amany Abd El-Fattah El-Shazly, Walid Mohamed Abd E, Raouf El-Zawahry and Noha Ezzat Elsherbiny

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 01, 2016

We included 60 children with unilateral amblyopia, their age ranging between 4 and 10 years. Thirty age and sex matched healthy children were included as a control group. The included children underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation with focus on subjective monocular visual acuity, cycloplegic refractions, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, orthoptic evaluation, stereoacuity, worth 4-dot test....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410060

The Accuracy of Automated Angle Closure Screening Software

Anita Manassakorn, Chonlada Theeraworn, Pished Bunnun, Sirichai Nithi-Uthai, Rangsarit Vanijjirattikhan, Kittipong Ekkachai, Waree Kongprawechnon, Toshiaki Kondo, Direk Patikulsila and Kanokvate Tungpimolrut

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2016

Peripheral anterior chamber angle images of 27 eyes were taken by slit lamp biomicroscope and analyzed by automated software. The software selected region of interest and applied a light reflection extraction to detect corneal thickness (CT) and peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD). Three observers manually counted CT (CTm) and PACD (PACDm) pixels and compared with the CT and PACD pixel counts that were obtained by the software (CTa and PACDa...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410059

Relation of Pupil Size and Cataract Surgery using PupilX

Annekatrin Rickmann, Maria Waizel, Peter Szurman and Karl T Boden

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 08, 2016

Pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH) at 5 different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32 and 250 lux) before and after cataract surgery. Measurements were performed by the same investigator. 90 images were recorded during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410058

A Novel Osmoprotectant Tear Substitute for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina and Piera Versura

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2016

Thirty patients (24 women, 6 men, median age 45.5 yrs) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 18 years, good general health, ocular discomfort symptoms for over three months, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score ranging from 18 to 36, Schirmer test > 10 mm/5 min, Tear Film Break Up Time (TBUT) < 10 sec, corneal fluorescein staining ranging from 1 to 7 according to NEI level. Patients were administered three times daily for a two...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410057

Orbital Contracture Repair Using the Radial Forearm Free Flap: A Nine and Ten Year Follow-up

Brian T Andrews, Russell B Smith, Todd E Thurston and Keith D Carter

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 01, 2016

Introduction: Orbital contracture is a severe cicatricial process within the enucleated orbit prohibiting the use of an ocular prosthesis and often requires socket expansion procedures. We hypothesize that the RFFF provides stable long-term expansion of the contracted orbit and allows for continued ocular prosthesis use without the accumulation of keratin debris. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed at the University of Iowa Hospit...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410056

Introduction of a Toric Intraocular Lens to a Non-Refractive Cataract Practice: Challenges and Outcomes

Clare Kirwan, John M Nolan, Jim Stack, Ian Dooley, Johnny Moore, Tara CB Moore and Stephen Beatty

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 25, 2016

Aim: To identify challenges inherent in introducing a toric intraocular lens (IOL) to a non-refractive cataract practice, and evaluate residual astigmatism achieved and its impact on patient satisfaction. Methods: Following introduction of a toric IOL to a cataract practice with all procedures undertaken by a single, non-refractive, surgeon (SB), pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative data was analysed. Attenuation of anticipated post-...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410055

Blue-colored Cystic Mass in Newborn Babies

Titap Yazicioglu and Isil Kutluturk

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 25, 2016

The medical records of twelve newborn infants between 15 days and 3 months of age, with the presence of an unilateral dark-blue mass in the medial canthal region, as soon as after birth, were rewieved retrospectively. The management protocol was consisted of the warm compress and massage over the mass, and antibiotics when dacryocystitis developed. Nasolacrimal duct probing was performed in cases of no spontaneous resolution. Patients age at the ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410054

Color Doppler Imaging and Glaucoma: Comparison of Doppler Waveform of Retrobulbar Vessels between a Glaucomatous Patient and a Healthy Subject

Alice Chandra Verticchio Vercellin, Sara Lombardo, Carlo Cutolo, Carmine Tinelli and Giovanni Milano

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 24, 2016

Ocular blood flow abnormalities are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). For this reason the Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) evaluation of the retro bulbar vessels is used for research purposes to investigate the degree of these abnormalities and their role in the pathogenesis of PAOG. The most widely measured variables are peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistiv...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410053

Aflibercept for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Macular Degeneration: Results from a One Year Prospective Cohort Study. The Auckland Experience

David Squirrell, Priya Samalia, Leo Sheck, Rachel Barnes and Dianne Sharp

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2016

Purpose: To investigate the effect of switching patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD) non-responsive to bevacizumab or ranibizumab to intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg on best corrected visual acuity, macula volume, and central macula thickness. Methods: 50 patients with nAMD non-responsive to bevacizumab or ranibizumab received 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept, at three 4-weekly doses, then every 8 weeks for 48 weeks. Primar...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410052

Binocular Correction in Patients with Central Retinal Impairment

Mgr. Matej Skrbek and MUDr. Svatopluk Synek

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 21, 2016

Many of visual functions are usually impaired by serious retinal diseases. With different speed of progression, the point of sharpest vision is being damaged and visual acuity as well as contrast sensitivity and fixation stability declines. Instead of the damaged fovea the new preferred retinal points are arising and taking over its function as the referential position for the whole motoric system. The development of such new points of fixation c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410051

The Surgical Outcome of two Different Tear Drainage Tube in the Proximal Obstruction of Lacrimal System

Titap Yazicioglu and Isil Kutluturk

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2016

Complete proximal canalicular obstruction is one of the main cause of epiphora among patients complaining about ocular discomfort in their daily life. This functional disturbance is traditionally treated by a lacrimal bypass surgery named conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR). Other indications for this surgery are lacrimal pump failure associated with facial palsy and epiphora despite a patent dacriocystorinostomy (DCR)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410050

Intraoperative Corneal Incision Evaluation with Trypan Blue Technique

Ozcan Kayikcioglu, Sinan Bilgin and Mahmut Oguz Ulusoy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 13, 2016

In this report, we aimed to determine wound leakage by instillation of trypan blue onto main incision and side port incisions during phacoemulsification surgery with clear corneal incision technique. Thirty-four eyes with cataract of 34 patients, who were operated by phacoemulsification method were included in the study. Incision points were hydrated by balanced saline solution and leakage was controlled at the end of the surgery. Trypan test rev...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410049

Routes of Oxidative Stress in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Manresa N, Mulero J, Losada M and Zafrilla P

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 07, 2016

The pathogenic mechanism of AMD is poorly understood. The ROS and nitrogen species produced during stress may damage crucial biomolecules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. There is a strong relation between stress oxidative and inflammatory response in the pathology of the AMD. Actually, there are many routes of oxidative stress related with AMD but the most representative are: autophagy/heterophagy, apoptosis, and iron, DNA and anti...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410048

Non-stimulated Tear Sample Collection Using Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Foam and Polyester Wick

Rose K Sia, Denise S Ryan, Robin S Howard, Snezana Haymes, Yaling Zhou, Charles D Coe and Kraig S Bower

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 23, 2016

Tear fluid analysis contributes to the greater understanding of various ocular and systemic diseases. Obtaining adequate samples for tear analysis requires an effective collection method. The direct aspiration method using capillary micropipette may be challenging to the operator and patients especially when collecting non stimulated tear samples. The purpose of this study is to assess efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam and polyester wick (...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410047

Removal of Extruded Ex-Press Miniature Glaucoma Device in a Case with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve: A Case Report

Sinan Bilgin and Ozcan Kayikcioglu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 31, 2016

Here, we report our experience with explanation of ex - press miniature glaucoma device which extruded due to conjunctival erosion in a case with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After explanation of the shunt, opening-insertion site on the cornea was covered with conjunctival autograft. Although transient hypotony and limited choroidal detachtment were observed in the first two days, no complications related to failure of Ahmed glaucoma valve occur...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410046

Novel Deletion in the CNNM4 Gene in Siblings with Jalili Syndrome

F Kiessling, D Mitter, T Langmann, D Muller and H Tegetmeyer

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2016

Different mutations in the CNNM4 (OMIM 607805) gene are known to cause Jalili syndrome (OMIM 217080) which is characterized by a combination of cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. In particular one homozygous missense mutation Leu438Profs*9 in exon 1 of the CNNM4 gene has been described in patients originating from the Kosovo. This mutation causes a frameshift and generates a new stop codon in the same exon. The two patients described...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410045

Is Balancing Blood Pressure Night Dips Effective in Preventing Glaucoma Progression? A Pilot Study

Gil Peretz and Miriam Zalish

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 24, 2015

Much has been written about the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma. An elevated IOP has been found to be a risk factor for both glaucoma development and progression, and IOP reduction has been useful in at least slowing disease progression [1-4]. Some glaucoma patients continue to progress in spite of having low IOP levels, and this applies to treated patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as well as treated pa...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410044

Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers Inhibits Cholinesterase and Modulates the Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes: In Vitro Models

Khadija Ghanam, Jayant Deshpande and Vijaya Juturu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2015

It is well established that ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces immunomodulatory effects involved in different chronic conditions including skin cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), refractive errors, glaucoma and cataracts. Epidemiological studies suggest solar radiation is responsible for some of the deteriorating changes that lead to AMD Recent studies have shown that UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation are immunosuppress...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410043

Clinical Evidence of Ambient Temperature Variations on Femtosecond Laser Performance and Comparison with a Mechanical Microkeratome

Bojan Pajic, Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler, Iraklis Vastardis, Michael Mrochen and Zeljka Cvejic

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2015

The mechanism of flap creation with the IntraLase femtosecond laser has already been described extensively in the literature over the years. Femtosecond laser systems produce energy pulses (600 to 800 femtosecond) at an infrared wavelength of 1053 nm. The ultra-short impulses are focused at a spot size of a few micrometers in diameter at a preset depth within the stroma, leading to photo disruption and to a creation of a corneal resection plane. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410042

New Diagnostic Criteria for Infantile Nystagmus. An Upgraded Nystagmus Clinical Approach

Nadim Nasser

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 26, 2015

Purpose: CEMAS group has classified nystagmus comprehensively in 2001. From that time, several attempts to make the subject as uniform as possible, needed continuous upgrading. This manuscript is an upgraded clinical approach for diagnosis of Irreversible Congenital Nystagmus, which is in addition to its being one of the major clinical features of intrinsic ocular diseases, is also a sign of inborn errors of myelination. Design: We will accompany...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410041

Intravitreal Implant of Dexamethasone for Treatment of Refractory Cystoid Macular Edema Surgically Induced After Pars Plana Vitrectomy

Rino Frisina and Barbara Parolini

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 02, 2015

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal implant of Dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan, Irvine, Calif, USA) for the treatment of refractory and chronic cystoid macular edema secondary to PPV and peeling of ERM and internal limiting membrane (ILM) with or without simultaneous cataract surgery. Methods: Seven eyes of 7 patients affected by chronic and refractory CME for at least 3 months after vitrectomy and peeling of ERM and ILM...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410040

The Cornea after Primary Blast Trauma

Denise S Ryan, Bennett J Oberg, Michael J Mines, Rose K Sia, Keith J Wroblewski, Marcus Colyer, Dal Chun, Eric Weichel and Kraig S Bower

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 16, 2015

Purpose: This study examined the seemingly uninjured eye of soldiers with blast injuries involving the head, face, and fellow eye to obtain insight into primary blast ocular injuries. Methods: Serial exams were performed on nineteen U.S. Army Soldiers with a combat-related blast injury involving the head, face and either eye for effects of primary blast trauma in the clinically unaffected eye. Outcome measures included corrected distance visual a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410039

Glaucoma Functional Damage and Comparative Psychophysical Studies

Amal A. Elgohary, Laila Hassan M. Elshazly and Iman A. Fahmy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2015

Many clinical tests have been developed to determine the damage of visual function caused by glaucoma. These tests help in early detection of glaucoma, quantification of glaucomatous damage and progression. Currently, perimetry remains the measure of choice for studies of glaucoma progression. Visual field loss is the most prevalent and characteristic form of visual function loss associated with glaucoma....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410038

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy - Case Report and Review of the Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Stephanie Chan and Chloe C. Gottlieb

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 11, 2015

The ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are numerous and may be due to complement-activating immune complex deposition causing inflammation or thrombosis, secondary effects of SLE such as hypertension, related diseases such as Sjogren's and Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, or a combination of these. Left untreated, these manifestations can result in serious morbidity and rarely, mortality....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410037

Coexisting Normal- Tension Glaucoma and Deficiencies of Folic Acid and Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal)

Tetsuya Sugiyama

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 06, 2015

A 43-year-old man presented with bilateral visual field defect. Large disc cupping, retinal nerve fiber layer defect, and normal intraocular pressure were found in both eyes. Although the patient was prescribed an anti-glaucoma eye drop, the visual field defect deteriorated after two months of treatment. The patient was diagnosed with sensory, taste, and hearing impairments, as well as depression, caused by folic acid and vitamin B6 (pyridoxal) d...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410036

Relationship between Full-Thickness Macular Hole and Retinal Break/Lattice Degeneration

Jinglin Zhang, Yonghao Li, Xiujuan Zhao, Yu Cai, Xiling Yu and Lin Lu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015

The pathogenesis of full-thickness Macular Hole (MH) is not clearly understood but is believed to involve anteroposterior traction and/or tangential traction exerted by the posterior vitreous cortex at the fovea. Retinal Break (RB) and lattice degeneration are one of the most important abnormalities of vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. To figure out the relationship between the full-thickness macular hole and RB/lattice degeneration may contr...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410035

Introduction of Basic and Advanced Techniques of Ophthalmic Surgery in Myanmar

Carl-Ludwig Schonfeld, Chaw Wai Lwin, Volker Klaub, San Hlaing, Thazin Shwe, Mya Thandar So, San Myint, Claudia Klaub, Tomas Schaal, Martin Gruterich and Tin Win

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2015

Purpose: We report our fist experience with the introduction of an external teaching programme in Myanmar, a country that has only recently opened to the rest of the world. Methods: 19 eyes in 18 patients were treated by surgical teams comprising a German senior surgeon and a local ophthalmologist. Diagnoses and treatment procedures were recorded, and visual acuity was measured before and 1-7 days after surgery....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410034

Retrospective Comparison of Scleral Flap and Scleral Burial Techniques to Fixate A Scleral Sutured Intraocular Lens Concurrently with Penetrating Keratoplasty

Bora Yuksel, Alper Gulucu, Umut Duygu Uzunel and Tuncay Kusbeci

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 25, 2015

Definitive surgical treatment of aphakia in the presence of corneal opacity is secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation combined with penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The two main locations for IOL implantation are in the anterior chamber (ACIOL) and in the posterior chamber (PCIOL). Insertion of PCIOLs can be performed by capsular-supported, iris-supported, or transsclerally sutured PCIOL. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses with resp...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410033

Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Retinal Diseases: The Role of Intracellular Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Melina V. Mateos, Paula E. Tenconi, Norma M. Giusto and Gabriela A. Salvador

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2015

Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are common factors involved in the pathogenesis of several retinal diseases that eventually end in vision loss and blindness, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinitis pigmentosa and uveitis. Most of the studies on the above mentioned diseases have been focused on the neural retina. However, in view of the importance of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the ma...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410032

Surgical Management of Concomitant Ptosis and Cicatricial Entropion in a Patient with Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid

Scuderi G, Mutolo MG, Lambiase A and Recupero SM

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 22, 2015

A 71 year-old patient presented with vision impairment and pain in the right eye due to entropion associated with trichiasis and mild-ptosis. He had a history of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid together with a lung cancer of the apex of the right lung with pleural involvement. There was a history of central retinal vein occlusion of the left eye. Clinical and orthoptic examination was conducted and a decision was made to perform surgical correction...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410031

Ocular Hypotensive Activity of a Non-Peptide Bradykinin B2-Receptor Antagonist (WIN-64338) In Dutch-Belt Rabbits- A Case of Poly-Pharmacology in Action

Najam A Sharif, Laura Klekar, Linya Li and Shouxi Xu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2015

Ocular hypertension is a well-recognized and treatable biomarker that is believed to be involved in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the world. This retinopathy is a painless disease that is slow but progressive and steals the patient's sight if left untreated. Over the last several decades, a number of pharmaceutical agents have been shown to be effective in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP)...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410030

Retinitis Pigmentosa: Disease Encumbrance in the Eurozone

Vaidya P and Vaidya A

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2015

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is the most common hereditary progressive retinal degenerations and is fist cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries among persons under 70 years of age. It is characterised by progressive degeneration of the retinal photoreceptors. The objective of this review was to determine the burden of RP in the Eurozone....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410029

Treatment of a Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Patient Initially Presented with Choroidal Neovascularisation Secondary to Angioid Streaks

Muhammed Sahin, Alparslan Sahin, Harun Yuksel, Umit Peker and Fatih Mehmet Turkcu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2015

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare, systemic disease with typical ophthalmological findings including angioid streaks (AS) (represent breaks in the Bruch's membrane). A serious and common complication of AS is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which can result in significant and irreversible vision loss. The introduction of intravitreal agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has improved outcomes ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410028

Acute Ophthalmic Artery Occlusion as Initial Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Gowtham Jonna, Matthew SJ Katz, David M Rubaltelli, David C Gritz and Peter L Gehlbach

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2015

Purpose: To report the first case of acute ophthalmic artery occlusion as initial manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in context of marked Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) viremia and otherwise negative work-up. Methods: Report of a 25 year-old previously healthy man who presented to a hospital-based tertiary care referral center with acute, monocular vision loss. Complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angio...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410027

Free Flaps Reconstruction after Orbital Exenteration: A Single Centre Case Series

Saul N Rajak, Edwin Figueira, Natasha A Forster, Timothy Greenwell, Guy Rees, Dinesh Selva and Yugesh Caplash

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 25, 2015

Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring procedure that leaves a large defect. Free flaps are increasingly widely used to fill this. We report our single centre series of free flap reconstruction, which adds to the literature base on flap choice and potential complications. Methods: A retrospective single centre consecutive case series of twenty patients who has an orbital exenteration and free flap reconstruction....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410026

Orbital Apex Cavernous Hemangioma Causing a Temporal Visual Field Deficit

Ashley A. Campbell, Suzanne K. Freitag, Benjamin S. Bleier, Simmons Lessell and Dean M. Cestari

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 23, 2015

We present a case of compressive optic neuropathy from a small hemangioma in the orbital apex causing a mostly temporal visual field defect with some extension nasally on the pattern deviation plot. Given the visual field defect, the location of this lesion was expected to be in the anterior chiasm or prechiasmal optic nerve. This case supports the hypothesis that the organization of temporal visual field fibers likely occurs at the level of the ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410025

Supratentorial Anaplastic Ependymoma with Bilateral Papilledema

Meghan Berkenstock, Matthew Keisling, Jinglan Liu, Judy Mae Pascasio, Ayman Samkari, Prithvi Narayan, Melandee Brown, Erica Poletto, Christos D Katsetos and Myron Yanoff

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 01, 2015

Ependymomas constitute the third most common histological type of CNS tumor in children. Compared to classic cellular ependymoma (WHO grade II), anaplastic ependymoma is a more aggressive and less common subtype of ependymal neoplasm. We report a case of a supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma in a child presenting with a right sixth nerve palsy with bilateral papilledema. To our knowledge, the ophthalmic findings presented herein have not been pr...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410024

Multimodal Imaging of Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation Showing Finger-Like Lesions of the Outer Retina

Shiraaz I Rahman, Mihai Mititelu and Rukhsana G Mirza

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2015

Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP) is a process that occurs in patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in which retinal capillaries proliferate and invade posteriorly into the choroid. RAP lesions have a characteristic appearance of finger like projections at the level of the outer retina which can resemble inflammatory neovascularization. This case report describes a patient with RAP who received consecutive intravitreal inject...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410023

Incidence of Ocular Hypertension Following Silicone Oil Use after Vitrectomy Surgery

Ashiyana Nariani, Nitasha Khanna, Arthi Chawla, Rominder Momi, Anna Gabrielian and Seenu M. Hariprasad

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 14, 2015

Background and objective: Silicone oil (SO) is important in vitreoretinal surgery. The incidence of glaucoma after silicone oil tamponade (SOT) was investigated. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with SOT at the University of Chicago from 2005 to 2008 was conducted to determine the incidence of Silicone Oil Induced Ocular Hypertension (SOIOH). IOP in the SOIOH and SOIOH free groups was compared with the p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410022

Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Complications

Sergio Rojas J MD, Jorge A Sanchez R MD , Adriana Saucedo C MD, Benito Celis S MD, Carla R Perez M MD, Itzel Espinosa S MD, Araceli Rojas D MD, Angeles Hernandez V MD, Arthur Levine B MD, and J Abel Ramirez E MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 11, 2015

The use of antiangiogenic drugs (anti-VEGF) has been described in several retinal diseases, so their use has become a common practice in most eye centers around the world. Since its application involves an invasive procedure, several complications have been described associated with their use, including from subconjunctival hemorrhage to devastate endophthalmitis....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410021

A Test for Progressive Myopia and the Role of Latent Accommodation in its Development

Kodikullam V Avudainayagam, Chitralekha S Avudainayagam and Nicholas H Nguyen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 10, 2015

Purpose: To determine whether those myopes who respond like hyperopes when tested with a multivergence hologram are progressive myopes and to investigate the role of latent accommodation in the development of progressive myopia. Methods: Recently, we introduced a specially designed hologram to test the vision of spectacle corrected subjects. A subject viewing through this hologram would see the real and virtual images of different test letters at...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410020

Corticosteroid in the Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Keratitis

Elizabeth McElnea, Sarah Moran and Gareth Higgins

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 02, 2015

Retrospective review of the case of a nineteen year old gentleman who presented with a purulent ocular discharge and in whom peripheral corneal melt occurred....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410019

Treatment of Orbital IgG4-Related Disease

Rachel Lee, Craig A MacKinnon, Neil Aburn and Swee T Tan

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2015

Corticosteroids are currently the mainstay treatment for IRD but are associated with adverse side effects, recurrence on discontinuation of medication, and limited response if significant fibrosis is already present. Pentoxyphylline (POF) and α-tocopherol (AT) are anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosing agents that can be effective in treating both the acute inflammatory and chronic firosclerosing components of IRD....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410018

Artisan versus ICL in the same Patient: A Slight Aberration Makes a Big Difference

Isabel Signes-Soler, Tomas Moya Callejo, Jesus Gimeno Piza and Jaime Javoloy Estan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2015

We report the case of a 30-year-old woman implanted with an irisfixated lens (Artisan, OPHTEC) in the right eye (RE) and with an implantable contact lens (ICL) (V4, STAAR) the left eye (LE) for the correction of high myopia. The patient complained of halos and distortion on the RE 4 years after the Artisan implantation. There was a slight superior descentration of the phakic IOL....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410017

Congenital Retinal Macrovessel with Normal Visual Acuity: A Case Report

Harsimran K Bhatia, Shekhar Sharma and Laxminarayana P

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 12, 2015

Congenital retinal macrovessel is a large aberrant vessel discovered as an incidental finding. These aberrant vessels are mostly single, unilateral veins. CRMs do not affect vision unless there are associated foveolar cysts, foveal ectopic, pigmentary changes at fovea, macular haemorrhage, exudates, serous macular detachment or the macrovessel crosses the fovea. Thorough clinical evaluation and investigations are valuable in diagnosis and follow-...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410016

Nasal Mucosa Graft and Lamellar Keratoplasty as Treatment in Recurrent Pterygium

Ricardo Romero, Ricardo Romero-Fontenlos, Almudena del Hierro, Alvaro Arbizu, Margarita Sanchez-Orgaz and Ana Romero

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 02, 2015

Aim: We propose the use of lamellar keratoplasty associated with nasal mucosal graft for the reconstruction of the ocular surface in multiple recurrent pterygium. Methods: Our patient had undergone four operations of nasal pterygium excision on the right eye, using different surgical procedures: simple excision, excision plus conjunctival autograft, removal plus amniotic membrane graft, excision plus mucosa oral graft plus mitomycin C....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410015

Management of Descemet Detachment following Crescentic Lamellar Excision with Autolamellar Dissection for Pellucid Marginal Corneal Degeneration

Radwan Almousa and Sheraz M. Daya

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 26, 2015

A 35 year-old male patient with pellucid marginal corneal degeneration underwent crescentic lamellar excision with autolamellar dissection on his left eye. One month later, the patient developed localized corneal edema overlying the area of the crescentic resection due to Descemet membrane detachment....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410014

Long-Term Efficacy of Infliximab for Treatment of Severe Behcet's Uveitis

Emanuela Interlandi, Pietro Leccese, Ignazio Olivieri and Loredana Latanza

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2015

Medical records of 32 patients (56 eyes) were retrospectively analysed. Primary outcomes included ocular inflammatory activity, frequency of uveitis attacks and steroid-sparing effect. Results: Mean follow-up was 33,2 months while mean age of patients at disease onset was 33,3 years. Ocular inflammation was bilateral in 75% of cases and consisted in panuveitis in 46,4% of affected eyes....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410013

Systemic Rituximab for Conjunctival Marginal Zone (Malt) Lymphoma is not Protective for Subsequent Disease Development in the Contralateral Eye

Konstantinos Kopsidas, Amit Arora, Karim Hammamji, Gordon Hay, Victoria M.L. Cohen, Mandeep S. Sagoo, John L. Hungerford and P. Nicholas Plowman

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 23, 2015

Purpose: We report a case of a 35-year old male who presented with unilateral conjunctival extranodal marginal zone (MALT) lymphoma and underwent systemic Rituximab immunotherapy as primary treatment. After an excellent initial response and four years of complete remission he presents with MALT lymphoma to the contralateral conjunctiva. Methods: MALT lymphoma is the most common lymphoid neoplasm of the conjunctiva, and has an indolent clinical co...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410012

Effect of Interferon Alfa-2a on Peripheral Blood CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells in Patients with Behcet Uveitis: Preliminary Study

Aylin Koc, Sumru Onal, Aysin Tulunay, Haluk Kazokoglu, Emel Eksioglu Demiralp, Haner Direskeneli and Sule Yavuz

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2015

Purpose: To evaluate the phonotypical and functional effect of interferon alfa-2a therapy on peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells in patients with Behcet uveitis. Methods: Blood was taken from 5 patients with refractory Behcetpanuveitis and 5 age-matched healthy controls. Flow cytometric analysis of CD4+CD25+Treg cells was performed. CD4+CD25+Treg cells were separated by magnetic-assisted cell sorting and co-cultured. Cytokine lev...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410011

Generation of Retinal Progenitor Cell Sheets which Differentiate into Rhodopsin Positive Photoreceptors from Mouse iPS Cell Derived Retinal Progenitor Cell Clones

Noboru Suzuki, Jun Shimizu, Chieko Hirotsu, Erika Takada, Nagisa Arimitsu, Yuji Ueda, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki and Kenji Takai

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 05, 2015

We previously reported successful establishment of retinal progenitor cell clones. Here, we cultured them on temperature reversible gelation polymer, with supplementation of several chemokines. The retinal progenitor cell clones formed a cell sheet with extension of their axon like processes. RT-PCR of the cell sheets after two week culture, they were positive for retinal ganglion cell markers, bipolar cell markers, and photoreceptor cell markers...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410010

Macular Multifocal Granular Hyperfluorescence on Fluorescein Angiography

Taiichi Hikichi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2015

Purpose: To investigate the causes of multifocal granular hyperfluorescence at the macula on Fluorescein Angiography (FA) in Japanese patients. Methods: I retrospectively studied 1,457 consecutive Japanese patients (1,457 eyes) who underwent digital simultaneous FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Results: One hundred forty-seven of the 1,457 eyes had multifocal granular hyperfluorescence on FA images. Of the 147 eyes, 94 (64%) eyes had ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410009

Optic Disk Size Assessment Techniques: Photo Essay

Sourabh Arora, Helen Chung and Karim Damji

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2015

Measuring optic disc size is an essential part of the optic nerve head for evaluation for glaucoma. Large discs that appearing to have large cups may in fact be physiologic because of normal neuroretinal rim area. Small discs may appear to have a normal cup to disc ratio, but have decreased neuroretinal rim area in association with glaucoma. We illustrate relevance of these points with respect to glaucoma diagnosis in two case examples. We then p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410008

Macular Hole Formation Following Choroidal Neovascularization Treatment in A High Myopic Eye with Epiretinal Membrane

Yusaku Yoshida, Manabu Yamamoto, Takeya Kohno and Kunihiko Shiraki

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2015

Purpose: To report on the development of macular hole after treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a patient with high myopia and epiretinal membrane (ERM). Methods: Retrospective single case report.Patients: A 60-year-old man presented with reduced vision in his right eye. On the initial examination, the right eye was high myopic with decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.3. Results: A subretinal grayish-white lesion was s...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410007

Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Based Alterations in Macular Thickness and Inner Segment Ellipsoidare Associated with Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy

Sandeep Saxena, Khushboo Srivastav and Levent Akduman

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2015

Objective: To study the association of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) based alterations in macular thickness and inner segment-ellipsoid band (ISel) with severity of retinopathy in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Two hundred thirty eight consecutive cases and seventy nine healthy controls were included. Eyes of cases were divided into three groups according to ETDRS classification: diabetes without retinopathy (N...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410006

Biweekly Bevacizumab for Refractory Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

Ryan B. Rush and Sloan W. Rush

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2015

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of biweekly (twice-permonth) bevacizumab for treatment-resistant neovascular agerelated macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods: The charts of nAMD subjects treated with biweekly bevacizumab injections because of persistent retinal edema on optical coherence tomography (OCT) despite consecutive monthly anti-vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There were 17 subjects...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410005

Etiology of Fourth and Sixth Nerve Palsies: a Single Ophthalmology Clinic's Perspective

Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, FEBO, Kadriye Erkan Turan, Umut Arslan, Emin Cumhur Sener and Ali Sefi Sanac

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014

Purpose: To ascertain the etiology of fourth (CN4) and sixth nerve palsies (CN6) in an ophthalmology clinic. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 176 patients with fourth and sixth nerve palsies in a strabismus clinic. Demographic features and etiology were recorded. Results: One hundred and three patients with fourth nerve palsy and 73 patients with sixth nerve palsy were enrolled in the study. The median follow up was 2 (1-4) years......
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410004

Eye-Fixation Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder and the Influence of Pharmacological Therapy: A Microperimetric Study

Enzo Maria Vingolo, Serena Fragiotta, Alessandro Cutini, Pier Luigi Grenga and Giuseppe Bersani

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014

Background: To evaluate retinal function and fixation stability in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the influence of antidepressant therapy, using the MP-1 microperimeter. Methods: 25 patients with MDD (57 +/- 13.73 years) and 25 healthy subjects (HS) (56.41 +/- 15.73 years) were enrolled. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV), single (296.2) or recurrent episode (296.3) of MDD was included...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410003

The Superhero Drugs for Choroidal Neovascularization; Anti-VEGF Agents

Abdullah Ozkaya

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 29, 2014

A decade ago, the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to various macular diseases like age related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and angioid streaks was a crucial challenge. Laser photocoagulation could might be performed for juxtafoveal and extrafoveal CNVs and different surgical treatment options like macular translocation surgery and subretinal CNV excision were available. Th published studies usually were abou...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410002

Retinal Examination for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

Umur Kayabasi, Robert C Sergott and Marco Rispoli

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2014

Objective: To demonstrate AD plaques in retina. Methods: We examined 30 patients with Mild Cognitive İmpairment (MCI). In the patients in whom we found hyper or hypo florescent lesions on Fundus Auto Fluorescence (FAF), Optical Scanning Tomography (OCT) was performed through these regions to reveal depositions in the retina. Drusen like spots- dots were noticed in different parts of the retina. 20 randomly chosen patients and 20 age-matche...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410001

Reading Performance in Children with Visual Function Anomalies

Carla Costa Lanca, Helena Serra and Joao Prista

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2014

Aims: To compare reading performance in children with and without visual function anomalies and identify the influence of abnormal visual function and other variables in reading ability. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried in 110 children of school age (6-11 years) with Abnormal Visual Function (AVF) and 562 children with Normal Visual Function (NVF). An orthoptic assessment (visual acuity, ocular alignment, near point of convergence a...

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