Greene PR, Brown OS, Berger RM (2019) Refraction Data Survey, Ensemble & Time Series Statistics during Adolescence. Int J Ophthalmol Clin Res 6:107.


© 2019 Greene PR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH | OPEN ACCESS DOI: 10.23937/2378-346X/1410107

Refraction Data Survey, Ensemble & Time Series Statistics during Adolescence

Peter R Greene, PhD1*, Otis S Brown, EE2 and Ronald M Berger, OD3

1BGKT Consulting Ltd., Bioengineering, Huntington, New York, 11743, USA

2C & O Research, Optics, Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, 17268, USA

3O.D., Ellicott City, Maryland, 21042, USA



The objective of this report is to quantify left eye to right eye refractive state differentials resulting from the accumulation of naturally occurring random fluctuations.


Clinical SER data from adolescent emmetropic human subjects are measured and analyzed in terms of ensemble and time-series and fluctuations of the left eye , right eye , and left-right differential measurement, N = 20 subj.


Results include random fluctuations for left and right eyes of human subjects age 11 to 23 years. Ensemble R - L differential measurement for this group is +/- 0.21 diopters RMS. Left-Right coupling ratio is CR = 0.88 for both the differential and average /2 control system input signals. Data from human subjects show individual fluctuations of +/- 0.15 D to +/- 0.35 D for the left and right eyes. Normal emmetropic eyes exhibit a slow and steady trend towards myopia, at the rate of -0.40 to -0.50 diopt./decade.


Ensemble and time-series results show that 15.9% of emmetropic adolescents are expected to progress into myopia during ages 12 to 22 years. Substantial shifts of greater than +/- 0.4 diopters will produce a negative myopic exponential time constant response of the focal status of the eye. The aim of this study is to analyze cross-sectional (ensemble) and longitudinal (time series) results, both in terms of the trend line and fluctuations about said line.