International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research is an international open access, peer reviewed journal for visual science specialist and ophthalmologists. IJOCR serves the research field by publishing original articles in clinical and basic science research and other articles relating to the sense of sight. Excellence in IJOCR is attained through unbiased peer review, elevated learning, advancement in innovation and discovery. IJOCR reviews articles and innovative research reports from clinical observations, clinical investigations and relevant lab investigations apt in the field of ophthalmology. IJOCR themes to publish complete and reliable information on present discoveries.
The journal mainly focused on publishing of medical and clinical research of basic and modern sense of vision, which are involved in recent advances of diseases like glaucoma, uveitis, refractive surgery, cataract and other retina problems and also other related advances of eye science. IJOCR will be formally dispatched in June, 2014 are distributed as quarterly journal, on successive handling, while frequencies slowly secure the journal as bi-monthly to monthly along these lines. We are accepting article submissions for the approaching issue inside a month if articles are acknowledged for post-production. If an author interest lies between our necessities, generously go through author guidelines.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410126
Zerin Hekalo, Karine Angioï, Etselle Neiter, Jean-Baptiste Conart and Toufic Maalouf
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2021
Micropulse Transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (MP-TSCPC) is an established method of treatment for refractory glaucoma. This study evaluates the efficacy in terms of reduction in intraocular pressure and/or treatment amount, and safety and side effects of the ciliary bodies using a subthreshold laser with a duty cycle of 31.3% with Supra 810 nm Subliminal Quantel Medical, at one year in patients with refractory glaucoma. A retrospective, observational, single-center study conducted b...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410125
Miguel Angel Hernández-Delgado, MD, Sara Gonzalez Godínez, MD and Jorge Valdez-García, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 19, 2021
To determine whether anterior chamber depth (ACD) has any clinical importance as well as the significance in various physiologic and pathologic processes. Anterior chamber depth has a direct proportional relation with axial length, corneal power and anterior chamber angle. It has an inverse proportional relation with age. Shallow anterior chamber depth was associated with and increased risk of endothelial cell density loss after phacoemulsification surgery, less ascorbic acid concentrations that...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410124
Tayab C Waseem, PhD, Evan R DaBreo, MD, Jiang Douglas, MS, Yousef Hasanzadah, BS, Rebecca Clawson, BS, Alan L Wagner, MD, FACS and Kapil G Kapoor, MD, FACS
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 22, 2021
Historically, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) has been considered a controversial treatment for elective removal of primary symptomatic vitreous opacities (floaters) due to the possibility of extreme and even blinding side effects of the procedure. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and patient satisfaction level for those who undergo PPV for removal of vitreous floaters. This was a retrospective study of 54 eyes in 51 patients (average age 68) who underwent 23 gauges PPV between 2...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410123
Habib Dezhagah, MD, Hamid Sajjadi, MD and Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020
After history taking and complete eye examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve and retina, and then, laboratory tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and orbit were done. Those whose findings were in favor of increased ICP were sent to a neurologist for a lumbar puncture (LP). Forty- four patients were eligible to enter the study, but only 23 patients (10 males) completed the work-up and underwent LP....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410122
Natwar Singh Parihar, Mominul Islam, Nazmun Nahar and Mostafizur Rahman
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020
Ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity and blindness, mainly in the group of working- age population a record based study was carried out to gather baseline information of the cases of intraocular foreign bodies treated by pars plana vitrectomy and to evaluate the short-term outcome of the cases. One year data from June 2017 to June 2018 was taken from records of the tertiary eye care hospital in Bangladesh. Total 28 cases were included in the study. Data was calculated in perce...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410121
Ejike Egbu, Chidi Ihemedu, Ayobami Chioma Egbu, Ugochukwu A Eze, Onuwaje M, Betiku OB, Chioma Uchendu, Uduasobor P, Ikutegbe K and Sanni-Manuel FO
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2020
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus-2 (SARSCoV- 2) also known as COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system. There are however atypical presentations that involve other systems. This report aims to highlight the clinical features of a patient who presented to the eye clinic with complaints of blurry vision and binocular diplopia. Ocular examination unaided distant visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/4 in the left eye. The near visual acuity was N5 in each eye at 33 cm....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410120
Titap Yazıcıoğlu and Şaban Şimşek
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 02, 2020
The metal probes of the silicone tube that we use in dacryocystorhinostomy operations can sometimes break off during the surgery. In order to prevent material waste by opening the second tube, or sometimes the 2nd tube is not available, we tried to use 18-gauge, intravascular catheter as a guide material. And after removing the port part of the catheter, it is introduced together with the lacrimal prob into the punctum and advanced to the rhinostomy site and then silicone tube inserted into the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410119
Ejike Egbu, Chidi Ihemedu, Ugochukwu Rex Eze and Johnpaul Okolo
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2020
Drusen are pathognomonic of some ocular pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), familial dominant drusen, best macular dystrophy (BMD) and optic nerve drusen. The presence of drusen in the peripheral retina may be an early sign of AMD. This article reports a rare case of peripheral retinal drusen occurring in a similar pattern in both eyes of a forty-year-old man with unaided visual acuity of 6/4 in each eye. Optical coherence tomography findings showed bumps between the reti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410118
Carl Pellerin, BS, Ethan Thibodeaux, BS, Zhenyang Zhao, MD and Yusra Siddiqui, MD
Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: September 17, 2020
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), also known as human herpes virus 4, is a DNA virus that causes a range of pathologies. Interstitial keratitis (IK) is a rare manifestation of EBV that is seldomly characterized in the literature. To our knowledge, a review of the clinical presentations and reported treatments of EBV IK has not been conducted. Here, we report a case of EBV IK in a patient and review 14 cases in the literature. The differential diagnosis and identifying clinical characteristics of EBV IK,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410117
Rongrong Zhang, Fu Li, MD, Yan Yu, Tiantian Wang, Changfan Wu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 22, 2020
To analyze the short-term results of cataract surgery in patients with high myopia and determine the risk factors responsible for early postoperative visual outcome. A total of 93 patients (115 eyes) with high myopia who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were enrolled in this retrospective study. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. According to the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at one week after surgery...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410116
Pateras E and Karioti M
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 11, 2020
Contrast sensitivity (CS) expresses the quality of human vision. This article presents the main points for the interpretation of CS and what structures of the eye and brain contribute to achieving it. There is still information on the ways and types of CS clinical examination, factors and conditions affecting it, and the latest technological developments in its measurement. Visual acuity (V.A.) is the measure of the spatial resolution of the eye (the clarity or sharpness of vision) and its measu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410115
Susana Henriques, Susana Almeida Baptista, Fernando Trancoso Vaz, Mara Ferreira and Isabel Prieto
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 05, 2020
Choroidal metastases are the most frequent malignant intraocular tumor. In most cases, they arise after identification of the primary tumor and are associated with involvement of other organs. Less frequently, the ocular lesion may be the first presentation of a primary tumor or relapse of primary disseminated tumor. We present a case of choroidal metastasis as the first manifestation of recurrence of a breast tumor, diagnosed 4 years earlier. We analyze the clinical presentation, ancillary diag...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410114
Nagamani Beligere, MD, MPH, Vijayalakshmi Perumalsamy, MD, Jeyaseeli H Flora, MS and Marla J Garska, MS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2020
We assessed the neurodevelopment, visual and neurological outcomes among children with a diagnosis of ROP referred to an ophthalmic center in India between 2014-2016. Neurodevelopmental status was assessed using skills inventory, for premature and primary school children who are blind and visually impaired. Visual and motor coordination status was assessed using Buketencia Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410113
Tanner J Ferguson, MD, Jordan D Deaner, MD, Craig See, MD, and Careen Y Lowder, MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 30, 2020
We describe a case of a patient who developed late-onset intraocular lens (IOL) cellular precipitates 8 months after IOL placement. The patient had a history of clinically inactive toxoplasmosis and developed visually significant IOL precipitates 8 months after uncomplicated cataract surgery with a previously unremarkable postoperative course without other signs of ocular inflammation. The IOL deposits improved and resolved with use of topical steroids, which coincided with an improvement in vis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410112
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce, Michael Di Lorenzo, Robert Niihara, Sarah Sunada, Amanda Laporte, Kavita Narwani, Daileen Cortez, Jeremy Stark, Mynor Garcia, Alissa Diaz, Joan Oliva, Richard Hoft, and Yutaka Niihara
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 28, 2020
Immunofluorescent staining showed that both pathways were positive in normal corneal epithelium. However, while proteasome subunits were decreased in LSCD-CEC, autophagy biomarker MAPLC3B and ATG12-ATG5 complex were significantly increased in LSCD-CEC, compared to healthy CEC. These results indicate that LSCD-induced impairment of UPP may cause a compensatory stimulation of autophagy. However, despite autophagy up regulation, damaged and unwanted proteins, such as modified keratin K4 and K13 agg...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410110
Pinar EROZ and Mehmet Atila Argin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 23, 2019
Idiopathic orbital myositis is a subtype of idiopathic orbital inflammatory diseases characterized by inflammation of the extraocular muscles. The diagnosis of the disease is made clinically and radiologically. Clinically characterized by periorbital edema, ptosis, propitosis, diplopia and painful eye movements. The diagnosis is made by observing the enlargement of the involved muscles in the orbital CT. The most common differential diagnosis is thyroid ophthalmopathy. In this study, we presente...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410109
A Alwitry and S Hubbard
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 07, 2019
To determine whether a normal visual field assessment at a referring optometric practice is predictive of a normal visual field assessment at the hospital eye service and therefore whether there is any need to repeat it prior to first hospital visit. Data on visual fields of 501 consecutive patients, 1002 eyes/visual field assessments were collected. The positive predictive value of a normal visual field at the patients referring optometrist was 97% for the right eye and 98% for the left eye. Fr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410108
Kwan Supachutikul, MD, Vannakorn Pruksakorn, MD and Preamjit Saonanon, MD
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 24, 2019
ingle eyelid is a unique characteristic in East and South-East Asian. Narrow palpebral fissure with compensatory elevation of eyebrows is common in this group. This study aims to demonstrate the correlation between superior visual field defect and MRD1 without lifting of the overhanging skin (MRD1w) in single eyelid population....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410107
Peter R Greene, PhD, Otis S Brown, EE and Ronald M Berger, OD
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: April 20, 2019
The objective of this report is to quantify left eye to right eye refractive state differentials resulting from the accumulation of naturally occurring random fluctuations. Clinical SER data from adolescent emmetropic human subjects are measured and analyzed in terms of ensemble and time-series and fluctuations of the left eye , right eye , and left-right differential measurement, N = 20 subj. Results include random fluctuations for left and right eyes of human subjects age 11 to 23 years. Ensem...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410105
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: March 25, 2019
A 58-year-old man has been examined for the first time on 2012.09.28. Discovery of numerous drusen on the ocular fundus. Confirmation is made by O.C.T (Figure1 and Figure 2). A prescription of alimentary complement is seriously advised to the patient. The patient is at new consulted on 2013.09.26 after taking each day one tablet of alimentary complement. The control with O.C.T. shows an important regression of the drusen (Figures 3 and Figure 4). The prescription of alimentary complements has be...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410104
Pragati Garg, Smriti Diwedi and Ritika Mullick
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 06, 2019
120 patients after their informed consent and approval by institutional ethical committee. All patients who were above 18 years; could give consent and who underwent lumber puncture for any neurological symptom or diagnostic reasons and intraocular pressure was measured using Schiotz tonometer, were eligible for this study. Chi square test between ordinal (intraocular pressure) and categorical (intracranial pressure) values, and linear regression for ordinal (both intraocular pressure and intrac...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410103
Noelia Sabater, Jesus Costa-Vila, Joaquim Mauricio-Casanovas and Carlos Martin-Calvo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2019
To evaluate outcomes of alcohol delamination of the corneal epithelium as a treatment for symptomatic ocular surface irregularities. A retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 10 patients with corneal epithelial irregularities (9 with recurrent erosion syndrome and 1 Salzmann nodule) who were treated with alcohol delamination between November 2015 and January 2018 was conducted. All patients achieved success, defined as complete resolution of symptoms for at least one month. However, continued succe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410102
Sitaula Sanjeeta and Singh Sanjay K
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2019
Autologous contralateral autograft has been described as a useful procedure in patients who require penetrating keratoplasty on their only functional eye and have a clear cornea on their nonfunctional eye due to the low chances of graft rejection in autografts. Here we describe a case where we were able to salvage vision by corneal autografting in a blind patient. A 65-year-old male had blurred vision in both eyes with visual acuity of perception of light (PL) in right eye (RE) and hand motion (...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410101
Joel Hanhart, Doron S Comaneshter and Shlomo Vinker
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 21, 2018
To evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who do not complete the loading dose of bevacizumab, given as first line agent. Using the electronic medical records of all patients affiliated to the largest health maintenance organization in Israel who received intravitreal injections of bevacizumab between September 2008 and October 2014, we isolated patients aged of 60 years or more treated for neovascular age-relate...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410100
Mesut Erdurmuş, Uğur Acar and Güngör Sobacı
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 21, 2018
A 55-years-old female presented with pain in the right eye for 15 days. She had a history of complicated cataract surgery followed by pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular gas injection and sulcus fixated intraocular lens implantation. On ophthalmologic examination, pupillary capture by intraocular lens, shallow anterior chamber, corneal edema and elevated intraocular pressure despite maximum medical therapy was observed. Intraocular gas induced secondary pupillary block glaucoma diagnosis was made...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410099
Pragati Garg, Mohit Gupta, Swati Yadav, Luxmi Singh and Bharti Nigam
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 21, 2018
Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the principal modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Glaucoma is defined as progressive optic neuropathy, based on visual field loss and/or optic disc findings, is more likely to be associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), although IOP is not the only risk factor for glaucomatous optic nerve damage. The complex physiology involved in aqueous humor formation and its maintenance indicates its dependence on other syst...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410098
Zeyad Al-Moasseb and Konstantinos Balaskas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2018
The authors report 79-year-old women with PEHR who had persistent treatment resistance to Ranibizumab, with rapid improvements once switched to Aflibercept. Baseline visual acuity, subjective vision and measurements of anatomical disease were taken using macular optical coherence tomography, wide-field colour, fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography images. Post-intravitreal injection response was measured using visual acuity, subjective vision and anatomical macular optical coherence tomo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410097
Fatih M Adibelli and Halit Oguz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 10, 2018
This is a case report of an 11-year-old boy complaining with deteriorated vision and with multiple peripheral lesions in his fundus in the setting of gyrate atrophy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed, cystoid macular edema was in his both eyes. Plasma ornithine level was found elevated. According to these data, the patients were diagnosed with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. The patient treated with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and an arginine-restricted diet....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410096
Fatih M Adibelli and Deniz Altinbay
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 10, 2018
Brucellosis is a multisystem infectious disease, which still endemic in Middle East, Mediterranean and South America. Bilateral optic neuritis secondary to the meningeal inflammation is very rare complication of brucellosis. Here we present a 13-year-old male patient with the ocular brucellosis who has optic neuropathy, concluded his treatment and low vision aid for the visual impairment. Brucellosis is a multisystem infectious disease, which appear in miscellaneous clinical manifestation. Vario...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410095
Adeeb M Rushdi Ubeid
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 08, 2018
In the era of advanced technology in managing patients with cataracts, yet a number of patients remain unhappy. We daily face unsatisfied patients despite having 20/20 vision. Many of the ocular symptoms are in the form of ocular irritation, stinging, and blurred vision. Unrecognized dry eye could be a major contributor to these symptoms. Although cataract surgery is an intraocular surgery, it causes microscopic ocular surface damage that could worsen the preexisting ocular surface disease or le...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410094
Akash Raj, Ateeque Yousif, John Awad and Babar Elahi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and the most widely used surgical procedure for glaucoma is trabeculectomy, which creates a guarded fistula between the anterior chamber and the sub-conjunctival space. Although the history of surgical management of glaucoma dates to 1856, when Von Graefe introduced iridectomy as a treatment for acute glaucoma; the history of trabeculectomy is relatively short....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410093
Yuka Aoyama-Araki, Fumiyuki Araki, Tomoyasu Shiraya and Satoshi Kato
Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: September 20, 2018
Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a severe complication that may follow pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative fluorescein angiography (FA) and targeted photocoagulation of the non-perfused area (NPA) in preventing the occurrence of postoperative NVG....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410092
Santosh Singh Patel, Reshu Malhotra, ML Garg, AK chandrakar and Dhanshree Kalway
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: September 19, 2018
An eighty-year-old patient presented with right upper eyelid mass. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed large heterogeneously enhancing exophytic soft tissue density mass lesion with few hyperdense foci noted involving skin and subcutaneous tissue. An excisional biopsy was performed. A diagnosis of sebaceous cell carcinoma was confirmed on histopathology....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410091
Sankaranarayanan Rajkumar, Nair Gopinathan Vidya, Darshini Ankit Ganatra and Abhay Raghukant Vasavada
Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: September 10, 2018
The purpose of the study is to determine the level of iron, its role in oxidative damage and to profile and measure the level of transcript expression of genes responsible for iron homeostasis in lenses of human cataracts. Human whole lenses (WLs) were obtained from donors' eyes (n = 33) within 8 hours of death. A total of 167 (control, n = 35 and cataract, n = 132) anterior central capsules (ACC) harboring lens epithelial cells (LECs) and lens aspirate containing LECs, primary and secondary len...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410090
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato and Fumiyuki Araki
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 11, 2018
Subthreshold laser photocoagulation has emerged and is changing minimally invasive treatment for macular edema (ME) affected by retinal vascular diseases. However, this laser method requires specific photocoagulator, and it cannot be introduced at each facility. We investigated the efficacy of subthreshold laser photocoagulation using a conventional pattern scan laser (PS-STLT) in treating ME in clinical practice....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410089
Nazrin Nordin and Lott Pooi Wah
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: August 11, 2018
A 53-years-old woman presented with bilateral severe periorbital swelling and reduce left eye visual acuity. She had undergone laser blepharoplasty 1 week prior to presentation. Ophthalmic examination revealed both eye periorbital swelling with pouring pus discharge from lower lid with underlying erythematous and ulcerative skin, limitation of extraocular muscles and chemosis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410088
Erick Mendoza-Schuster, Guadalupe Cervantes-Coste, Virginia Vanzzini and Cecilio Velasco-BaronaD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 25, 2018
Postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis is one of the most devastating complications following cataract surgery. Fortunately, postoperative endophthalmitis is a rare condition, with reported rates ranging between 0.08% and 0.26%; however, when taking into account the millions of people who have cataract surgery every year, postoperative endophthalmitis becomes a significant public health issue....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410087
Deniz Altinbay and Fatih Mehmet ADIBELLI
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 05, 2018
A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 869 eyes of 464 patients who were referred to our center due to low vision between December 2010 and May 2015. Distance acuities of the patients were measured with a distant vision chart prepared for patients with low vision, and the near acuities were measured with a Jaeger near vision chart. Patients with logMAR ≥ 0.5 [snellen ≤ 20/63] visual acuity were included in the study. Cases were separated into 4 groups according to initial distant acui...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410086
Saroj Gupta and Harsha Saxena
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 26, 2018
We report a case of a rare congenital eyelid abnormality, ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, in an otherwise healthy male neonate, born to healthy parents out of non-consanguineous marriage. Newborn presented with a single band of tissue connecting left upper and lower eyelid, resulting in limited palpebral aperture opening. Antenatal history was normal. The baby was operated on the seventh day of life under local anesthesia. The eyelid band was excised at the level of each lid margin resulting ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410085
Jing Yuan, Behzad Mansouri, Jeff H Pettey, Sarah Farukhi Ahmed and S Khizer Khaderi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 18, 2018
In recent years, Virtual Reality (VR) has become more commonplace, with rapid adoption into daily life. VR is a non-invasive simulation technology that provides an immersive, realistic, three-dimensional (3D) computer-simulated environment in which people perform tasks and experience activities as if they were in the real world. The most direct experience of VR is provided by fully immersive VR systems. The most widely adopted VR systems display is a simulated environment through special wearabl...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410084
Umut Duygu Uzunel
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018
Prostaglandin (PG) analogues are being widely used to reduce Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. These drugs reduce IOP by stimulation of aqueous humor drainage primarily through the uveoscleral outflow pathway but significant effects on trabecular outflow facility also have been reported. The suggested mechanism of IOP reduction involves aqueous humor outflow enhancement through the uveoscleral pathway accompanied by collagen degradation in the ciliary body. This collagen degradati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410083
Kana Kawara, Akiyasu Kanamori, Sotaro Mori, Yukako Inoue, Takuji Kurimoto, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yuko Yamada and Makoto Nakamura
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 26, 2018
The median pre- and post-application IOP at 1, 3, and 6 months was 19.0, 17.5, 17.0, and 16.0 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly reduced after ripasudil application at all time points (P < 0.00001, the mixed effect model). The pre-application IOP and glaucoma type were associated with the IOP-lowering effect of ripasudil. Twenty-seven and 8 patients discontinued the application because of unsatisfactory IOP reduction and intolerable side effects, respectively....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410082
Diyana Ivanova, Stuart Richer and Anish Bhandari
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 30, 2017
Resveratrol (RV), the medicinal component found in red wine, was discovered in the 1940s. It was later found to have broad-spectrum anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular disease, and anti-inflammatory properties. This weak antioxidant is concentrated in red wine via fermentation, from grapes grown under stressful conditions of northern latitude, high altitude, and cold temperature. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410081
Mathilde Boiche, Jean Baptiste Conart, Amandine Luc, Cedric Baumann, Karine Angioi and Toufic Maalouf
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2017
The objective of this study was to observe the 1-year pressure gain in a consecutive series of glaucoma patients treated by selective laser trabeculoplasty, along with the clinical and technical characteristics that influence the evolution of intraocular pressure after treatment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410080
Abdullah Ozkaya, Hatice Nur Tarakcioglu, Ipek Tanir and Beril Tulu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 03, 2017
The aim of this study was to compare the real-life outcomes of Intravitreal Ranibizumab (IVR) and Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (IDI) treatments in patients with Macular Edema (ME) secondary to Ischemic Retinal Vein Occlusion (IRVO)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410079
Laurent Levecq, Antoine Safi, Jacques Jamart, Patrick De Potter, Eva Oustabassidis, Lorèna Blondeau, Léopold Meeùs and Iris Van Hollebeke
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2017
To evaluate the number of people driving in accordance with European legal driving requirements, measured as far binocular visual acuity and the binocular visual field, to identify variables associated with driving habits that do not meet legal standards....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410078
Derek K-H Ho and Sejal Bhatt
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: September 09, 2017
A 42-year-old female was referred to eye casualty for suspected left orbital cellulitis with swollen eyelids, photosensitivity, pain and yellow discharge. 24 hours previously, she had played a party game wherein whipped cream was flung into her left eye; she immediately wiped the eye clean....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410077
Alex J Wright, Rhett S Thomson, Austin D Bohner, Ashlie A Bernhisel, Brian Zaugg, William R Barlow, Jeff H Pettey and Randall J Olson
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2017
The optimization of cataract surgery is becoming ever more important as the prevalence of cataracts continues to rise. By 2050, prevalence of cataracts is projected to double in the United States to around 50 million. As the demand for cataract surgery continues to rise, it is increasingly essential to perform these surgeries efficiently and safely....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410076
Geng-Yi Yong and Humayun Akhter Faisal
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 01, 2017
Trilateral retinoblastoma is a syndrome consisting of bilateral (rarely unilateral) hereditary retinoblastoma in association with an intracranial neuroblastic tumour arising usually in the pineal region, infrequently at the suprasellar or parasellar region. It can arise from either hereditary or sporadic forms of retinoblastoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410075
Burcu Nurözler Tabakcı, Gülizar Demirok, Yasemin Topalak and Ahmet Şengün
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 21, 2017
This study demonstrates a significant GCIPL thinning at all segments of the macula in DM patients than in healthy controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference between group 1 and 2 in terms of GCIPL thickness. These results confirm that DM has a neurodegenerative effect on the retina before vascular changes occur. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410074
Miroslav Nečas and Eliška Dastychová
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2017
Periorbital dermatitis is quite a common problem in dermatology and also in ophthalmology. It may be either of allergic or non-allergic origin. Non allergic diseases include irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis (Figure 1), and seborrheic dermatitis. Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis may be caused by cosmetic products, nail polishes, hair dyes, certain airborne contact allergens (plants, epoxyde and other resins) or by ophtalmologic preparations....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410073
Vonor Kokou, Ayena Koffi Didier, Maneh Nidain, Nononsaa Batomguela Kassoula, Santos Mak, Amedome Kokou Messan, Dzidzinyo Kossi, Kuaovi Ra, Banla Meba and Balo Komi Patrice
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 30, 2017
A 32-years-old patient with a previous history of surgically operated anal fistula has consulted for a worsening progressive decrease of visual acuity associated with eye pain which lasted 5 years. The corrected visual acuity was 1/50 Parinaud 20 right and 1/20 Parinaud 4 left....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410072
Txomin Alberdi, Javier Mendicute, Lucía Bascaran, Juaristi L and Javier Ruiz-Ederra
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 02, 2017
Area and Linear densitometry methods are increasingly used methods to measure density of any structure of the anterior segment. The peak densitometry value is the point at which the lens densitometry is highest on the densitogram. Therefore, it is not useful to measure the average density of structures of the anterior segment; however, it has other utilities like the one we describe in this article....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410071
Nicky R Holdeman, Liang Ma and Rosa A Tang
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 13, 2017
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Bartonella henselae. This uncommon disease is believed to be transmitted by a cat scratch or bite, when the bacterium is present on the cat’s claw or resides in the oral cavity. There are approximately 22,000 cases of CSD diagnosed in the United States annually....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410070
Luciano M Simao
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: March 29, 2017
Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty of Ophthalmology representing an intersection of two Medical areas: neurology and ophthalmology. In fact, a neuro-ophthalmic disorder may be related to any area of internal Medicine. Unfortunately, neuro-ophthalmology is facing a human resource crisis, even in the USA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410069
Desmettre T, Menard M, Colas E and Tadayoni R
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 25, 2017
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of retinal conditions. Final images arise from computed scans derived from the backscatter of short coherence light. An averaging of retina scans is regularly integrated in the algorithm of most OCT devices....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410068
Villalba R, Gimenez-Almenara J, Gallardo JM and Oyonarte S
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 24, 2017
There has been long interest in developing alternatives to donor corneas preservation for providing tissue during prolonged period of time. In recent years, accumulative evidence suggest that glycerin preserved cornea at -80 °C as alternative method for corneal preservation maintaining sterility, thickness, optical transparency and mechanical strength of the tissue....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410067
Yanjun Chen, Kevin A Buhr and James Ver Hoeve
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 28, 2017
Critical Flicker Fusion (CFF) function has been used to assess visual function in patients with impaired vision. The purpose of this study is to seek further evidence to support the role of the CFF in the assessment of optic nerve function by comparing CFF to implicit time of the P100 of Pattern Reversal Visual Evoked Potential (PRVEP) in normal subjects and patients who recovered from acute optic neuritis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410066
Bac T Nguyen, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Robert E Coffee and Benjamin J Frankfort
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 27, 2017
A 65-year-old male with primary open-angle glaucoma underwent tube shunt surgery with an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP-7 (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA) in the left eye for uncontrolled intraocular pressure, worsening visual field defects, and advanced glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In that eye, the patient had previously undergone selective laser trabeculoplasty, phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens placement, and pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detac...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410065
Stefan De Smedt, Ildephonse Ngabonziza, Niko Speybroeck, Yannick Fonteyne, Jean Baptiste Minani, Piet Noe, Susan Buergi, M Edward Wilson and Rupal H Trivedi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2016
Surgical, pre-, and postoperative data of bilateral pediatric cataract surgery cases performed between 1999 and 2007 were collected from the notes. During a prospective follow-up visit in 2008 full eye examination was done, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment and refraction. Functional vision in daily life was assessed using a questionnaire....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410064
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 08, 2016
The report presents a case of type 3 pseudo-Duane retraction syndrome secondary to orbital trauma. There was widening of the palpebral fissure in abduction and globe retraction accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure and up-shoot during attempted adduction. Orbital computed tomography scan was normal....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410063
Antonio Polito, Emilia Maggio, Antonio Peroglio Deiro, Massimo Guerriero and Grazia Pertile
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 08, 2016
We reviewed a consecutive series of 70 patients after three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab treatments for primary neovascular AMD. Age, sex, baseline vision, choroidal neovascularization type as well as OCT characteristics were correlated to final vision. On OCT, baseline integrity of the fovea was studied using foveal thickness (FTH), external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone as hallmarks. Masked readers graded images. Multivariate analyses and stepwise regressions were performed to...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410062
Jerome Lapointe, Jean-Sebastien Boisvert and Raman Kashyap
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 01, 2016
The eye is a vital organ for vision and an important element of facial expression, but also as the first point of contact between people. The loss of an eye has a far-reaching impact on an individual's psyche. Additionally, it affects a patient's professional and social life. Cosmetic rehabilitation with custom made ocular prostheses gives such individuals social and professional acceptance and mitigates problems of re-integration in society. For centuries, ocularists and eye surgeons have worke...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410061
Amany Abd El-Fattah El-Shazly, Walid Mohamed Abd E, Raouf El-Zawahry and Noha Ezzat Elsherbiny
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 01, 2016
We included 60 children with unilateral amblyopia, their age ranging between 4 and 10 years. Thirty age and sex matched healthy children were included as a control group. The included children underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation with focus on subjective monocular visual acuity, cycloplegic refractions, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, orthoptic evaluation, stereoacuity, worth 4-dot test....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410060
Anita Manassakorn, Chonlada Theeraworn, Pished Bunnun, Sirichai Nithi-Uthai, Rangsarit Vanijjirattikhan, Kittipong Ekkachai, Waree Kongprawechnon, Toshiaki Kondo, Direk Patikulsila and Kanokvate Tungpimolrut
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2016
Peripheral anterior chamber angle images of 27 eyes were taken by slit lamp biomicroscope and analyzed by automated software. The software selected region of interest and applied a light reflection extraction to detect corneal thickness (CT) and peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD). Three observers manually counted CT (CTm) and PACD (PACDm) pixels and compared with the CT and PACD pixel counts that were obtained by the software (CTa and PACDa)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410059
Annekatrin Rickmann, Maria Waizel, Peter Szurman and Karl T Boden
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 08, 2016
Pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH) at 5 different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32 and 250 lux) before and after cataract surgery. Measurements were performed by the same investigator. 90 images were recorded during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410058
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina and Piera Versura
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2016
Thirty patients (24 women, 6 men, median age 45.5 yrs) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 18 years, good general health, ocular discomfort symptoms for over three months, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score ranging from 18 to 36, Schirmer test > 10 mm/5 min, Tear Film Break Up Time (TBUT) < 10 sec, corneal fluorescein staining ranging from 1 to 7 according to NEI level. Patients were administered three times daily for a two-month period with Isomar Eyes Plus, a hypotonic s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410057
Brian T Andrews, Russell B Smith, Todd E Thurston and Keith D Carter
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 01, 2016
Introduction: Orbital contracture is a severe cicatricial process within the enucleated orbit prohibiting the use of an ocular prosthesis and often requires socket expansion procedures. We hypothesize that the RFFF provides stable long-term expansion of the contracted orbit and allows for continued ocular prosthesis use without the accumulation of keratin debris. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410056
Clare Kirwan, John M Nolan, Jim Stack, Ian Dooley, Johnny Moore, Tara CB Moore and Stephen Beatty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 25, 2016
Aim: To identify challenges inherent in introducing a toric intraocular lens (IOL) to a non-refractive cataract practice, and evaluate residual astigmatism achieved and its impact on patient satisfaction. Methods: Following introduction of a toric IOL to a cataract practice with all procedures undertaken by a single, non-refractive, surgeon (SB), pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative data was analysed. Attenuation of anticipated post-operative astigmatism was examined, and subjective...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410055
Titap Yazicioglu and Isil Kutluturk
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 25, 2016
The medical records of twelve newborn infants between 15 days and 3 months of age, with the presence of an unilateral dark-blue mass in the medial canthal region, as soon as after birth, were rewieved retrospectively. The management protocol was consisted of the warm compress and massage over the mass, and antibiotics when dacryocystitis developed. Nasolacrimal duct probing was performed in cases of no spontaneous resolution. Patients age at the time of clinical examination, presence of retrogra...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410054
Alice Chandra Verticchio Vercellin, Sara Lombardo, Carlo Cutolo, Carmine Tinelli and Giovanni Milano
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 24, 2016
Ocular blood flow abnormalities are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). For this reason the Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) evaluation of the retro bulbar vessels is used for research purposes to investigate the degree of these abnormalities and their role in the pathogenesis of PAOG. The most widely measured variables are peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistivity index (RI) of the ophthalmic artery, central r...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410053
David Squirrell, Priya Samalia, Leo Sheck, Rachel Barnes and Dianne Sharp
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2016
Purpose: To investigate the effect of switching patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD) non-responsive to bevacizumab or ranibizumab to intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg on best corrected visual acuity, macula volume, and central macula thickness. Methods: 50 patients with nAMD non-responsive to bevacizumab or ranibizumab received 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept, at three 4-weekly doses, then every 8 weeks for 48 weeks. Primary outcome was BCVA at week 48 as measured on ETDRS...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410052
Mgr. Matej Skrbek and MUDr. Svatopluk Synek
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 21, 2016
Many of visual functions are usually impaired by serious retinal diseases. With different speed of progression, the point of sharpest vision is being damaged and visual acuity as well as contrast sensitivity and fixation stability declines. Instead of the damaged fovea the new preferred retinal points are arising and taking over its function as the referential position for the whole motoric system. The development of such new points of fixation can evoke condition which is similar to fixation di...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410051
Titap Yazicioglu and Isil Kutluturk
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2016
Complete proximal canalicular obstruction is one of the main cause of epiphora among patients complaining about ocular discomfort in their daily life. This functional disturbance is traditionally treated by a lacrimal bypass surgery named conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR). Other indications for this surgery are lacrimal pump failure associated with facial palsy and epiphora despite a patent dacriocystorinostomy (DCR)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410050
Ozcan Kayikcioglu, Sinan Bilgin and Mahmut Oguz Ulusoy
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 13, 2016
In this report, we aimed to determine wound leakage by instillation of trypan blue onto main incision and side port incisions during phacoemulsification surgery with clear corneal incision technique. Thirty-four eyes with cataract of 34 patients, who were operated by phacoemulsification method were included in the study. Incision points were hydrated by balanced saline solution and leakage was controlled at the end of the surgery. Trypan test revealed minor leakage in 23 out of 34 eyes (67.6%). ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410049
Manresa N, Mulero J, Losada M and Zafrilla P
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 07, 2016
The pathogenic mechanism of AMD is poorly understood. The ROS and nitrogen species produced during stress may damage crucial biomolecules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. There is a strong relation between stress oxidative and inflammatory response in the pathology of the AMD. Actually, there are many routes of oxidative stress related with AMD but the most representative are: autophagy/heterophagy, apoptosis, and iron, DNA and antioxidant enzymes. Autophagy is a cellular housekeep...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410048
Rose K Sia, Denise S Ryan, Robin S Howard, Snezana Haymes, Yaling Zhou, Charles D Coe and Kraig S Bower
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 23, 2016
Tear fluid analysis contributes to the greater understanding of various ocular and systemic diseases. Obtaining adequate samples for tear analysis requires an effective collection method. The direct aspiration method using capillary micropipette may be challenging to the operator and patients especially when collecting non stimulated tear samples. The purpose of this study is to assess efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam and polyester wick (PW) for non-stimulated tear sample collection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410047
Sinan Bilgin and Ozcan Kayikcioglu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 31, 2016
Here, we report our experience with explanation of ex - press miniature glaucoma device which extruded due to conjunctival erosion in a case with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After explanation of the shunt, opening-insertion site on the cornea was covered with conjunctival autograft. Although transient hypotony and limited choroidal detachtment were observed in the first two days, no complications related to failure of Ahmed glaucoma valve occurred. Because of an increasing number of patients w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410046
F Kiessling, D Mitter, T Langmann, D Muller and H Tegetmeyer
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2016
Different mutations in the CNNM4 (OMIM 607805) gene are known to cause Jalili syndrome (OMIM 217080) which is characterized by a combination of cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. In particular one homozygous missense mutation Leu438Profs*9 in exon 1 of the CNNM4 gene has been described in patients originating from the Kosovo. This mutation causes a frameshift and generates a new stop codon in the same exon. The two patients described here carry the same Leu438Profs*9 mutation in a h...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410045
Gil Peretz and Miriam Zalish
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 24, 2015
Much has been written about the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma. An elevated IOP has been found to be a risk factor for both glaucoma development and progression, and IOP reduction has been useful in at least slowing disease progression [1-4]. Some glaucoma patients continue to progress in spite of having low IOP levels, and this applies to treated patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as well as treated patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410044
Khadija Ghanam, Jayant Deshpande and Vijaya Juturu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2015
It is well established that ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces immunomodulatory effects involved in different chronic conditions including skin cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), refractive errors, glaucoma and cataracts. Epidemiological studies suggest solar radiation is responsible for some of the deteriorating changes that lead to AMD Recent studies have shown that UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation are immunosuppressive. Experimental studies have demonstrated that b...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410043
Bojan Pajic, Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler, Iraklis Vastardis, Michael Mrochen and Zeljka Cvejic
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2015
The mechanism of flap creation with the IntraLase femtosecond laser has already been described extensively in the literature over the years. Femtosecond laser systems produce energy pulses (600 to 800 femtosecond) at an infrared wavelength of 1053 nm. The ultra-short impulses are focused at a spot size of a few micrometers in diameter at a preset depth within the stroma, leading to photo disruption and to a creation of a corneal resection plane. Once the flap has been created, the device creates...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410042
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 26, 2015
Purpose: CEMAS group has classified nystagmus comprehensively in 2001. From that time, several attempts to make the subject as uniform as possible, needed continuous upgrading. This manuscript is an upgraded clinical approach for diagnosis of Irreversible Congenital Nystagmus, which is in addition to its being one of the major clinical features of intrinsic ocular diseases, is also a sign of inborn errors of myelination. Design: We will accompany the way to the diagnosis of congenital irreversib...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410041
Rino Frisina and Barbara Parolini
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 02, 2015
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal implant of Dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan, Irvine, Calif, USA) for the treatment of refractory and chronic cystoid macular edema secondary to PPV and peeling of ERM and internal limiting membrane (ILM) with or without simultaneous cataract surgery. Methods: Seven eyes of 7 patients affected by chronic and refractory CME for at least 3 months after vitrectomy and peeling of ERM and ILM, were recruited. All patients underwent intravitr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410040
Denise S Ryan, Bennett J Oberg, Michael J Mines, Rose K Sia, Keith J Wroblewski, Marcus Colyer, Dal Chun, Eric Weichel and Kraig S Bower
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 16, 2015
Purpose: This study examined the seemingly uninjured eye of soldiers with blast injuries involving the head, face, and fellow eye to obtain insight into primary blast ocular injuries. Methods: Serial exams were performed on nineteen U.S. Army Soldiers with a combat-related blast injury involving the head, face and either eye for effects of primary blast trauma in the clinically unaffected eye. Outcome measures included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), corn...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410039
Amal A. Elgohary, Laila Hassan M. Elshazly and Iman A. Fahmy
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2015
Many clinical tests have been developed to determine the damage of visual function caused by glaucoma. These tests help in early detection of glaucoma, quantification of glaucomatous damage and progression. Currently, perimetry remains the measure of choice for studies of glaucoma progression. Visual field loss is the most prevalent and characteristic form of visual function loss associated with glaucoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410038
Stephanie Chan and Chloe C. Gottlieb
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 11, 2015
The ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are numerous and may be due to complement-activating immune complex deposition causing inflammation or thrombosis, secondary effects of SLE such as hypertension, related diseases such as Sjogren's and Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, or a combination of these. Left untreated, these manifestations can result in serious morbidity and rarely, mortality....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410037
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 06, 2015
A 43-year-old man presented with bilateral visual field defect. Large disc cupping, retinal nerve fiber layer defect, and normal intraocular pressure were found in both eyes. Although the patient was prescribed an anti-glaucoma eye drop, the visual field defect deteriorated after two months of treatment. The patient was diagnosed with sensory, taste, and hearing impairments, as well as depression, caused by folic acid and vitamin B6 (pyridoxal) deficiencies at an internal medicine department. Th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410036
Jinglin Zhang, Yonghao Li, Xiujuan Zhao, Yu Cai, Xiling Yu and Lin Lu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015
The pathogenesis of full-thickness Macular Hole (MH) is not clearly understood but is believed to involve anteroposterior traction and/or tangential traction exerted by the posterior vitreous cortex at the fovea. Retinal Break (RB) and lattice degeneration are one of the most important abnormalities of vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. To figure out the relationship between the full-thickness macular hole and RB/lattice degeneration may contribute to the understanding of their pathogenesis.....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410035
Carl-Ludwig Schonfeld, Chaw Wai Lwin, Volker Klaub, San Hlaing, Thazin Shwe, Mya Thandar So, San Myint, Claudia Klaub, Tomas Schaal, Martin Gruterich and Tin Win
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2015
Purpose: We report our fist experience with the introduction of an external teaching programme in Myanmar, a country that has only recently opened to the rest of the world. Methods: 19 eyes in 18 patients were treated by surgical teams comprising a German senior surgeon and a local ophthalmologist. Diagnoses and treatment procedures were recorded, and visual acuity was measured before and 1-7 days after surgery....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410034
Bora Yuksel, Alper Gulucu, Umut Duygu Uzunel and Tuncay Kusbeci
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 25, 2015
Definitive surgical treatment of aphakia in the presence of corneal opacity is secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation combined with penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The two main locations for IOL implantation are in the anterior chamber (ACIOL) and in the posterior chamber (PCIOL). Insertion of PCIOLs can be performed by capsular-supported, iris-supported, or transsclerally sutured PCIOL. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses with respect to surgical difficulty, operative time, and co...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410033
Melina V. Mateos, Paula E. Tenconi, Norma M. Giusto and Gabriela A. Salvador
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2015
Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are common factors involved in the pathogenesis of several retinal diseases that eventually end in vision loss and blindness, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinitis pigmentosa and uveitis. Most of the studies on the above mentioned diseases have been focused on the neural retina. However, in view of the importance of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the maintenance of photoreceptors' (PR) viability and vi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410032
Scuderi G, Mutolo MG, Lambiase A and Recupero SM
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 22, 2015
A 71 year-old patient presented with vision impairment and pain in the right eye due to entropion associated with trichiasis and mild-ptosis. He had a history of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid together with a lung cancer of the apex of the right lung with pleural involvement. There was a history of central retinal vein occlusion of the left eye. Clinical and orthoptic examination was conducted and a decision was made to perform surgical correction of the entropion followed by correction of ptosis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410031
Najam A Sharif, Laura Klekar, Linya Li and Shouxi Xu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2015
Ocular hypertension is a well-recognized and treatable biomarker that is believed to be involved in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the world. This retinopathy is a painless disease that is slow but progressive and steals the patient's sight if left untreated. Over the last several decades, a number of pharmaceutical agents have been shown to be effective in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and have been approved for treatment of glaucoma ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410030
Vaidya P and Vaidya A
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2015
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is the most common hereditary progressive retinal degenerations and is fist cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries among persons under 70 years of age. It is characterised by progressive degeneration of the retinal photoreceptors. The objective of this review was to determine the burden of RP in the Eurozone....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410029
Muhammed Sahin, Alparslan Sahin, Harun Yuksel, Umit Peker and Fatih Mehmet Turkcu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2015
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare, systemic disease with typical ophthalmological findings including angioid streaks (AS) (represent breaks in the Bruch's membrane). A serious and common complication of AS is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which can result in significant and irreversible vision loss. The introduction of intravitreal agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has improved outcomes in patients with CNV. In this paper we aimed to pr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410028
Gowtham Jonna, Matthew SJ Katz, David M Rubaltelli, David C Gritz and Peter L Gehlbach
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2015
Purpose: To report the first case of acute ophthalmic artery occlusion as initial manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in context of marked Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) viremia and otherwise negative work-up. Methods: Report of a 25 year-old previously healthy man who presented to a hospital-based tertiary care referral center with acute, monocular vision loss. Complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, and full systemic evaluation were performe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410027
Saul N Rajak, Edwin Figueira, Natasha A Forster, Timothy Greenwell, Guy Rees, Dinesh Selva and Yugesh Caplash
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 25, 2015
Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring procedure that leaves a large defect. Free flaps are increasingly widely used to fill this. We report our single centre series of free flap reconstruction, which adds to the literature base on flap choice and potential complications. Methods: A retrospective single centre consecutive case series of twenty patients who has an orbital exenteration and free flap reconstruction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410026
Ashley A. Campbell, Suzanne K. Freitag, Benjamin S. Bleier, Simmons Lessell and Dean M. Cestari
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 23, 2015
We present a case of compressive optic neuropathy from a small hemangioma in the orbital apex causing a mostly temporal visual field defect with some extension nasally on the pattern deviation plot. Given the visual field defect, the location of this lesion was expected to be in the anterior chiasm or prechiasmal optic nerve. This case supports the hypothesis that the organization of temporal visual field fibers likely occurs at the level of the distal optic nerve prior to entering the anterior ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410025
Meghan Berkenstock, Matthew Keisling, Jinglan Liu, Judy Mae Pascasio, Ayman Samkari, Prithvi Narayan, Melandee Brown, Erica Poletto, Christos D Katsetos and Myron Yanoff
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 01, 2015
Ependymomas constitute the third most common histological type of CNS tumor in children. Compared to classic cellular ependymoma (WHO grade II), anaplastic ependymoma is a more aggressive and less common subtype of ependymal neoplasm. We report a case of a supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma in a child presenting with a right sixth nerve palsy with bilateral papilledema. To our knowledge, the ophthalmic findings presented herein have not been previously reported in the context of this tumor typ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410024
Shiraaz I Rahman, Mihai Mititelu and Rukhsana G Mirza
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2015
Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP) is a process that occurs in patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in which retinal capillaries proliferate and invade posteriorly into the choroid. RAP lesions have a characteristic appearance of finger like projections at the level of the outer retina which can resemble inflammatory neovascularization. This case report describes a patient with RAP who received consecutive intravitreal injections of aflibercept....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410023
Ashiyana Nariani, Nitasha Khanna, Arthi Chawla, Rominder Momi, Anna Gabrielian and Seenu M. Hariprasad
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 14, 2015
Background and objective: Silicone oil (SO) is important in vitreoretinal surgery. The incidence of glaucoma after silicone oil tamponade (SOT) was investigated. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with SOT at the University of Chicago from 2005 to 2008 was conducted to determine the incidence of Silicone Oil Induced Ocular Hypertension (SOIOH). IOP in the SOIOH and SOIOH free groups was compared with the paired t-test....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410022
Sergio Rojas J MD, Jorge A Sanchez R MD , Adriana Saucedo C MD, Benito Celis S MD, Carla R Perez M MD, Itzel Espinosa S MD, Araceli Rojas D MD, Angeles Hernandez V MD, Arthur Levine B MD, and J Abel Ramirez E MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 11, 2015
The use of antiangiogenic drugs (anti-VEGF) has been described in several retinal diseases, so their use has become a common practice in most eye centers around the world. Since its application involves an invasive procedure, several complications have been described associated with their use, including from subconjunctival hemorrhage to devastate endophthalmitis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410021
Kodikullam V Avudainayagam, Chitralekha S Avudainayagam and Nicholas H Nguyen
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 10, 2015
Purpose: To determine whether those myopes who respond like hyperopes when tested with a multivergence hologram are progressive myopes and to investigate the role of latent accommodation in the development of progressive myopia. Methods: Recently, we introduced a specially designed hologram to test the vision of spectacle corrected subjects. A subject viewing through this hologram would see the real and virtual images of different test letters at various distances....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410020
Elizabeth McElnea, Sarah Moran and Gareth Higgins
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 02, 2015
Retrospective review of the case of a nineteen year old gentleman who presented with a purulent ocular discharge and in whom peripheral corneal melt occurred....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410019
Rachel Lee, Craig A MacKinnon, Neil Aburn and Swee T Tan
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2015
Corticosteroids are currently the mainstay treatment for IRD but are associated with adverse side effects, recurrence on discontinuation of medication, and limited response if significant fibrosis is already present. Pentoxyphylline (POF) and α-tocopherol (AT) are anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosing agents that can be effective in treating both the acute inflammatory and chronic firosclerosing components of IRD....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410018
Isabel Signes-Soler, Tomas Moya Callejo, Jesus Gimeno Piza and Jaime Javoloy Estan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2015
We report the case of a 30-year-old woman implanted with an irisfixated lens (Artisan, OPHTEC) in the right eye (RE) and with an implantable contact lens (ICL) (V4, STAAR) the left eye (LE) for the correction of high myopia. The patient complained of halos and distortion on the RE 4 years after the Artisan implantation. There was a slight superior descentration of the phakic IOL....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410017
Harsimran K Bhatia, Shekhar Sharma and Laxminarayana P
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 12, 2015
Congenital retinal macrovessel is a large aberrant vessel discovered as an incidental finding. These aberrant vessels are mostly single, unilateral veins. CRMs do not affect vision unless there are associated foveolar cysts, foveal ectopic, pigmentary changes at fovea, macular haemorrhage, exudates, serous macular detachment or the macrovessel crosses the fovea. Thorough clinical evaluation and investigations are valuable in diagnosis and follow-up of such cases and aid in timely management of a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410016
Ricardo Romero, Ricardo Romero-Fontenlos, Almudena del Hierro, Alvaro Arbizu, Margarita Sanchez-Orgaz and Ana Romero
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 02, 2015
Aim: We propose the use of lamellar keratoplasty associated with nasal mucosal graft for the reconstruction of the ocular surface in multiple recurrent pterygium. Methods: Our patient had undergone four operations of nasal pterygium excision on the right eye, using different surgical procedures: simple excision, excision plus conjunctival autograft, removal plus amniotic membrane graft, excision plus mucosa oral graft plus mitomycin C....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410015
Radwan Almousa and Sheraz M. Daya
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 26, 2015
A 35 year-old male patient with pellucid marginal corneal degeneration underwent crescentic lamellar excision with autolamellar dissection on his left eye. One month later, the patient developed localized corneal edema overlying the area of the crescentic resection due to Descemet membrane detachment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410014
Emanuela Interlandi, Pietro Leccese, Ignazio Olivieri and Loredana Latanza
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2015
Medical records of 32 patients (56 eyes) were retrospectively analysed. Primary outcomes included ocular inflammatory activity, frequency of uveitis attacks and steroid-sparing effect. Results: Mean follow-up was 33,2 months while mean age of patients at disease onset was 33,3 years. Ocular inflammation was bilateral in 75% of cases and consisted in panuveitis in 46,4% of affected eyes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410013
Konstantinos Kopsidas, Amit Arora, Karim Hammamji, Gordon Hay, Victoria M.L. Cohen, Mandeep S. Sagoo, John L. Hungerford and P. Nicholas Plowman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 23, 2015
Purpose: We report a case of a 35-year old male who presented with unilateral conjunctival extranodal marginal zone (MALT) lymphoma and underwent systemic Rituximab immunotherapy as primary treatment. After an excellent initial response and four years of complete remission he presents with MALT lymphoma to the contralateral conjunctiva. Methods: MALT lymphoma is the most common lymphoid neoplasm of the conjunctiva, and has an indolent clinical course....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410012
Aylin Koc, Sumru Onal, Aysin Tulunay, Haluk Kazokoglu, Emel Eksioglu Demiralp, Haner Direskeneli and Sule Yavuz
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2015
Purpose: To evaluate the phonotypical and functional effect of interferon alfa-2a therapy on peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells in patients with Behcet uveitis. Methods: Blood was taken from 5 patients with refractory Behcetpanuveitis and 5 age-matched healthy controls. Flow cytometric analysis of CD4+CD25+Treg cells was performed. CD4+CD25+Treg cells were separated by magnetic-assisted cell sorting and co-cultured. Cytokine levels in the supernatants were determined by ELISA.....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410011
Noboru Suzuki, Jun Shimizu, Chieko Hirotsu, Erika Takada, Nagisa Arimitsu, Yuji Ueda, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki and Kenji Takai
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 05, 2015
We previously reported successful establishment of retinal progenitor cell clones. Here, we cultured them on temperature reversible gelation polymer, with supplementation of several chemokines. The retinal progenitor cell clones formed a cell sheet with extension of their axon like processes. RT-PCR of the cell sheets after two week culture, they were positive for retinal ganglion cell markers, bipolar cell markers, and photoreceptor cell markers. Immunohistochemistry suggested that the cell she...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410010
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2015
Purpose: To investigate the causes of multifocal granular hyperfluorescence at the macula on Fluorescein Angiography (FA) in Japanese patients. Methods: I retrospectively studied 1,457 consecutive Japanese patients (1,457 eyes) who underwent digital simultaneous FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Results: One hundred forty-seven of the 1,457 eyes had multifocal granular hyperfluorescence on FA images. Of the 147 eyes, 94 (64%) eyes had polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV); 25 (17%) ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410009
Sourabh Arora, Helen Chung and Karim Damji
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2015
Measuring optic disc size is an essential part of the optic nerve head for evaluation for glaucoma. Large discs that appearing to have large cups may in fact be physiologic because of normal neuroretinal rim area. Small discs may appear to have a normal cup to disc ratio, but have decreased neuroretinal rim area in association with glaucoma. We illustrate relevance of these points with respect to glaucoma diagnosis in two case examples. We then present clinically relevant techniques to assess di...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410008
Yusaku Yoshida, Manabu Yamamoto, Takeya Kohno and Kunihiko Shiraki
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2015
Purpose: To report on the development of macular hole after treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a patient with high myopia and epiretinal membrane (ERM). Methods: Retrospective single case report.Patients: A 60-year-old man presented with reduced vision in his right eye. On the initial examination, the right eye was high myopic with decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.3. Results: A subretinal grayish-white lesion was seen at the macula with hemorrhage, and optical coh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410007
Sandeep Saxena, Khushboo Srivastav and Levent Akduman
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2015
Objective: To study the association of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) based alterations in macular thickness and inner segment-ellipsoid band (ISel) with severity of retinopathy in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Two hundred thirty eight consecutive cases and seventy nine healthy controls were included. Eyes of cases were divided into three groups according to ETDRS classification: diabetes without retinopathy (No DR) (n=79), non-proliferative diabetic retinopat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410006
Ryan B. Rush and Sloan W. Rush
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2015
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of biweekly (twice-permonth) bevacizumab for treatment-resistant neovascular agerelated macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods: The charts of nAMD subjects treated with biweekly bevacizumab injections because of persistent retinal edema on optical coherence tomography (OCT) despite consecutive monthly anti-vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There were 17 subjects included in the analysis. An average of 10.8 (+/-...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410005
Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, FEBO, Kadriye Erkan Turan, Umut Arslan, Emin Cumhur Sener and Ali Sefi Sanac
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Purpose: To ascertain the etiology of fourth (CN4) and sixth nerve palsies (CN6) in an ophthalmology clinic. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 176 patients with fourth and sixth nerve palsies in a strabismus clinic. Demographic features and etiology were recorded. Results: One hundred and three patients with fourth nerve palsy and 73 patients with sixth nerve palsy were enrolled in the study. The median follow up was 2 (1-4) years....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410004
Enzo Maria Vingolo, Serena Fragiotta, Alessandro Cutini, Pier Luigi Grenga and Giuseppe Bersani
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Background: To evaluate retinal function and fixation stability in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the influence of antidepressant therapy, using the MP-1 microperimeter. Methods: 25 patients with MDD (57 +/- 13.73 years) and 25 healthy subjects (HS) (56.41 +/- 15.73 years) were enrolled. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV), single (296.2) or recurrent episode (296.3) of MDD was included. Retinal sensitivity, fixation stability, and biv...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410003
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 29, 2014
A decade ago, the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to various macular diseases like age related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and angioid streaks was a crucial challenge. Laser photocoagulation could might be performed for juxtafoveal and extrafoveal CNVs and different surgical treatment options like macular translocation surgery and subretinal CNV excision were available. Th published studies usually were about neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nA...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410002
Umur Kayabasi, Robert C Sergott and Marco Rispoli
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2014
Objective: To demonstrate AD plaques in retina. Methods: We examined 30 patients with Mild Cognitive İmpairment (MCI). In the patients in whom we found hyper or hypo florescent lesions on Fundus Auto Fluorescence (FAF), Optical Scanning Tomography (OCT) was performed through these regions to reveal depositions in the retina. Drusen like spots- dots were noticed in different parts of the retina. 20 randomly chosen patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were given curcumin to check fo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410001
Carla Costa Lanca, Helena Serra and Joao Prista
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2014
Aims: To compare reading performance in children with and without visual function anomalies and identify the influence of abnormal visual function and other variables in reading ability. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried in 110 children of school age (6-11 years) with Abnormal Visual Function (AVF) and 562 children with Normal Visual Function (NVF). An orthoptic assessment (visual acuity, ocular alignment, near point of convergence and accommodation, stereopsis and vergences) and au...
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