International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research is an open access peer-reviewed for latest findings and research in cancer. It invites submissions under the broad scope of topics relevant to clinical cancer research and publishes original research articles, short reports, mini reviews, and letters to the editor. The journal encourages to publish original, novel, and well-designed studies in clinical cancer research. It is especially interested in clinical trials evaluating new treatments, accompanied by research on pharmacology and molecular alterations or biomarkers that predict response or resistance to treatment. The main focus is to publish innovative clinical and translational cancer research studies that bridge the laboratory and the clinic.

It accelerates the pace of research, discovery and innovation in clinical cancer research. its publication scope covers all subfields of clinical cancer research. All submissions are peer reviewed and only those that meet high standards of scientific merit will be accepted for publication. This journal also involved into publishing news with time by time developments and advances clinical cancer research, which helps users to understand the severity and precaution measures to be taken.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2378-3419

Editor-in-chief: Sulma I Mohammed

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Cancer Clin Res

ISO abbreviation: Int J Cancer Clin Res

Other titles: IJCCR

Category: Cancer

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410097

A Review of Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines for African American Veterans

Arthi Reddy, Russell Roberts, Divya Shenoy, Satyaseelan Packianathan, Shankar Giri and Srinivasan Vijayakumar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2018

Prostate cancer is the one of the commonest cancers in American men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. In 2012, the US Preventative Task Force recommended against the prostate specific antigen-based screening test for prostate cancer due to overtreatment of low-risk disease and lack of impact on outcomes. In the general population, African-American men have 60% higher incidence and 200-300% greater mortality rate from prostate cancer than Caucasian men....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410096

Effect of Surgery and Adjuvant Radiotherapy on Overall Survival for Non-Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A SEER Population Analysis

John S Goodman, Howard R Sanders, Brian J Mitchell, Jeffrey D Bunn, Jason A Call, Robert K Fairbanks, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Aaron E Wagner, Ben J Peressini, Casey Strauss and Christopher M Lee

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 21, 2018

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon histology that develops from major and minor salivary gland tissue. ACC can originate from multiple different organs but is primarily associated with the salivary gland tissue in the head and neck. According to He S, et al., ACC follows an indolent clinical pattern with a tendency for perineural invasion and accounts for three to five percent of all head and neck cancers....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410095

What the Oncologist Needs to Know about Axillary Web Syndrome

Ray C Mayo and Jessica Leung

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2018

A 60 yr female underwent bilateral skin sparing mastectomy with bilateral sentinel lymph node biopsies. Two months after her surgery, the patient began to notice increasing constant "pain and stiffness" in her shoulders bilaterally and difficulty "reaching overhead". Upon presentation to her health care team, she was noted to have impaired shoulder range of motion bilaterally related to bilateral thick axillary cords....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410094

Axillary Web Syndrome: What the Radiologist Needs to Know

Ray C Mayo

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 14, 2018

A 60 yr African American female was called back from her annual screening mammogram for an asymmetry in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast on the MLO view. Ultrasound revealed a 1.7 cm irregular hypoechoic mass with indistinct margins. Additionally multiple sub-centimeter non-contiguous hypoechoic satellite masses extended towards the nipple. One axillary node showed focal cortical thickening. Subsequent biopsy of the 1.7 cm mass and most anteriorly located satellite mass showed invasiv...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410093

Basosquamous Carcinoma: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

CH Saadani, H Baybay, H ElMahi, KH Elboukhari, S Gallouj, I SOUAF and FZ Mernissi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 13, 2018

Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) or metatypical carcinoma is a poorly known cutaneous tumor that is considered as an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrences and metastases. The most common onset is in the head and neck region....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410092

Quantification of Dosimetric Effects of Dental Metallic Implant on Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Plans

Chun-I Lin, Yuanming Feng, Wenhuan Jiang and Zhibin Huang

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 30, 2018

CT images with the presence of metallic implants may cause severe metal artifacts with incorrect CT numbers, which lead to inaccurate dose calculation in RT planning. The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of metallic implants that correlates with the size of targets and metallic implants and the distance between the two on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients with dental impl...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410091

Which Has Better Dosimetry in Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Rapid Arc or 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Techniques?

MW Hegazy, B Moftah and O Hassad

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 26, 2018

Our study was on 10 patients with RPS diagnosed and treated at king Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, planned for pre or postoperative radiation therapy with prescribed dose of 45Gy in 25 fractions. In both techniques, we looked at planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose homogeneity and organs at risk dose (stomach, bowel, liver, kidneys and spinal cord)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410090

A Literature Review on Current Evidence of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Vineet Kwatra, Jose Roca, Sophie Merrick, Ruhe Chowdhury, Eleni Karapanagiotou and Rohit Lal

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: April 18, 2018

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are changing the landscape in management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4) are two important co-inhibitory receptors which can lead to suppression of T-cell function when bound to its ligands. Results from multiple large randomised phase 3 trials have shown a significant improvement in overall survival with durable response in ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410089

Clinical Utility of Serum Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Type 2 Testing as a Marker of Therapeutic Response In Tissue HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients

Seiichi Mokuyasu and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 18, 2017

Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor type 2 (HER2) is over expressed in 20.0-30.0% of breast cancers and is currently evaluated histopathologically. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization require invasive enucleation of the tumor tissue and may be affected by heterogeneity....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410088

Ipilimumab Activity in Advanced Uveal Melanoma: A Pooled Analysis

Muhammad A Khattak and Elin Gray

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 18, 2017

Uveal Melanoma is a rare tumour that displays different clinical behavior and molecular features compared with cutaneous melanoma. It is generally resistant to systemic therapy and there is no current standard effective therapy to treat patients with advanced disease....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410087

Immune Paralysis and the Spontaneous Remission of Cancer

BH Behzad Niakan

Article Type: short review article | First Published: November 16, 2017

Once a malignant growth grows past a certain size immune tolerance rather than immune sensitization occurs possibly due to the slow tumor growth. As the malignant grows larger some branches of the immune system (adoptive immunity) become protective of it, while other branches of the immune system oppose its growth....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410086

The Omission of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Requires Careful Consideration

Hiroko Nogi, Takashi Kazama, Rei Mimoto, Yoshimi Imawari, Makiko Kamio, Hisashi Shioya, Yasuo Toriumi, Ken Uchida, Masafumi Suzuki and Hiroshi Takeyama

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 30, 2017

Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) is used to accurately assess axillary lymph node status in patients with node-negative breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between non-sentinel node (SN) metastasis and clinicopathological findings in patients with one or two SN-positive breast cancer....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410085

Assessing Response to Chemoradiotherapy on 18F-FDG PET Images in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer using New Approaches of Histogram and Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix

Changdong Ma, Judong Luo, Yong Hou and Changsheng Ma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 28, 2017

Twelve patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC and treated with combined Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were involved in this study. We analyzed the percentage variation of gray value in every gray level or on the whole using histogram analysis algorithm which represents global intensity distribution....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410084

The Utilization of Partial Orchiectomy in Treating Small Testicular Tumors in the United States

Shaheen Alanee, Joseph Clemons, Bradley Holland, Max Nutt and Danuta Dynda

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2017

There is increasing evidence supporting the feasibility of Partial Orchiectomy (PO) as a treatment for small testicular tumors. However, the prevalence of this practice is still unknown. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER) registry to characterize national practice patterns for surgical management of patients with testicular tumors ≤ 2 cm in size, and we examined factors that determined performing PO in such patients....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410083

Physiological Effort in Submaximal Fitness Tests Predicts Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Men with Prostate Cancer in a Weight Loss Trial

Andrew D Frugé, John A Dasher, David Bryan, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried and Gary R Hunter

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 16, 2017

Obesity and weight gain after the diagnosis of prostate cancer are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence and mortality; individualized plans to help prostate cancer survivors maintain or lose weight may be beneficial for recurrence risk reduction....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410082

Radiolabeled APIs for the Conduct of Human ADME Studies of Oncology Compounds

Yuexian Li, Mihaela Plesescu and Shimoga R Prakash

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 30, 2017

Human ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) studies of new chemical entities are an important part of the drug development process. These studies are normally performed by using a radioactive tracer (C-14 or H-3) blended with a therapeutic dose of non-radioactive drug in about four to six subjects. The radiolabeled API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) is utilized to evaluate the recovery and track the metabolic fate and phy...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410081

Bioactive Peptides from Legumes as Anticancer Therapeutic Agents

Gonzalez-Montoya Marcela, Cano-Sampedro Eden and Mora-Escobedo Rosalva

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 19, 2017

Food proteins are a source of nutraceutical and bioactive peptides that promote health and prevent diseases. Legume seed proteins have been widely studied to produce peptides (protein fragments) with a diversity of biological activities....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410080

Angiogenesis Inhibitor Induced Thromboembolism in Cancer Patients

Neeharik Mareedu and Carmen P Escalante

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 31, 2017

Therapy with Angiogenesis Inhibitors (AIs) is a newer targeted approach in treating cancers. It gained popularity in the past decade because of better outcomes and fewer side effects when compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These agents act by inhibiting the VEGF pathway and inhibit vasculogenesis, thus shutting off the nutrient supply to the continuously multiplying tumor cells....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410079

The Role of Notch Signaling in Liver Diseases: Contribution to Development and Cancer

Kazunori Kawaguchi, Masao Honda and Shuichi Kaneko

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2017

Liver tissue consists of several types of cells such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, stellate cells, cholangiocytes, and immune cells, all with essential functions. The liver plays an important role in metabolism because its cells act on a variety of substances, transforming them into metabolic products essential for life and the production of waste products....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410078

In Vitro Reaction of Cells Derived from Human Normal Lung Tissues to Carbon-Ion Beam Irradiation

Naoko Okano, Takahiro Oike, Jun-ichiSaitoh, KatsuyukiShirai, Masato Enari, TohruKiyono, MayuIsono, Kota Torikai, Tatsuya Ohno and Takashi Nakano

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 30, 2017

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a serious concern in carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) for thoracic malignancies. To estimate the induction of RILI after CIRT, translation of evidence in X-ray radiation therapy to CIRT is of great importance. However, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams in normal lung tissues is not fully elucidated, making the translation difficult....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410077

Acetylation of α-tubulin by a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Resminostat, Leads Synergistic Antitumor Effect with Docetaxel in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Models

Hiroaki Konishi, Akimitsu Takagi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Satoru Ishii, Yu Inutake and Takeshi Matsuzaki

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2017

There is a growing body of clinical evidence to demonstrate that inhibition of histone deacetylase is effective in the treatment of various types of cancer. We examined whether acetylation of a non-histone protein α-tubulin was induced by resminostat and this acetylation exerts combination effects with docetaxel since α-tubulin was a target of docetaxel....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410076

Trastuzumab Emtansine in Patients with HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: a Multicenter Japanese Retrospective Study

Masako Sato, Masato Takahashi, Kenichi Watanabe, Nobumoto Tomioka, Mitsugu Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Narita, Hiroaki Kato, Masaru Abe, Yukiko Tabata, Masaya Kawada, Motoshi Tamura, Mitsuchika Hosoda, Motoi Baba, Kazuhiro Ogasawara, Tomohiro Oshino, Hiromitsu Akabane, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Masatoshi Kadoya, Kazuhiro Iwai, Yumi Okawa, Kenjiro Misu, Kazuomi Ichinokawa and Hiroko Yamashita

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 30, 2017

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is currently approved for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anti-HER2 therapies. However, the efficacy of T-DM1 in patients who received pertuzumab, and in those patients with brain metastases, is currently unclear....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1075

Cancer Antigen 125 Levels can be Used as a Tumor Marker for Monitoring Patients with Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?

MW Hegazy, Wael H Elsawy, A Tolba and M Shoukri

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2016

Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common type of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer is classified into two subtypes (I and II), which reflect general characteristics of its clinicopathological spectrum. Uterine serous adenocarcinoma (USAC) is under Type II neoplasms which are associated with more aggressive behavior than type I tumors. While they comprise 10-20% of endometrial carcinomas, they account for 40% of deaths from the disease....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1074

Massive Arterial Bleeding after Lenvatinib Therapy for Thyroid Cancer

Koichi Suyama, DaizoMurakami, Saori Fujiwara, Takashi Takeshita, Aiko Sueta, ToukoInao, Mutsuko Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Yutaka Yamamoto, Shin-yaShiraishi and Hirotaka Iwase

Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: November 26, 2016

A 69-year-old woman presented with hoarseness and other symptoms of laryngeal stenosis. A palpably large tumorin her neck was shown by computed tomography (CT) to expand invasively from her upper left thyroid lobe, and to involve her left common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (Figure 1 A-1). The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was based on cytological evidence from fine needle aspiration biopsy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1073

Pigmented Paget Disease of the Nipple: A Rare Breast Cancer Presentation

Santiago Sherwell-Cabello, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Silvia Natalia Lopez-Hernandez, Melissa Lizeth Flores-Cortes, Veronica Bautista-Pina and Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: November 26, 2016

Institutional board approval was obtained before commencement of this study. A retrospective study was conducted in all women diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution from January 2005 to December 2013. Standard immunohistochemical breast cancer panel was performed to all patients (ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki-67) and CK-7, P63 and S-100 when the pigmented variety was presented. Patients with pigmented Paget disease were selected and demographic c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1072

Colorectal Cancer Aggressiveness is Related to Fibronectin Over Expression, Driving the Activation of SDF-1:CXCR4 Axis

Sofia Gouveia-Fernandes, Tania Carvalho, Germana Domingues, Renata Bordeira-Carrico, Sergio Dias and Jacinta Serpa

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 19, 2016

Cancer hallmarks result from dynamical interactions between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment, including normal cells, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Fibronectin (FN) is a high molecular weight, multidomain glycoprotein, present as a soluble form in body fluids, such as plasma (plasma FN), and as an insoluble form in ECM (cellular FN)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1071

Prolonged Use of Aprepitant in Metastatic Breast Cancer and a Reduction in CA153 Tumour Marker Levels

Mark Lee, Matthew McCloskey and Stephanie Staples

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 16, 2016

Nausea and vomiting are common problems in patients with advanced cancer. This case report describes a patient whose refractory nausea and vomiting improved significantly with the use of Aprepitant, a highly selective neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. This improvement led to prolonged daily administration, during which time no chemotherapy or hormone therapy was administered. CA153 tumour markers were noted to have fallen during administration......
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1070

Validation of Measurement Based Dose Volume Metrics for the Quality Assurance of VMAT Plans

Sankar Arumugam, Aitang Xing, Tony Young, David Thwaites and Lois Holloway

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2016

Ten each of prostate and head and neck (H&N) VMAT plans were considered for this study. Three types of errors were introduced into the original plans: gantry angle independent and dependent MLC errors, and gantry angle dependent dose error. The percentage difference in PTV-D95 between TPS and 3DVH was compared for no-error and error introduced plans....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1069

A First Case of Male Breast Cancer Responding to Combined Aromatase Inhibitor/Palbociclib Therapy

Steven Sorscher

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 19, 2016

For men with metastatic breast adenocarcinoma standard therapies typically involve the same therapies used for woman. Recently the FDA approved the aromatase inhibitor letrozole combined with the inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) palbociclib as first line therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Here we report a first case of a man with metastatic breast cancer whose tumor responded to palbociclib and letrozole. This combi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1068

Three-Dimensional Ultrasound: Is it Useful for Decision Making in the Management of Rectal Cancer? Is 3D Ultrasound Useful in Rectal Tumor?

Sthela M Murad-Regadas, Romulo M Almeida, Rosilma G Lima Barreto, Doryane MR Lima, Francisco Sergio Pinheiro Regadas, Lusmar Veras Rodrigues, Francisco Coracy C Monteiro, Paulo G Oliveira, Joao Batista Barreto and Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2016

Consecutive patients treated for rectal cancer or adenomas in 4 colorectal centers in Brazil were included. Patients with early-stage rectal cancer identified by 3D-US were assigned to receive resection only, and those with a later stage were assigned to receive CRT. A second 3D-US was performed after CRT to detect the presence of residual tumor and metastatic lymph nodes or complete response....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1067

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsies alone are not Sufficient for Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Cayce B Nawaf, Nathanial T Ondeck, Laura A Skrip, Rollin K Say, John M Gunselman, Jamil Syed, Peter G Schulam and Preston C Sprenkle

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2016

Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies (MRI-Tbx) has the potential to detect significant prostate cancer with a small number of cores; however, there are concerns that some clinically significant (CS) cancers may not be visible on MRI or identified with targeted biopsies alone....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1066

Rapid Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus after Initiation of Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Muneeb Shah, Luke Maxfield, Rehan Feroz and Kevin Donohue

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 25, 2016

Programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) is a receptor on immune cells that serves as a checkpoint and plays an important role in preventing the activation of T-lymphocytes. Malignant cells are known to activate this receptor, thereby allowing them to evade immune surveillance. Programmed death 1 immune-checkpoint inhibitor antibodies (anti-PD-1), such as nivolumab, act to revamp the immune response against tumor cells by preventing activation of this P...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1065

Culture of Circulating Tumor Cells - Holy Grail and Big Challenge

Tianyu Guo, Claire S Wang, Wen Wang and Yongjie Lu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 19, 2016

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the most important representation of 'liquid biopsy', provides a minimally invasive approach to tumor tissue, and has been a hot topic in cancer research for years. CTCs bear great potential to provide a surrogate for traditional biopsy, and the culture of CTCs is essential to investigate the biological features of CTCs and their roles in cancer metastasis as well as to provide the opportunity for in vitro therapeu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1064

Dosimetric Study on the Consequences of Replacing the mMLC Collimator Used for Intracranial SRS by an Integrated MLC-160

Tania Santos, Tiago Ventura, Miguel Capela and Maria do Carmo Lopes

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 17, 2016

At IPOCFG, stereotactic radiosurgery is performed using an add-on micro-multileaf collimator (3 mm minimum leaf width), m3, with full advanced integration in a linear accelerator equipped with a standard 82 leaf multileaf collimator with 1 cm leaf width. This work aimed to evaluate if it would be possible to dispense the use of the m3 if the standard MLC was replaced by a MLC-160 with 5 mm leaf width at isocenter....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1063

Estimating Relapse Free Survival as a Net Probability: Regression Models and Graphical Representation. An Application of a Large Breast Cancer Case Series

Annalisa Orenti, Elia Biganzoli and Patrizia Boracchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 12, 2016

In most clinical studies, the evaluation of the effect of a therapy and the impact of prognostic factors is based on relapse-free survival. Relapse free is a net survival, since it is interpreted as the relapse-free probability that would be observed if all patients experienced relapse sooner or later. Death without evidence of relapse prevents the subsequent observation of relapse, acting in a semi-competing risks framework. Relapse free surviva...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1062

Cancer Risk among Physicians is Different from that among Non-Physicians: An Observational Pilot Study

Hyun Young Kim

Article Type: Pilot Study | First Published: July 29, 2016

We conducted a retrospective, case-control study on cancer risk among physicians and non-physicians at a health screening center. A total of 1,110 Korean subjects aged 30 to 65 years were assessed for cancer risk. A physician group (primary clinic, N = 147, tertiary hospital, N = 123) and non-physician group (N = 840) were included....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1061

Impact of Eribulin Monotherapy on Post-Progression Survival in Patients with HER2-Negative Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

Takeshi Kotake, Yuichiro Kikawa, Sachiko Takahara, Shigeru Tsuyuki, Hiroshi Yoshibayashi, Eiji Suzuki, Yoshio Moriguchi, Hiroyasu Yamashiro, Kazuhiko Yamagami, Hirofumi Suwa, Toshitaka Okuno, Takahito Okamura, Takashi Hashimoto, Hironori Kato, Akihito Tsuji and Masakazu Toi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 25, 2016

Introduction: A multicenter observational retrospective study was conducted to assess the clinical response and survival impact, especially post-progression survival impact, of eribulin monotherapy in HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) patients. Patients and methods: This retrospective observation cohort study contains 110 A/MBC patients treated with eribulin monotherapy during April 2011 and August 2014 in 12 Kyoto Breast...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1060

Rapid Fatal Progression of Cervical Cancer during Pregnancy Treated by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

Iptissem Naoura, Lise Selleret, Frederic Selle and Emile Darai

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2016

Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological malignancy in pregnant women. The prognosis of this cancer does not seem to be influenced by the pregnancy. However, the cancer management comes into competition with maternal and foetal outcomes, especially during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Challenging issues lie in the cervical screening during pregnancy, the evaluation of lymph node status and the indication of neoadjuvant chem...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1059

Appendiceal Metastasis in a Patient with Advanced Breast Cancer on Hormonal Therapy

Edmond Kwan, Nezor Houli, Meron Pitcher and Shirley Wong

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 20, 2016

A 70-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain nine months after the diagnosis of de-novo, hormonal-receptor positive advanced breast cancer. Imaging revealed appendiceal stranding likely representative of acute appendicitis. Surgery was performed, and pathological examination of the inflamed appendix revealed metastatic carcinoma consistent with breast primary. The case highlights the diagnostic challenges of abdominal pain in a patient with ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1058

ADAM17: A Gatekeeper in Immune-Oncology?

Peter R Lowe and Nathalie Corvaia

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: June 20, 2016

Recent therapeutics searching to reactivate and target the immune system to destroy tumors have demonstrated remarkable success in the treatment of patients with previously intractable disease such as metastatic melanoma. Current research is enlarging the spectrum of targets and strategies for enhancing the immune response against tumors, in order to further improve treatment efficacy. In that respect, ADAM17, has frequently been described for it...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1057

Immune and Genetic Susceptibility in the Development of Cervical Cancer

Barbara Mora, Felipe M Benavente, Carmen G Ili and Priscilla Brebi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 13, 2016

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Although 99.7% of cases are attributed to a previous infection by Human papillomavirus, a small percentage of the infected women progress to cervical cancer, suggesting the existence of different risk factors involved in the development and progression of this pathology. Genetic variability related to the host immune system could play an important role in the defense response ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1056

Breast Cancer Screening and Chemoprevention

J Drew Payne, Menfil Orellana-Barrios, Teri Payne, Anita Sultan and Catherine Jones

Article Type: Short Chart Review | First Published: May 31, 2016

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer related death among women in the United States. Breast cancer chemoprevention is a proven way to reduce breast cancer incidence. This article will present a short literature review and an assessment and description of breast cancer screening and chemoprevention in an outpatient internal medicine clinic. Records were reviewed to provide description ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1055

Second Line and Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer without Driver Mutation: An Evolving Paradigm

Stephanie Brule and Paul Wheatley-Price

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer amongst men and women combined, and is responsible for the greatest number of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents about 85% of all lung cancers, and is the umbrella term that includes the most common histological subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Due to the fact that it is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1054

New Insights into Functional Implication of Genetic Variation in Association with Cancer

Yanfeng Zhang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 16, 2016

Investigations of the genetic basis of cancers have identified hundreds of robust risk loci associated with cancers using large-scale, case-control, candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) during the past ten years. Most leading single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer sensitivity lie in non-protein-coding regions, suggesting the potentially regulatory functions as targets for susceptible var...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1053

Prdx Overexpression in Tumor Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients

Jillian Muhlbauer and Shelley A Phelan

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 08, 2016

Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) proteins are evolutionarily conserved thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that reduce various cellular peroxides, protecting cells from oxidative damage. Prdxs also have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating redox-sensitive cell signaling in a number of cell processes. Prdxs have been implicated in cancer biology, and are upregulated in many cancers including breast cancer, as well as several breast cancer ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1052

Relation between Thyroid Disease and Breast Cancer

Ersin Turan and Baris Sevinc

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2016

Benign thyroid nodules are most common surgically treated endocrine disorder. Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women. In the recent study, we aimed to detect the relation between breast cancer and benign thyroid nodules. The patients operated because of breast cancer and have a definite diagnosis with pathological evaluation were included in this prospective study....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1051

Improved Antitumoral Efficacy of Mesothelin Targeted Immune Activating Fusion Protein in Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer

Yang Zeng, Binghao Li, Patrick Reeves, Chongzhao Ran, Zhao Liu, Mojgan Agha-Abbaslou, Jianping Yuan, Pierre Leblanc, Ann Sluder, Jeffrey Gelfand, Timothy Brauns, Mark Poznansky and Huabiao Chen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2016

The candidate therapeutic fusion protein (scFv-MtbHsp70) is a recombinant Mycobacteria tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtbHsp70) fused with a single chain antibody (scFv) targeting mesothelin, combining the immune-targeting capacity of the scFv with the broader immune activating capabilities of MtbHsp70. The previous version of the fusion protein, VIC-007, markedly enhanced survival of ovarian tumor-bearing mice through the augmentation of tu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1050

The Many Faces of Lung Cancer

Luciano Cardinale, Valeria Angelino, Edoardo Piacibello and Andrea Veltri

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 27, 2016

The aim of this short review is to illustrate various CT findings of lung cancer (LC) other than the classical aspects. Overall, LC is the second commonest cancer in men and women in the developed world and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 20-25% of cases. In comparison with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), SCLC typically exhibits more aggressive behaviour with rapid growth, early metastatic spread and frequent association with...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1049

Cardiac Involvement in Carcinoid Syndrome: Role of Serial Standard and Contrast Echocardiography

Francesca Casadei, Antonella Moreo, Francesco Musca, Paola Vallerio, Miriam Stucchi and Cristina Gannattasio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 23, 2016

We report a case of a 52 year-old woman with cardiac carcinoid metastases who developed a moderate tricuspid regurgitation without the typical findings of carcinoid valve disease. Echocardiography allowed to define the mechanism of valve insufficiency. Moreover, standard and contrast echocardiography permitted characterization of the structural features of the mass, size measurement and monitoring growth during follow-up....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1048

New Enzyme-Targeting Radiosensitizer (KORTUC) Containing Hydrogen Peroxide & Sodium Hyaluronate for Intra-tumoral Injection Using Mice Transplanted with SCC VII Tumor

Ryo Akima, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Shiho Morita-Tokuhiro, Akira Tsuzuki, Shin Yaogawa, Shinji Kariya, Norihiko Hamada, Akihito Nishioka, Shinichiro Masunaga and Koji Ono

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 21, 2016

The therapeutic effect of radiotherapy using linear accelerators (Linac) for relatively large tumors of more than several centimeters in diameter is reduced to one- third due to a large number of hypoxic tumor cells and a significant amount of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as many kinds of peroxidases and catalase. To overcome tumor hypoxia and abundant peroxidase activities, an injection of hydrogen peroxide into tumor tissue is considered to be ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1046

Metronomic Chemotherapy Preserves Quality of Life Ensuring Efficacy in Elderly Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Francesca De Iuliis, Stefania Vendittozzi, Ludovica Taglieri, Gerardo Salerno, Rosina Lanza, and Susanna Scarpa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 01, 2016

Metastatic non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are diseases with poor prognosis and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy still remains their standard cure. Elderly patients often present comorbidities that limit the utilization of this chemotherapy; therefore these patients should have a first-line treatment with low toxicity and capable to preserve the quality of life (QoL) but, at the same time, to ensure the best possible response. Furthermore,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1044

Incidental Paget's Disease of the Nipple in a Prophylactic Skin-Sparing Mastectomy for BRCA1 Mutation: Implications for Increased Use of Prophylactic Nipple Sparing Mastectomy

Esther Dubrovsky, Farayan Jalalabi, Aysegul Sahin and Dalliah M Black

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2016

Prophylactic skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) have become suitable options for breast cancer prevention in appropriate patients with hereditary risk of breast cancer. Prophylactic total mastectomy (TM) provides approximately 90% to 95%- risk reduction in patients with BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutations. Initially, bilateral TM was recommended because of the concern for an increased breast cancer risk from remaining residu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1047

P53 Sensitizes Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Let-7 miRNAs Induced Repression

Jian Liu, Ning Du, Huangzhen Wang, Xin Wang, Peili Wang, Jia Zhang, Gang Li, Jing Zhang, Sida Qin, Chongwen Xu, Shou-Ching Tang, Xin Sun, Boxiang Zhang, Dapeng Liu and Hong Ren

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 10, 2016

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the tumor recurrence and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Let-7 family of miRNAs functions in regulating cancer biology by repressing multiple downstream oncogenes. In this study, we examined the regulatory loop of suppressive let-7 and p53 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and explored the mechanism through which this loop affects the growth patterns of breast cancer stem-like cells (BrCSCs)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1045

Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma to a Lymph Node with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Xiao Huang, Kazunori Kanehira, Fadi Habib and Bo Xu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 19, 2016

Metastatic carcinoma to a lymph node with high grade lymphoma is very rare, particularly when high grade lymphoma is the first time diagnosis. Here we report a case where metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was found in a retroperitoneal lymph node with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Histologically, the metastatic adenocarcinoma is located mainly in the subcapsular region....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1043

Developing Pathway Collection for Personalized Anti-cancer Therapy

Luminita Castillos and Anton Yuryev

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016

We describe methodology for developing personalized anti-cancer drug therapy using pathway analysis. We successfully applied this methodology to treat several cancer patients that were terminally diagnosed by standard of care criteria at the hospital. Our approach consists of profiling patient tumor using gene expression microarray and calculating pathways responsible for the differential expression between tumor and normal control tissue....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1042

Breast Cancer in Surgical Site: Unusual Presentation of an Ectopic Milk Line Malignancy

Zsolt Varga, Miklos Torok, Eva Sebo, Judit Toth and Dezso Toth

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 30, 2016

A 56-year old woman with history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was referred to outpatient clinic 3 years after the operation with a non-healing reddish lump in the surgical scar. The lesion was situated at the site of the right subcostal port, in the medioclavicular line, below the ribcage. Local excision was performed and histological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was thought to be metastatic. After multiple r...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1041

The Usefulness of Nutritional Index CONUT for Risk Assessment and Prognosis after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

Shinichi Sekine, Takuya Nagata, Tomoyuki Okumura, Shunsuke Kawai, Katsuhisa Hirano, Takeshi Miwa, Makoto Moriyama, Hirofumi Kojima, Isaya Hashimoto, Kazuto Shibuya, Shozo Hojo, Isaku Yoshioka, Koshi Matsui, Shigeaki Sawada and Kazuhiro Tsukada

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2016

Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a highly invasive surgery. Therefore, assessment of pre-operative nutritional status may contribute to the postoperative course. Patients (n = 116) who had undergone PD were included in this study. We evaluated the usefulness of the body mass index (BMI), prognostic nutrition index (PNI), and controlling nutritional status score (CONUT) for evaluating post-operative complication risk by examining the relationship b...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1040

Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of Accumulated Empirical Evidence

Iris Atzmon, Shai Linn, Elihu D Richter and Boris Portnov

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2016

Scientific debate regarding the health effects of Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) radiation has continued for decades, but has risen sharply in recent years due to an explosion in wireless technology. Several studies of the health effects of MW/RF radiation were published in recent years, but their results have not been analyzed to date using meta-analysis tools....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1039

Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of Time-related Trends in the Accumulated Empirical Evidence

Iris Atzmon, Boris Portnov, Shai Linn and Elihu D Richter

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2016

Scientific debate regarding health effects from MW/RF radiation has increased considerably in recent years. In the early 1980's much of the evidence concerning the health effects of MW/RF radiation came from occupational studies, however, in the 1990's and the 2000's, environmental studies became more dominant. This resulted from an increase in public awareness about exposure to MW/RF radiation....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1038

Multimodal Treatment of Breast Cancer Liver Metastases Based on Hepatic Resection and Microwave Coagulo-Necrotic Therapy (MCN)

Yuko Takami, Susumu Eguchi, Masaki Tateishi, Tomoki Ryu, Kazuhiro Mikagi, Yoshiyuki Wada and Hideki Saitsu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 11, 2016

Background: Generally it is rare to select surgery for treating breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM), but we have carried out aggressively surgical treatment to BCLM. Especially as a part of treatment strategies, we have used intraoperative loco-regional microwave ablation, named microwave coagulo-necrotic therapy (MCN). In this study, we investigate whether or not surgical treatment, combining hepatic resection and/or MCN, is useful for treatin...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1037

Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Inhibition of Human ZIP1-Deficient Prostate Tumor Growth in the Mouse Ectopic Xenograft Model: A Zinc Approach for the Efficacious Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Renty B. Franklin, Jing Zou, Yao Zheng, Michael J. Naslund, Leslie C. Costello

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 09, 2016

Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths in males. This is mainly due to the absence of an available efficacious chemotherapy despite decades of research in pursuit of effective treatment approaches. A plausible target for the treatment is the established clinical relationship that the zinc levels in the malignant cells are markedly decreased compared to the normal epithelium in virtually all cases of prostate cancer, and...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1036

Long-Term Survival and Quality of Life Outcomes with Multiple Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries for Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Brain: Case Report and Review of Literature

Andrew T Roehrig, Ethan Ferrel, Robert K Fairbanks, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Alexander R MacKay, Jason A Call, John J Demakas, Aaron Wagner, Barton S Cooke, Benjamin C. Ling, Jonathan D. Carlson and Christopher M Lee

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2015

Metastatic disease to the brain from breast cancer can be treated with multiple modalities. Determining effective therapies for select patients with brain metastases is critical to maximizing survival and quality of life. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be an effective option for select patients with brain metastases, and is highly targeted with rapid fall-off of radiation dose outside the treatment zone. The following case illustrates the po...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1035

Fascin is Expressed in Basal-Liketype Triple Negative Breast Cancer Associated with High Malignant Potential in Japanese Women

Hiromichi Tsuchiya, Akiko Sasaki, Yuko Tsunoda, Masafumi Takimoto, Terumasa Sawada, Seigo Nakamura, kentaro Iijima and Katsuji Oguchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 07, 2015

No molecular targeted drug has been developed for poor-prognostic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) because it has no hormone or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) sensitivity. In addition, TNBC has recently been sub classified into 6 types. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Fascin, an actin-binding protein associated with breast cancer, in 301 invasive breast cancer samples. Of these, 32 were identified as TNBC and wer...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1034

Palliative Management of Malignant Bowel Obstruction with Carcinomatosis

Kirti Joseph, Jaclyn Schneider and Amy A Case

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 27, 2015

Mr. H was a 73 year old male with a past medical history of lumbar spinal degenerative disease, pyloric stenosis repair as a child and a Hartmann procedure for a perforated diverticulitis at age 43, with colostomy reversal shortly after. In August of 2014 he was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer, with extensive metastases to the lung including large masses that invaded into the airways as well as a right middle and upper lobe mass compressing t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1033

C4.4A and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) May Contribute to breast Cancer not Mediated Through epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Natsuko Inoue, Takahiro Watanabe, Seiichi Hirota, Masahisa Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Koji Morimoto, Toyomasa Katagiri and Yasuo Miyoshi

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 11, 2015

C4.4A, a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane protein, plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) affecting progression of colorectal cancer, while aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been identified as a stem cell marker for breast cancer. Since cancer stem cells link to EMT phenotype, both molecules seem to be important for breast cancer progression mediated via EMT. In this study, associations between expres...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1032

Feasibility and Efficacy of Definitive Hypofractionated High-Dose Radiotherapy for Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of the Scalp

Emiko Shimoda, Kazuya Inoue, Nobuhide Wakai, Yoko Morimoto, Isao Asakawa, Nobumasa Fujitani, Tadashi Yoshimine, Tetsuro Tamamoto, Maiko Takeda, Kohei Ogawa, Hideo Asada and Masatoshi Hasegawa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 03, 2015

Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare but highly aggressive vascular tumor resistant to all treatment modalities available. The aim of this study was to analyze the treatment outcomes of patients who received definitive hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Between April 2008 and December 2014, 11 patients with histologically proven cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp visited our Department of Radiation Oncology, ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1031

Cervical Cytology Screening - Is the Change of Policy Risk Free?

Emily H. Hertzberg, Nurit Ariel, Dalia Kaplan, Michal Markovitz and Zeev Blumenfeld

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 01, 2015

With the change in the cervical cancer screening guidelines, women younger than 21 will not be routinely screened and the screening interval is extended to three years. In spite of the well-received newly recommended guidelines on cervical cancer screening, how many patients will be excluded by the guidelines that may have otherwise benefited from the screening?. It is important to look at the trends in the screened population in order to answer ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1030

Vaginal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) with Unusual Liposarcomatous Differentiation - A Case Report

F Gougeon, J. Doyon, P. Sauthier and K. Rahimi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 28, 2015

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas usually arising in peripheral nerve bundles or from pre-existing neurofibromas. They have frequent divergent differentiation. Here we present a case of MPNST arising in the vagina of a 70 y.o women. Beside the unusual location, this tumor presented liposarcomatous differentiation, a finding which has only been reported three times in the past and never in a MPNST of the female ge...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1029

Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors

Ciara C O'Sullivan

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 14, 2015

Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1028

Targeting of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Using Anti-inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Agents

Parvin Forghani and Edmund K Waller

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 03, 2015

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been considered to be key mediators of immuno-suppression in cancer. The numbers of MDSCs increased in the blood and in the tumor microenvironment during inflammation. Due to the strong correlation between inflammation and cancer that results in tumor progression through MDSCs-associated immune-suppression, it is posited that modulating MDSCs using anti-inflammatory drugs will enhance the activity of i...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1027

Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck from Unknown Primary Sites: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) Experience

Osama Marglani, Ameen Zaid Alherabi, Ali Safar, Suliman Alghamdi, Libni Eapen, Helen Caetano and Martin Corsten

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2015

Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the neck from an unknown primary site presents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic disease entity, despite a thorough diagnostic workup. The optimal management of patients who have this syndrome is still unclear and controversial. We present our experience in management of patients with unknown primary....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1026

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Determine the Optimum Staging modality for Primary Breast Cancer

Berney M, Manning A, Carter M, Sacchini V, Kell M R. Barry M

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 24, 2015

Staging of primary breast cancer can radically alter the management if stage IV disease is accurately detected. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether conventional CT TAP or PET-CT provides the optimum staging modality. A meta-analysis involving 158 patients with primary breast cancer showed that PET-CT was more sensitive than CT-TAP for detection of metastatic disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.37 - 4.53, p < 0.0001). ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1025

Common Polymorphisms in the USF1 Gene and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

Meng Zhang, Jian Bai1, Junjie Huang, Yukun Ge, Hu Xiong, Wei Lu, Jizhou Shi, Lu Fang, Song Wu and Zhiming Cai

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 21, 2015

Upstream transcription factor 1(USF1) has been identified to be implicated in the development of many cancer categories. In view of recent studies, several polymorphisms in USF1 gene appeared to exert diverse influence on cancer susceptibility. However, the association between USF1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility remains inconclusive due to the finite relevant published discoveries. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by pooling all a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1024

The Influence of Melatonin on Immune System and Cancer

Anna Gry Vinther and Mogens H. Claesson

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 19, 2015

Melatonin has been shown to play a fundamental part in neuro immune modulation. Besides regulating the circadian rhythm it works as a natural antioxidant with immune stimulatory and anti-cancer properties. Melatonin is a regulator of hemopoiesis and modifies various cells and cytokines of the immune system. Melatonin elicits oncostatic properties in a variety of different tumor cells....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1023

A Derivative of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-3 Inhibits PAK1 Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

Peter Oladimeji, Yuzuru Kubohara, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Yoshiteru Oshima, Courtney Rusch, Rebekah Skerl, Maria Diakonova

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 17, 2015

Differentiation-inducing factors 1-3 (DIFs 1-3), chlorinated alkylphenones identified in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, are considered anti-tumor agents because they inhibit proliferation of a variety of mammalian tumor cells in vitro. Although the anti-proliferative effects of DIF-1 and DIF-3 are well-documented, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of DIFs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we e...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1022

Laparoscopic-Assisted Surgery for Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Originating from the Descending Colon: A Case Report and Literature Review

Keiji Matsuda, Takahiro Yagi, Mitsuo Tsukamoto, Yoshihisa Fukushima, Takuya Akahane, Ryu Shimada, Atsushi Horiuchi, Keisuke Nakamura, Takeshi Tsuchiya, Tamuro Hayama, Junko Tamura, Hisae Iinuma, Shoichi Fujii, Keijiro Nozawa, Takuo Tokairin, Yuko Sasajima, Fukuo Kondo and Yojiro Hashiguchi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 30, 2015

Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) localized in the large intestine is extremely rare. We report a first case of MFH in colon that underwent a laparoscopy-assisted colectomy. A 74-year-old female had a 3-month history of blood stool. Barium enema study showed protrusion in the descending colon. Colonoscopy revealed submucosal tumor-like lesion with central ulceration. A biopsy was obtained and the pathological report was that MFH was su...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1021

A Randomized Double Blinded Study of Ganoderma Lucidum (Lingzhi) in Salvage Setting of Recurrent Gynecologic Cancer

Prapaporn Suprasert, Chatchawann Apichartpiyakul, Choompone Sakonwasun, Pimonphan Nitisuwanraksa and Rochana Phuackchantuck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 28, 2015

Lingzhi is a widely used anti-cancer herbal medicine in Asian countries with limited knowledge of the efficacy especially in gynecologic cancer patients. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Lingzhi in the forms of water extract type and spore type with a placebo control in a salvage setting of gynecologic cancer treatment. Sixty gynecologic cancer patients who failed at least two regimens of chemotherapy were randomly divided equa...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1020

Reducing Sample Sizes in Phase II Trials based on Exact Binomial Tests by Shifting Design Parameters

Dirk Klingbiel, Qiyu Li and Martin Bigler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 20, 2015

Currently, a large number of new anticancer agents is accompanied by constrained resources, requiring prioritization. In addition, emerging molecular subtypes subdivide common cancer entities into rare diseases, making it harder to conduct phase II trials as a crucial step in drug development and therapy optimization. We extend a recent work by Khan et al. on the design of phase II clinical trial based on exact binomial tests....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1019

Screening for the Polyomaviruses BKV, JCV and SV40 in Pediatric Malignancies

Karin Kosulin, Alexander Zimmerhack, Johannes A. Hainfellner, Christine Haberler, Gabriele Amann, Susanna Lang and Thomas Lion

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2015

Different studies suggested an oncogenic potential of the polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40, particularly in brain tumors and neuroblastoma, which belong to the most frequent malignancies in children. However, currently available data are controversial, possibly due to the different regional prevalence of the viruses and the detection techniques used. To elucidate the presence of these polyomaviruses in the indicated tumor ent...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1018

A Simple Two-Stage PCR Method for Quality Amplification of Degenerate DNA

Ebili Henry O, Ham-Karim Hersh Abdul and Ilyas Mohammad

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 06, 2015

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue banks are invaluable to cancer genetics and biomarker discovery. However, FFPE tissue-derived DNA is degenerate. As such, any PCR technique which will give adequate amplification of such DNA to enable downstream applications is important to the characterization of genetic biomarkers and to personalized medicine. The aim of this article is to describe a two-stage PCR method which efficiently amplifie...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1017

Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells and Signaling Pathways

Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Ashraf Ali, Kaneez Fatima, Mohd Suhail, Shilu Mathew, Saleh Alkarim, Esam Azhar and Ishtiaq Qadri

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2015

Loss of hepatocytes due to infection, inflammation or partial hepectomy simulates a response which helps in the liver restoration. This maintains homeostasis and keeps a check on the usual wear and tear in the liver. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) were demonstrated to be associated with myeloid leukemia. However, with recent advancements in the approaches and techniques, CSCs are also present within a wide variety of solid tumors and malignancies of ep...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1016

The Shortage of Essential Cancer Drugs and Generics in the United States of America. Global Brain Storming Directions for the World.

Ahmed Elzawawy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2015

The shortage of the older essential cancer drugs that are off patent, mostly generics and injectable, has its threatening impact on health of cancer patients, clinical trials and the burden of costs spending on the health system in the United Sates. The problem is multifactorial and mostly economical and due to lack of incentives for production....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1015

Web-Based Quality of Life Questionnaire Followed by Paper-Based Questionnaire for the Non-Responders: Daily Practice in Patients with Prostate Cancer

Tillier CN, van Stam MA, de Blok W, van Muilekom HVM, Bloos-van der Hulst J and van der Poel HG

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2015

Patient-related outcome measures (PROMS) play an increasingly important role in the planning and evaluation of medical care. A high response rate is crucial to get a good view of the patient population. Quality of life questionnaires in oncology are important in order to evaluate the impact of the disease or the treatment of cancer patients and guide treatment decisions....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1014

Nitric Oxide Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced 5-FU Resistance of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

Eri Sasabe, Ayumi Tomomura, Mayuko Hamada, Naoya Kitamura, Tomohiro Yamada and Tetsuya Yamamoto

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 16, 2015

Hypoxic environments in tumors induce expression of hypoxiainducible factor (HIF). HIF contributes to the development of the malignant progression through the induction of various target genes. We previously reported that treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and γ-rays enhances expression and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions; susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells to the drugs and γ-ra...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1013

Gene-Specific Promoter Methylation Status in Hormone-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Associates with Postmenopausal Body Size and Recreational Physical Activity

Lauren E. McCullough, Jia Chen, Alexandra J. White, Xinran Xu, Yoon Hee Cho, Patrick T. Bradshaw, Sybil M. Eng, Susan L. Teitelbaum, Mary Beth Terry, Gail Garbowski, Alfred I. Neugut, Hanina Hibshoosh, Regina M. Santella, Marilie D. Gammon

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 09, 2015

Introduction: Breast cancer, the leading cancer diagnosis among American women, is positively associated with postmenopausal obesity and little or no recreational physical activity (RPA). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain unresolved. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation may represent an early event in carcinogenesis, but few studies have investigated associations between obesity/RPA and gene methylation, particularly ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1012

Phase I Clinical Study of Survivin-Derived Peptide Vaccine for Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancers

Fukino Satomi, Hiroaki Shima, Toru Mizuguchi, Toshihiko Torigoe, Goro Kutomi, Yasutoshi Kimura, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Yasuaki Tamura, Tomohide Tsukahara, Takayuki Kanaseki, Akari Takahashi, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoichi M. Ito, Hiroshi Hayashi, Osamu Sugita, Noriyuki Sato and Koichi Hirata

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 04, 2015

Survivin is a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. It is expressed in fetal tissues but not in normal adult tissues. Since Survivin is over expressed in various types of tumor tissues as well as tumor cell lines, it is considered to be suitable as a target antigen for cancer vaccine therapy. We identified an HLA-A24-restricted antigenic peptide, SVN-2B (AYACNTSTL), derived from a splicing variant of Survivin-2B. In the prese...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1011

Primitive Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma: Three Cases with Immunohistochemical Profiling

Mira Akiki, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Virginie Fourchotte and Xavier Sastre-Garau

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 22, 2015

Most carcinosarcoma, formerly designed as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors are found in the uterus or the ovary, but rarely in the fallopian tube. The histogenesis of this type of tumor and its place regarding serous or poorly differentiated carcinoma are discussed. We document here three typical cases primarily developed in the fallopian tube. The patients were 69, 70 and 82 years old. They all presented with abdominal pain and large unilateral ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1010

Smac13-Tat Fusion Peptide Induces Cell Death and Sensitizes HeLa Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs

Yoshinori Mano, Toshihiko Torigoe, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoshihiko Hirohashi and Noriyuki Sato

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 19, 2015

Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells and play an important role in the inhibition of caspases, thereby suppressing programed cell death and leading to chemoresistance of cancer cells. However, the anti-apoptotic function of IAPs could be suppressed by Smac, the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase through its direct interaction with IAPs. Smac can interact with IAPs thro...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1009

A Cross-Disciplinary Look at Shoulder Pain and Dysfunction after Treatment for Breast Cancer

Delva Shamley

Article Type: Opinion | First Published: January 15, 2015

Shoulder morbidity is a well-documented consequence of treatment for breast cancer. Despite less invasive surgery, a subset of breast cancer survivors present with decreased shoulder complex mobility, tightness, oedema, weakness, pain and numbness after treatment. Additional considerations are connective tissue changes such as scarring and Axillary Web Syndrome (cording), which are known contributory factors to arm dysfunction and pain after trea...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1008

HER2 Positive Gastric And Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma; An Irish Tertiary Center Experience

Yasir Y Elamin, Shereen Rafee, Mutaz M Nur, Nemer Osman, John V Reynolds, Cian Muldoon and Kenneth J O'Byrne

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2014

Background: Trastuzumab has been approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression and gene amplifiation metastatic gastric cancer. Here we present the prevalence of HER2 positive gastric cancer in an Irish population, the use of Trastuzumab in fist line and beyond progression. Methods: The study was conducted in St Jamess Hospital, Dublin. A retrospective analysis of the date of patients with HER2 posi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1007

Epidemiology and Radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Rex Cheung

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: October 27, 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer secondary to chronic liver conditions such as hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections, obesity and alcoholism. HCC is the sixth most common solid tumor, and third most lethal cancer globally. Thre may be a gender diffrence in the development and outcome of chronic liver diseases. In U.S., the incidence of HBV infection has declined since the introduction of HBV vaccination in 19...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1006

Knowledge, Attitude and Screening Behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards Prostate Cancer Awareness

Joyce M.Terwase, Chioma C. Asuzu and James A. Mtsor

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2014

The study investigated the influence of knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards prostate cancer awareness. Five research questions and research hypotheses guided the study. The study was a cross-sectional design utilizing a pretested 34-item Prostate Cancer Questionnaire (PCQ) (Cronbachs alpha of 0.62) to collect information about knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour regarding prostate c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1005

Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Differentiation Histologic Variant of Urothelialcarcinoma of Urinary Bladder: Oncological Outcome Following Definitive Surgical Treatment

Mohamed Wishahi, Hossam Elganzoury and Mohamed Badawy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2014

Objectives: To investigate the impact of variant histologic patterns of urothelialcarcinoma of the bladder on oncological outcomes of patients treated with Radical Cystectomy (RC). Three histologic patterns were evaluated: Urothelial Carcinoma (UC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), and urothelial carcinoma with Squamous Differentiation (SqD). Materials and methods: Retrospective archival study included 258 patients treated with RCfor muscle-invas...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1003

Is Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Still an Option for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the Era of BTK Inhibition?

Josh D. Simmons and Jeremy Pantin

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 08, 2014

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. Over the last several decades, there has been an evolution in therapeutic options from single-agent alkylating agents to purine analog-containing regimens, as well as chemo-immunotherapy combinations. Despite the high initial response rates reported with conventional chemo-immunotherapy, patients invariably relapse and may subsequently develop resistan...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1002

Isnt it the Timing for Physics Guidelines on High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer?

Yongbok Kim

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 23, 2014

Prostate cancer has been known as the most frequently occurring (233,000 estimated new cases in 2014) and the secondly death-causing (29,480 estimated deaths in 2014) for men in the United States of America. Based on the extension of tumor, prostate cancer is staged in the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) scoring system. Depending upon clinical TNM staging, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (ng/mL) and pathologic biopsy denoted as Gleason sum scor...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1001

International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research- Commited to Ensure Quality Publication in Cancer Research

Sulma I. Mohammed

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 20, 2014

With great pleasure we welcome you to the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research. We envision this journal to provide a platform for all cancer researchers around the world to publish their high quality findings in cancer and clinical research as well as a venue to nurture researchers and young investigators in developing countries. The journal aims to accelerate the pace of research, discovery and innovation...

Editor-in-chief


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