International Journal of Neurology and Neurotherapy is an open access peer reviewed journal that publishes discoveries in wide variety of drugs and therapies which are used in modern practice and fundamental understandings in neurological diseases. The main objective of the journal is to act as a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. Journal publishes original research articles, reviews, personal views, commentaries, and news in clinical neurology and important findings in neurotherapy and electroencephalography for use in assessing baselines and outcomes of various procedures. Otherwise the publications are invited in all areas of clinical and basic neuroscience, including new technologies, cellular and molecular neurobiology, population sciences, and studies of behavior, addiction, psychiatric diseases, therapies are of interest to the journal.

It accelerates the pace of research, discovery and innovation in various medical and clinical neurological treatment and therapies. Commonly seen disease like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, sleep disorder, Parkinson diseases, neuropathy, stroke, dementia, epilepsy and various kinds of disease and tumors are related to nervous system. This journal also focuses on treatment, medication, diagnosis of various nervous related diseases. All articles published in the journal are subject to a stringent peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detailed as possible.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Neurology and Neurotherapy

ISSN: 2378-3001

Editor-in-chief: Kurt A. Jellinger

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Neurol Neurother

ICV: 87.69

ISO abbreviation: Int J Neurol Neurother

Other titles: IJNN

Category: Neurology/Neurotherapy

DOI: 10.23937/2378-3001

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410125

Validation of a Suitable Housekeeping Gene in Human Neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y Cell-Line Treated with Steroid Hormones Progesterone and Testosterone

Paula Maria Neufeld, Jonas Frai, Veronika Matschke, Carsten Theiss and Sarah Stahlke

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/12/30

In this study, we evaluated the stability of three common housekeeping genes, GAPDH, beta-Actin, and 18S-rRNA, in human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells exposed to varying levels of steroid hormones like progesterone (P4) and testosterone. Housekeeping genes serve as reliable internal controls, assumed to maintain consistent expression across diverse tissues and experimental conditions. Since steroid hormones act as ligand-activated transcription factors, directly impacting gene transcription, the id...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410124

Feasibility, Cooling Efficacy and Precisionofa Novel System for Temperature Management in Cardiac Arrest, Neurogenic Fever and Covid-19

Johanna Kämpe, Akil Awad, Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, PhD, Svensson L MD, PhD and Per Nordberg, MD, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/09/29

In critically ill patients, induced hypothermia or active temperature control to avoid fever are used for neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and performance of a novel temperature management system inpatients after cardiac arrest, with neurological fever or due to COVID-19 infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410123

Late Fluctuations in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: Treatment with GM1

Domínguez Raúl Omar, Vila José Francisco, Bianchi Graciela Ada, Serra Jorge Alberto and Marschoff Enrique

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: 2023/06/24

The diagnosis and severity of Parkinson's disease are established by clinical criteria. The motor manifestations predominate while few are sensory. Initially, treatment includes dopaminergic drugs and/or agonists with good results in the first years. Later symptoms appear requiring different therapeutic strategies. Here, we present the results of a series of patients with late fluctuations treated with monosialo-ganglioside. Seven patients older than 70 years, treated for idiopathic Parkinson's,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410122

Predicting CGRP-Antagonists Response Based on the Phenotypic Features of Migraine Headaches, a Retrospective Study

Awss Zidan, MD, Anindita Rajasekaran, Bsc, Gary Brooks, PhD and Ioana Medrea, MD, MSc

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/05/31

The presence of autonomic symptoms in migraine headaches may predict lack of response to CGRP-MABs. This study is limited by the small sample size. However, it is biologically plausible that presence of autonomic features is predictive of a decreased response to CGRP MABs as migraine patients with autonomic symptoms have higher levels of VIP correlated to this, and not CGRP(3). Our study raises the possibility that migraines with autonomic features may be at least in part VIP driven. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410121

Comparison of Three Filter Configurations and Their Effect on Muscle and Sensory Action Potential in a Colombian Population: Descriptive Study of Cross-Sectional Temporality

Oscar Castro, Alejandro Molina, Katalina Espinosa, Luz Miriam Leiva, Carlos de los Reyes and Enrique Estevez

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 29, 2023

The configuration of the filters influences the components of the compound muscle action potential and the sensory action potential in the nerve conductions of the median nerve. Statistically significant differences in amplitude and duration were found between the three filter configurations. Therefore, we recommend that the filter settings should be included in the nerve conduction reports....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410120

Differential Etiological Diagnosis of Meralgia Paresthetica: A Concise Review

Ed Cleso Pereira de Souza Filho, Emily Stefhani Keil, Felipe Fanine de Souza, Milena Luisa Schulze, Israel Kitzberger and Marcus Vinicius Magno Gonçalves MD, PhD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 27, 2023

Paresthesia meralgia (MP) is a condition in which there is compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), with its entrapment. Clinically presents with burning pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral region of the thigh. Due to the multiple etiological diagnoses different from MP, this review aims to show systemic and non-systemic causes and also explains some tests of the condition. This article is a non-systematic review. All articles used were researched in the public databases ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410119

Clinico-Demographic Profile and Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients Presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke Admitted at Tondo Medical Center

Ruby Loraine G. Loseño, MD and Paul John L. Ablaza, MD, FPCP, FPCC

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 18, 2023

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered coronavirus that came from Coronavirus family that causes Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19 Disease). This virus was first documented in December 2019, where it was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak in Wuhan, China that spread worldwide and became pandemic. To date, globally, over 30 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410118

Pediatric Organ Donation Following Neurological Determination of Death: A Perspective and Review of Current Guidelines

Jeff F Zhang BS

Article Type: Patient Care | First Published: July 07, 2022

Organ donation in pediatric patients following brain death is a difficult process, fraught with both emotional and logistical challenges. However, due to the relative infrequency in which pediatric brain death occurs, the possibility for organ donation from this patient population can be of extraordinary benefit and lifesaving for other pediatric patients suffering from organ failure....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410117

Increased Cases of Acute Polyneuropathy in COVID-19 Pandemic: What Awaits Neurologists?


Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 19, 2022

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection 2019 (Covid-19) primarily affects the respiratory system but central and peripheral neurological manifestations have been increasingly recognized and reported. The study consisted of patients with acute polyneuropathy that developed after the Covid-19 infection. All patients were confirmed serologically for PCR positivity and typical ground glass appearance in thorax tomography in case of respiratory involvement. In 16 patients, polyneuro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410116

Clinical Characteristics, Predictors of Outcome of Patients Admitted with Intracerebral Hemorrhage to Benghazi Medical Center, Benghazi -Libya

Sami A Lawgaly, Ashraf M Rajab and Anwaar M Bennour

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 27, 2022

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of acute stroke and one of the leading causes of death and a major cause of morbidity worldwide. The incidence of ICH varies cross countries and ethnic groups. To study the prevalence, clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of patients with ICH. Also, to evaluate clinical features that can be used as prognostic predictors of mortality in those patients. Design & setting: an observational descriptive study at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC)...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410114

Incidence of Skeletal Muscle Injury with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Qatar

Liaquat Ali, Adnan Khan, Mohammad Alhatou, Osama Elalamy, Beatriz Canibano, Ghulam Adeli, Ahmed Mohammad, Khawaja Haroon, Suhail Hussain, Suha Elmaki, Yahya Imam, Mary Metreenj, Ansaf Ahmed, Jessy Jacob, Lucy Karugu, Neelima John, Kazi Muntaha, Mirza Baig and Ambreen Iqrar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 08, 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is new genus of beta coronavirus that produces diverse neurologic manifestations like myalgia, headache, delirium, anosmia, ageusia, acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, encephalopathy and rarely Guillain Barr syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). 20% of severe COVID-19 intensive care unit admissions are because of some neurological deficits. SARSCoV- 2 virus are very resemblanc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410115

Unusual Simultaneous Occurrence of Cerebral Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism in the Setting of Antithrombin 3 (AT3) Deficiency

Ajit Kumar, DM and Vickrant Malhotra, MD, FRCR

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 08, 2021

We present an unusual case of a 40-year-old adult man with Antithrombin III deficiency who initially presented with cerebral arterial thrombosis and subsequently developed cerebral venous thrombosis during treatment. The subject was a 40-year-old man with a known past history of mild systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. He woke up six hours prior to presentation and found that he was unable to move the left limbs. He was on Aspirin 100 mg once daily, Atorvastatin 10 ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410113

Small Fiber Neuropathy Associated COVID-19: A Common or Uncommon Complication?

Milena Luisa Schulze, Letícia Caroline Breis and Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves, MD, PhD

Article Type: Non-Systematic Review | First Published: August 05, 2021

The spectrum of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 range from anosmia and dysgeusia to myopathy and encephalitis. With the persistence of COVID-19 pandemic and the increase of infected subjects, new acute manifestations and sequels are being discovered. Lately, a new important neurological complication has been reported: Small Fiber Neuropathy (SFN). The existing literature reports cases of dysautonomia, orthostatic intolerance, and hyperesthesia manifestations, until the moment. Several ne...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410112

Missed Cerebral Coil Found in Peripheral Circulation after Endovascular Embolization: A Rare Complication and Review

Nissar Shaikh MD, EDIC, Shoaib Nawaz MD, Sumayya Aboobacker, Adnan Khan, MBBS, Aisha Alkubaisi, MD, Umais Zaid Momin and Abdulnasser Thabet, AB

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2021

Endovascular embolization of cerebral aneurysm is common in clinical practice. The rare complication of endovascular embolization is coil misplacement. Most of the reported coil misplacements occur due to premature release of a coil into the cerebral circulation. We report a case of a coil lost into the peripheral circulation due to failed detachment from the micro-catheter at the right place. A young lady without medical history, presented at the emergency department with severe headache. Her c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410111

Not All Severe Primary Headaches are Migraines - Tension Type Headaches are Far More Common Yet often Labelled as Migraines

Roy G Beran

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 07, 2021

This paper reinforces the concept that headaches reside on a continuum with migraine type headache at one end of the spectrum and Tension Type Headache (TTHs) at the other with what used to be referred to as tension/ vascular headaches, along that continuum. This brief overview of headaches is based upon almost half a century of clinical neurological experience by the author, rather than an in depth analysis of definitions and is also dependent upon impressions of patient responses to treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410110

Influence of BDNF Genotype on the Effect of Neuromodulation on Pain Signalling and Pain Perception in Humans

Magnus Thordstein, Walker S. Jackson, Mats Svantesson and Hedayat Rahin

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: May 10, 2021

Trans-spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) can alleviate pain perception in humans through plastic processes. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence a large number of physiological processes including those underpinning neural plasticity. A common polymorphism of BDNF (val66met), reduces the efficiency of plastic processes. We studied the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the signalling and perception of thermal pain and to what degree these can be influenced...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410109

CGRP Monoclonal Antibodies for Prevention of Migraine: There are Many Adverse Effects

Lawrence Robbins

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 18, 2021

This letter is in response to the excellent July, 2020 article “Migraine and CGRP Monoclonal Antibodies: A Review of Cardiovascular Side Effects and Safety Profile” (Boldig and Butala). The package insert (PI) for the CGRP mAbs, as with many of the new drugs, identifies few AEs. The reasons for this include: 1. trial investigators did not use a checklist of AEs (a checklist is almost never utilized during drug trials) 2. As with most drug trials, the studies were powered for efficacy but wou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410108

Multiple Mononeuropathy in Churg-Strauss Syndrome Presenting as a Subacute Ascending Polineuropathy: A Case Report

Michele Pistacchi, Manuela Gioulis, MD, Sergio Ferrari, MD, Tiziana Cavallaro, MD and Sandro Zambito Marsala, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 13, 2021

Multiple mononeuropathy is not unusual in Churg-Strauss Syndrome. Presenting symptoms may be subacute and the differential diagnosis became complicated, particularly when neuropathy is the sole manifestation of disease. We report a clinical case of an adult man hospitalized complaining symptoms of subacute neuropathy successively recognized as multiple mononeuropathy. Histological examination of sural nerve showed the evidence of systemic necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophils infiltration, con...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410107

Peripheral Neuropathies after Bariatric Surgery: A Current Review

Aluísio Stoll, MD, MsC, Dedi Ferreira Alves Neto, Évelin Pereira da Silva, Kéli Daiane Papes, Maria Carolina MianoSelbach, Matheus Fellipe Nascimento de Souza, Letícia Caroline Breis, Laura Fiuza Parolim, MD, Pedro José Tomaselli, MD, MsC, PhD4 and Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves, MD, PhD

Article Type: Non-Systematic Review | First Published: February 06, 2021

Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective method for sustained weight loss and better quality of life. However, it has its complications. Among those, peripheral neuropathies are important, although underdiagnosed, complications after the surgery. The objective of this article is to describe the most prevalent peripheral neuropathies that may happen after BS, especially focusing on small fiber neuropathies, and the main nutritional deficits involved in these neuropathies. Further studies are needed...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410106

Evaluation of Oblique Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Effectiveness in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Serhat Ozciftci, MD and Hulya Topcu, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2020

ALS is a rare motor neuron disease. Since surgical procedures exacerbate ALS, surgical procedures are not usually applied except in the necessary cases. Pulmonary complications are the main cause of mortality in ALS patients, because respiratory and swallowing muscles may be affected. Although opioids provide effective analgesia, they are not the best choice in ALS patients because they can cause nausea-vomiting and have negative effects on respiratory functions. Oblique Subcostal Transversus Ab...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410105

A Novel Automated Algorithm Effectively Titrates Stimulation in an Implantable Vagus Nerve Stimulation Device

Imad Libbus, PhD, Enea Dede, MD, Scott Stubbs, BSEE, Lorenzo DiCarlo, MD, Scott Mazar, MSEE, Badri Amurthur, MSEE MBA and Bruce H KenKnight, PhD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 11, 2020

Autonomic Regulation Therapy (ART) using chronic Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is in development for patients with heart failure who remain symptomatic despite standard care. In the ANTHEM-HF Pilot Study, a therapeutic VNS intensity was successfully achieved in patients with HFrEF using manually programmed VNS up-titration. An algorithm has been developed for automatically intensifying VNS in small increments to a programmable target intensity, and capable of adjustments during the up-titration ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410104

CANOMAD: A Multi-Faceted Disease

Júlia Machado Rickli, Gabriela Pomaleski and Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves, MD PhD

Article Type: Non-Systematic Review | First Published: October 30, 2020

CANOMAD is a rare syndrome that belongs to the group of peripheral neuropathies associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. This acronym was first used in 1996 to describe the clinical features of the disease, which include: Chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy, ophtalmoplegia, M-protein with cold-agglutinin activity and anti-disialosyl antibodies. The syndrome’s physiopathology is not fully understood, but, according to the available researches, it will be expressed in patients whose serum contai...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410103

What is the Real Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on Stroke: Do We More Have to Learn?

Luiz Severo Bem Junior, Luís Felipe Gonçalves de Lima, Júlio Cesár Tavares Marques, Pedro Lukas do Rêgo Aquino, Andrey Maia Silva Diniz, Artêmio José Araruna Dias, Flávio Monteiro de Oliveira Júnior, Nicollas Nunes Rabelo, Hildo Rocha Cirne de Azevedo Filho

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: September 09, 2020

Coronaviruses (CoV) is virus infectious disease witch a considerable spectrum of clinical presentation. Neurologic symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 have been described recently in the literature. Among a wide variety of neurological symptoms, acute cerebrovascular disease is one of the most serious complications. This review aimed to reveal the current knowledge regarding stroke in new coronavirus infection as way to improve its diagnosis and treatments. A systematic literature review was carried ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410102

Mononeuritis Multiplex Associated with Sars-Cov2-Covid-19 Infection: Case Report

Enrique Estévez-Rivera, MD, Javier Benavides-Hinestroza, MD, Hernando Rubiano, MD, Herney Andrés García-Perdomo, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 09, 2020

We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient from Ipiales (Nariño, Colombia) with COVID-19 Pneumonia (positive PCR test on April 9, 2020, repeated on April 29, 2020, confirming the diagnosis). He was hospitalized in the ICU for 50 days and required prolonged mechanical ventilation. Significant pathological history: Hypertension and hypothyroidism. During her ICU hospitalization, she had kidney failure that required several dialysis sessions. Simultaneously, she showed persistent febrile ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410101

Migraines and CGRP Monoclonal Antibodies: A Review of Cardiovascular Side Effects and Safety Profile

Kimberly Boldig, MMS and Nitin Butala, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 31, 2020

Migraine headaches are a very common complaint described by patients and few medications have been designed solely for their treatment. Current knowledge of migraine pathogenesis relates to various neuropeptides, including calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), acting on blood vessels within the brain and causing vasodilation. Sensory fibers detect this change and it is perceived as pain. This understanding has led to the development of CGRP monoclonal antibodies as possible migraine treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410100

COVID-19 and Nervous System: Under Estimated Clinical and Prognostic Aspects

Alyne Barreto Mesquita de Goés, Bruno Barreira Cardoso, Francisco de Assis Fernandes Tavares, Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte, Renata Carneiro Melo, Irami Araújo- Neto, Renato Serquiz Elias Pinheiro, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araújo- Filho

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 24, 2020

The coronavirus pandemic transformed the world abruptly due to the speed of transmission and high morbidity and mortality. Many deaths have been quantified, and the scientific community intensifies the search for molecular targets, protein sequences and polymorphismson SARS-CoV-2, to improve the clinical evolution and survival of patients. Initially, COVID-19 was described with respiratory changes, flu, and fever. With the spread of the disease, clinical manifestations were observed in other org...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410099

Intracranial Hemorrhage Associated with Sildenafil Use: A Very Rare Complication

GUNTEL Murat, CAN Hakan, GOK Fatma, TANGULEC Goncagul, BALIKEL Unal and USTA Busra Nur

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 29, 2020

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision) is a neurological deficit documented by brain CT or MRI showing the presence of an intracranial bleed in the parenchyma of the brain. ICH is a serious cerebrovascular condition associated with high mortality and morbidity in adults It can be classified as primary and secondary according to etiology. Primary intracranial hemorrhage often develops due to hypertension or amyloid angiopathy. Secondary intracrania...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410098

Blood Blister-Like Aneurysm of the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery Associated With Extracranial Dissection of the Artery

Riccardo Russo, Fabrizio Venturi, Mauro Bergui and Gianni Boris Bradac

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 23, 2020

Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) have been described as small aneurysmal bulges, more frequently arising from non-branching sites on the supra-clinoid internal carotid artery (ICA). Their etiology is still controversial. In our case the association of the BBA, presenting with a severe subarachnoid bleeding, and extracranial ipsilateral ICA dissection in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia, could suggest that both lesions were due to the same pathologic process. The aneurysm was treated in ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410097

The Role of Neurostimulation in the Treatment of Epilepsy- A Commentary on the State of Its Use and Its Potential Worldwide

Arun Swaminathan, MD

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 22, 2020

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) represents the earliest and longest used method of neuromodulation for epilepsy. Implanted and transdermal VNS approaches have both been used and the implanted technique has been proven to be more superior and has become the procedure of choice. VNS implants offer a good treatment option for generalized, multifocal and inoperable epilepsies and are often preferred by patients who wish to have the least invasive option used in them. The VNS also offers relatively goo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410096

Complications as Poor Prognostic Factors in Patients with Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Hospital-Based Stroke Registry

Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon and Vincent Ongko Wijaya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 05, 2020

Stroke is one of the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality. In 2013, stroke was ranked second as the most common cause of death, responsible for 6.5 million deaths globally and the third most common cause of disability in the world. According to the latest world health organization (WHO) data published in 2017, stroke was the leading cause of death in Indonesia reached 332,663 or 19.79% of total deaths of the country. Stroke patients commonly experience medical complications su...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410095

Towards a Biological Definition of Alzheimer Disease

Kurt A Jellinger, MD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 08, 2020

Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a heterogenous syndrome with various pathobiologically defined subtypes. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is enabled by the recent ATN biomarker system, but the definite diagnosis is only possible at post-mortem according to the updated NIA-AA criteria. The recent developments in the clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD including its specific subtypes improving the evaluation of AD and its impact on public health are bri...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410094

Polymyositis in Adamantiades-Behcet's Disease

Carlos Arteaga Rodriguez, MD, MSc, Otto J Hernandez Fustes, MD, MSc, Renato Puppi Munhoz, MD, PhD and Olga Judith Hernandez Fustes, MD, MSc

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 04, 2020

Although Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease (ABD) has a worldwide distribution, it is considered rare in the Americas, with a prevalence of 0.12-0.33:100.000 in the United States. The characteristic triad of recurrent oral aphthous lesions, genital ulcers and iridociclitis occurring more often in young adults during their third or fourth decade of life was initially described by Hippocrates but gained it's classic eponym to acknowledge the Greek ophthalmologist from Asia Minor (nowadays part of A...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410093

Investigating the Effects of Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Topiramate, Carbamazepine and Sodium Valproate on the Neurotransmitter Speed in Treated Seizure Children

Farzad Ahmadabadif, Ghasem Fattahzadeh, Abolfazl Atalu and Pooya Badihi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 18, 2019

Anticonvulsants such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, topiramate, carbamazepine and valproate due to their beneficial effects and economic benefits in compare to new drugs are used more but these drugs are not harmless and sometimes had dangerous, safe and reversible side effects. Reduction of the nervous conduction velocity (NCV) is the common side effect of these drugs and it is of clinically importance if it is severe especially in treated children. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate and comp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410092

Biological Warfare and Snake Venom for Poliomyelitis and ALS: The Little Known Entwined History of Failed Ethics and a Reasonable Therapeutic Hypothesis

Victor M Rivera, MD, FAAN

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

This paper describes a complicated history taken place during World War II (WWII) when military intentions for acquiring biological weapon superiority knowledge was obtained in some cases through atrocious investigations in human beings disregarding ethical and moral principles. After the war, Murray Sanders (1910-1988), a young military officer and American scientist became incidentally entwined with the U.S. military concern over the Japanese bacteriological knowledge, unbeknown by the Allies ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410091

Neuromodulation for Drug-Refractory Epilepsy and Chronic Heart Failure: Targets, Delivery, Composition and Titration

Inder S Anand, MD, FRCP, DPhil (Oxon), Marvin A Konstam, MD, Jeffrey L Ardel, PhD3, Imad Libbus, PhD, Lorenzo A DiCarlo, MD and Douglas L Mann, MD

Article Type: Original Articl e | First Published: September 23, 2019

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used currently in the management of drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE), and is in development for treating chronic heart failure (HF). HF is accompanied by autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, consisting of sustained sympathetic hyper-activation and withdrawal of parasympathetic tone, and associated with progressive worsening of cardiovascular (CV) function and increased morbidity and m ortality. We sought to compare how VNS is utilized for DRE and may potenti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410089

The Effects on the Cognitive Function of Healthy Volunteers of a Combination of Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Vinpocetine and Huperzine A Administered Over 28 Days

Keith A Wesnes and Josh Reynolds

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 14, 2019

This report on a 4 week, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel group, repeated measures, double-blind study clinical trial of a preparation containing Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Vinpocetine and Huperzine A administered to healthy volunteers has identified that the product significantly improves a well validated global score from six tests of working and episodic memory, with an effect sized improvement comparable to the current medications approved to treat Alzheimers disease. Procera AVH is a prop...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410088

Posterior Circulation Infarcts and Carotid Disease. Is There a Correlation?

Ingram OD, Ali T, Khosla N, Burney K and Kakar P

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 14, 2019

We present a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with a history of Right Hemianopia and Right sided facial droop and weakness. CT and MRI brain imaging demonstrated areas of infarction affecting the vascular regions supplied by Left Middle Cerebral Artery and Left Posterior Cerebral Artery circulation. Carotid Duplex Arterial imaging demonstrated moderate Left Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and CT Angiography demonstrated a dominant Left Posterior Communicating Artery. The origin of the mu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410087

Positive Airway Pressure Compliance in Patients with Epilepsy and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jacob Pellinen MD, Christopher K Cheng MD and Alcibiades J Rodriguez MD

Article Type: BRIEF REPORT | First Published: July 26, 2019

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately one third of patients with epilepsy. Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with improved seizure control, but is difficult for patients to tolerate. Patients with epilepsy and co morbid OSA may be at higher risk of recurrent seizures if they are noncompliant with CPAP. This study investigates short-term compliance with CPAP therapy in patients with OSA and epilepsy, as this can predict long-term adherence. Iden...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410086

Unawareness of Olfactory Dysfunction in Older Adults

Amal Loudghi, Majed Alotaibi, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Denis Gris, Kate Busch, Pierrette Gaudreau and Rona K Graham

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 15, 2019

Deterioration of olfaction is a common phenomenon observed in the senior population. A number of factors may cause this deficit including infections, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the self-report as a measure of olfactory function in seniors. A total of 93 community-dwelling participants (43 men and 50 women) from the Quebec NuAge cohort on Nutrition and Successful Aging participated in the Olfactory Response and Cognition in Aging...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410085

Views on the Effectiveness of a Google Jam Session for Interdisciplinary Collaborative Brainstorming to Solve Clinical Issues on a Geriatric Dementia Unit

Wally J Bartfay, Brenda Gamble, Andra Duff-Woskosky, Zuhra Mazik and Karen Zavitz

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 29, 2019

Dementia is a leading cause of death, disability and hospitalization in Canada and globally. A partnership between Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences and Ontario Tech University, both located in the Durham Region in the province of Ontario, Canada was established to create a space of technological innovation in front line dementia care on a Geriatric Dementia Unit (GDU). Our goals are to improve patient quality of life and recovery, enhance the health and well-being of patients wit...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410084

Prevention and Treatment of Basic Diseases: A Potential Direction to Intervene Alzheimer's Disease

Wei Jiangping and Xu Shijun

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2019

As the life span of human beings increases, the number of dementia patients such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. AD may be one of the major diseases faced by the whole world in the future. It is an unresponsive for single drug according to the current stage of AD pathogenesis and drug research. Combined use of various drugs may be the inevitable trend of AD drug research in the future. Personalized treatment of metabolic diseases, vascular diseases and chronic inflammatory risk diseas...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410083

Involvement of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Glutamate in Ototoxicity, and their Attenuation by Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Antioxidant Compounds

Kedar N Prasad

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 20, 2019

Diverse groups of ototoxic agents and gene mutation induce hearing disorders. Several studies showed that increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and glutamate are involved in the initiation and progression of hearing disorders. Therefore, reducing these biochemical defects before and after exposure to ototoxic agents may prevent and improve the management of hearing loss. Previous studies with a single agent have yielded variable benefits in hearing disorders. This review briefly presents evi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410082

Changes in Connectivity between Caudate and Frontal Lobe in Patient with Psychosis Induced for Cannabis - Case Report

Hernandez JF, Marin JH, Naranjo L, Rodriguez and Ramirez SF

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 16, 2019

The use of marihuana is becoming more frequent in young people, the association between psychosis and cannabis has been described, especially in young people, we present a clinical case of psychosis associated with cannabis in a young man with normal Brain Magnetic resonance, but abnormalities in tractography mainly in the connectivity between cuadate nucleus and frontal lobe. Several longitudinal population studies strongly association between cannabis and psychosis, particularly in individuals...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410081

Recent Updates on Essential Tremor

Fariha Jamal, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 10, 2019

Essential Tremor is the most common movement disorder, but many aspects of this common condition are unclear. There have been multiple updates in the field of Essential Tremor in last few years, that has improved our understanding to some extent. Recently, consensus criteria for classifying tremor disorders was published. Special emphasis was on Essential Tremor, to facilitate better phenotyping and understanding of underlying etiology. Purpose was to identify homogenous population of different ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410080

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A and Inflammatory-Demyelinating Lesions in the Central Nervous System

Daniel A Garcia-Estevez, Carmen Cid-Rodriguez and Guillermo Ozaita-Arteche

Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 23, 2019

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a hereditary sensorimotor polyneuropathy which is occasionally associated with demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system, although it remains unclear whether this finding is coincidental or whether the two processes share a common pathogenic mechanism. A male patient with sensorimotor polyneuropathy presented with symptoms consistent with cauda equina syndrome at age 47 in relation to an inflammatory lesion in the conus medullaris. Six years later, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410079

Cognitive-Functional Interaction in Patients with Vascular Dementia

Edith Labos, Karina Zabala, Miriam Del Rio, Sofia Trojanowski, Alejandro Renato and Osvaldo Fustinoni

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 16, 2019

Vascular Dementia (VD) is the most frequent type of dementia after dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Its prevalence increases exponentially with age and its risk doubles every 5.3 years. Nevertheless, up to 32% of DAT cases have coexisting cerebrovascular lesions. Cognitive deficits appear very early in patients with cerebrovascular risk. In more than 1000 patients with arterial hypertension recently studied in Argentina, global cognitive impairment was 22.1%. Executive function and semant...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410078

Cerebral Hemodynamics in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Uygar Utku and Muhammed Nur OGUN

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 15, 2018

A total of 22 patients aged 20 to 40-years-old with RA were enrolled in the RA group consecutively. Control group (non-RA group) consisted of 22 age and sex-matched, randomly selected patients without RA who had other diagnosis such as fibromyalgia and did not have risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). Bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak-systolic, end-diastolic, and mean blood flow velocities, Pourcelot's resistance index values and Gosling's pulsatility index values were recorded with ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410077

Cerebral Histoplasmosis in Non-Immunosuppressed Patient - Case Report

Andre Eduardo de Almeida FRANZOI, Nayme Hechem MONFREDINI, Leonora Zozula Blind POPE, Felipe Ibiapina dos REIS and Fabio Antonio TIRONI

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum, which is endemic in Latin America. The manifestation of the disease in the central nervous system (CNS) is more frequent in immunosuppressed individuals with disseminated presentation. Pulmonary manifestations are usually the first symptoms. However, when neurological manifestations are the first clinical manifestations, the diagnosis becomes a challenge. The early diagnosis is fundamental in the final outcome of the p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410076

Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson's Disease-Dementia: Current Perspectives

Kurt A Jellinger

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD) are two closely related major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology, showing notable overlap in their clinical presentation, pathological features, biochemistry, and genetic risk factors. According to international consensus, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia preceding parkinsonism in DLB, while it develops after ons...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410075

Olfactory Dysfunction: A Potentially Negative Sign for Depression

Zhengwei Wen, Hua-Zhen Lin, Yao-Yao Li and Yun-Feng Zhang

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: August 11, 2018

Depression is a typical neuropsychiatric disorder and has led to great economic and social burden worldwide. During the past few decades, though great efforts have been made on parsing out this mental disease, the potential association of olfactory dysfunctions with depression still remains much to be characterized. Here in this short review, we concisely summarized the evidence of how olfactory dysfunctions acting as a negative marker potentially sign the depression....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410074

The Main Neurological Dysfunctions in Hyperargininemia-Literature Review

Andre Eduardo Almeida Franzoi, Marcelo Manukian Patti, Debora Delwing Dal Magro and Daniela Delwing de Lima

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 25, 2018

Arginine is an essential amino acid. This compound plays an important role in various body functions including cell division, wound healing, removal of ammonia, immune function, and release of hormones. The arginase 1 is a hepatic enzyme that is the faulty component in urea cycle. The urea cycle is represented in Figure 1 with focusing on arginine. When in normal function, the enzyme catalyzes the reaction of conversion of the arginine in ornithine and urea. However, in hyperargininemia, this en...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410073

Rotigotine in Parkinson's Disease Patients: What is the Efficient and Tolerable Dose According with the Real Clinical Practice? An Open, Non-Controlled Multicenter Spanish-Study

Salazar G, Fragoso M and Codas J

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 26, 2018

Rotigotine is dopaminergic agonist (DA) with a high affinity for D3-dopaminergic receptors delivered through trans-dermal patch which has shown efficacy and tolerance in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) according with some articles published in the past. Whereas, most of the studies published on Rotigotine have shown efficacy to ameliorate the cardinal symptoms of PD at daily dose of 8 Mgs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410072

Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Optic Nerve Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Mualla Hamurcu, Selma Fırat, Suleyman Boynuegri, Ufuk Hamurcu, Murat Sinan SarCcaoglu, Selcan Ekicier Acar, B Seyma Durmus and Bulent CiftCi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 25, 2018

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder, with an estimated prevalence of 2% for women and 4% for men in the middle-aged population. It is characterized by the repetitive complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep which causes the cessation (obstructive apnea) or significant reduction (obstructive hypopnea) of airflow. These respiratory events result in intermittent hypoxemia and hypercapnia, cortical arousals, and surges of sympathetic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410071

Susac Syndrome Successfully Treated with Mycophenolate Mofetile

Rocio Lopez Ruiz, Sara Eichau, Elena Calzado Rivas, Guillermo Navarro Mascarell, Juan Luis Ruiz-Pena and Guillermo Izquierdo

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 22, 2018

Susac Syndrome is an infrequent condition that is often misdiagnosed as Multiple Sclerosis. This syndrome is characterized by the clinical trial of encephalopathy, retinopathy with branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410070

Confabulation: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals

Jerrod Brown, Deb Huntley, Stephen Morgan, Kimberly D Dodson and Janina Cich

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 22, 2017

Confabulation is the creation of false memories in the absence of intentions of deception. Individuals who confabulate have no recognition that the information being relayed to others is fabricated. Confabulating individuals are not intentionally being deceptive and sincerely believe the information they are communicating to be genuine and accurate....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410069

Glycilated Hemoglobin and Cognitive Impairment

Jana Binder, Agnies Marczak and Georg Adler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 03, 2017

Hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been shown to have a negative impact on cognitive performance in older adults. In order to assess the relevance of this effect in memory clinic patients, we examined the relationship between hyperglycemia and cognition in an unselected out-patient sample....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410068

Perceptions of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) among School Superintendents in the State of Minnesota

Jerrod Brown, Donald Helmstetter, Diane Harr and Jeff Louie

Article Type: short review article | First Published: November 02, 2017

Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) offer unique challenges in school and other settings. As such, administrators such as district superintendents, many of whom make recommendations for long-term suspensions or expulsion, need to be prepared to work with students with FASD. This requires familiarity with FASD screening, knowledge of FASD intervention and teaching strategies, and possession of a plan for referring these students for additional assistance....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410067

Nuclear Localization of Apolipoprotein E4: A New Trick for an Old Protein

Troy T Rohn and Zachary D Moore

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 31, 2017

One of the most important genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is harboring the APOE4 allele. Much is known regarding the functions of the ApoE4 protein including cholesterol transport in the CNS and a critical role in clearing beta-amyloid deposits in the AD brain....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410066

Differences in ME and CFS Symptomology in Patients with Normal and Abnormal Exercise Test Results

Stephanie L McManimen and Leonard A Jason

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 21, 2017

Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410065

Delay in Pusher Syndrome Recovery is Related to Frontal White Matter Lesions

Hiroaki Abe, Takeo Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama, Yutaka Oouchida, Satoru Fujiwara and Shin-Ichi Izumi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 13, 2017

We investigated nine patients with acute ischemic stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. The time course of the severity of PS was assessed using the standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing. Patients were divided into two groups: the recovery and no recovery groups. Magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained to assess the effect of ischemic lesion sites on the recovery of PS and was analyzed with lesion subtraction technique....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410064

Longitudinal White Matter Alteration in Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness due to Traffic Accidents

Hiroaki Abe, Keigo Shimoji, Takeo Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama, Yoshihide Nagamine, Satoru Fujiwara, Yutaka Oouchida and Shin-Ichi Izumi

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 23, 2017

All participants underwent two DTI studies. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were analyzed using whole-brain analysis (WBA) of 7 patients with no marked brain deformities; mean FA values of forceps minor (mFAFM) were subsequently measured by regional-brain analysis (RBA). Relationships between WB and regional FA values and recovery from PDC were evaluated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/6/1063

Effectiveness of A Fall Prevention Protocol for Patients with Ischemic Stroke During Hospitalization

Yanxia Huang, Ting Luo, Lihui Huang, Lei Zhang, and Hongmei Tao

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 15 2016

Patients with ischemic stroke are at high risk of fall. However, few study focused on fall prevention for patients with ischemic stroke in hospital. The aims of the study were to find out the causes of falling in the inpatient ischemic stroke patients and formulate a fall prevention protocol for them....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/6/1062

A Combinatory Therapy Continuously Improves Memory in a Case of Probable Alzheimer's Disease with Head Trauma for Nearly Two Years

Jing Shi, Xuekai Zhang, Mingqing Wei, Jingnian Ni, Ting Li Mphil and Jinzhou Tian

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 05, 2016

Since the worldwide demographic ageing, prevalence of the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, Alzheimer's disease (AD), will increase dramatically. Although it has been intensively researched for many years, there are still limited treatments for AD. Currently approved pharmacotherapy is generally considered have symptom-relieving rather than disease processing modifying effects. Meanwhile, there are efficacy limits of such medicines, for example, donepezil efficacy starts to decline f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/6/1061

Depression in Parkinson's Disease is Associated with a Serotoninergic System Change Secondary to Neuroinflammation

Ronise M Santiago, Maria ABF Vital, Marcelo D O Sato and Gustavo P Adam

Article Type: Research Report | First Published: December 03, 2016

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), being more prevalent in PD than in any other chronic disabling disease. Its cause, nevertheless, has not yet been elucidated. According to some authors, there is a decrease in serotonin (5-HT) levels compensatory to dopaminergic release impairment, but new evidence suggests that chronic inflammation may be a more likely etiogenic factor to depression. The inflammatory hypothesis states that depression is cause...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/6/1060

The Damaging Impact of Chronic Heart Failure on A Critical Interoreceptor and the Therapy for it

Robert S Fitzgerald

Article Type: Mini Overview | First Published: December 01, 2016

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is among the heart diseases which accounted for > 54% of deaths world-wide in 2013 in a World Health Organizations report. CHF patients most often have a more sensitized carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor than normal. CB neural output stimulates output from the sympathetic nervous system. Increased CB output in CHF has in animal models been attributed to a loss of shear stress on the luminal surfaces of the CBs' vascular endothelial cells....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/6/1059

Abnormal Plasticity and Epigenesis in Epileptic Seizures of an EL Mouse

Jiro Suzuki

Article Type: Rather Short Review | First Published: November 30, 2016

The EL mice were exposed to the natural proprioceptive sensory stimulation of tossing the animal into the air to provoke an epileptic seizure, which results from an increase in the excitability of the cortical neurons due to low activities of Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The seizures develop due to the abnormal plasticity and eventually occur spontaneously....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/5/1058

Stroke is a Risk Factor for Fracture-A 17-Year Follow-Up Study in Men and Women

Penelope Trimpou, Anders Lindahl, Goran Olerod, Per-Olof Hansson, Anders Oden, Lars Wilhelmsen and Kerstin Landin-Wilhelmsen

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 07, 2016

A prospective study was performedof arandom population sample (n = 1616) in Gothenburg, Sweden; 746 men and 870 women, aged 25-64 years in 1995, from the WHO MONICA Project. Fractures were verified by X-ray, CVD events by medical records and lifestyle factors and medical treatment via a questionnaire. Quantitative Calcaneal Ultrasound (QUS) examinations were performed. Fasting blood samples were taken, and in fertile women also on cycle day 7-9....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/5/1057

Highlights of Kennedy's Disease

Agustina Pia Marengo, Fernando Guerrero Perez, Rocio Valera Yepes and Carles Villabona Artero

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: September 23, 2016

The pathogenesis of KD is the polymorphic CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) tandem-repeat expansion above 40 repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene on chromosome Xq11-12. In normal population the number of CAG codons usually ranges from 12 to 25, with an average size of 21-22. The polymorphism involving the CAD triplet repeat expansion of the AR gene, coding for a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/5/1056

The Prevalence of Spasticity in Veterans Living in a Long-Term Care Facility

Maxim Turchan, Taylor S Hudson, Chandler E Gill, Amanda D Currie, Anna L Molinari, Mallory L Hacker, Fenna T Phibbs, Christopher Tolleson, Sarah H Millan, Lauren E Heusinkveld, Candace J Grisham and David Charles

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 01, 2016

All facility residents and their medical decision makers (if necessary) were approached for enrollment in this study. After consent was obtained, two neurologists specializing in movement disorders independently conducted a brief physical examination to ascertain the presence or absence of spasticity. The prevalence of spasticity in veterans residing in this long-term care facility was 33% (14/43). Forty-three percent (6/14) of subjects determined to have spasticity had at least one sign of spas...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/4/1055

MR as a Biomarker for Metronidazole Induced Encephalopathy: Clinical, Neuroimaging and Differential Diagnostic Features

Charles D Donohoe and Paul A Guidos

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 27, 2016

Central nervous system CNS toxicity is a rare complication of a commonly used antibiotic, metronidazole. We report a representative case of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in an individual with increased vulnerability due to underlying liver disease. Features included the essential clinical symptoms of dysarthria and ataxia and characteristic MR abnormalities of increased T2 and FLAIR signal in the dentate nuclei both of which were rapidly reversible upon drug discontinuation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/4/1054

Congenital Skull Depression in a Newborn Delivered by Cesarean Section due to Continued Occipitotransverse Position: Case Report and Short Communication

Yuejun Huang, Jingwen Zhuang, Yezhen Chen and Weizhong Li

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2016

We reported one case of congenital skull depression in a male newborn who delivered by cesarean section due to continued occipitotransverse position. His mother had no history of abdominal trauma during the pregnancy, and there were no complications and difficulties in the process of cesarean delivery. The neurological examination of the baby was normal after birth. The depression had completely resolved when the child was 4 months. The child was meeting all appropriate developmental milestones ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/4/1053

Cold Shock as a Possible Remedy for Neurodegenerative Disease

Takuma Aihara and Fuminori Tsuruta

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 22, 2016

Synapse remodeling is an essential physiological phenomenon in maintaining the normal brain function. Traumatic injury is one of the causes that triggers abnormality in synapse remodeling, leading to neurodegeneration. So far, substantial clinical trials have been attempted to cure neurodegeneration. One of the challenging approaches that improves neurodegenerative symptoms is therapeutic hypothermia. The putative positive feature induced by therapeutic hypothermia on patient is neuroprotection;...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/4/1052

Endoscopic Biopsy using High-Dose Fluorescein Sodium for Malignant Brain Tumors

Takeshi Okuda, Mitsugu Fujita, Hiromasa Yoshioka, Takayuki Tasaki, Shuichi Izumoto and Amami Kato

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 01, 2016

The utility of endoscopic biopsy using high-dose fluorescein sodium in biopsy of malignant brain tumors was investigated. The subjects were 9 patients with malignant brain tumors (malignant lymphoma 5, glioblastoma 3, metastatic brain tumor 1). After making an incision in the dura mater, 20 mg/kg fluorescein sodium were administered intravenously. A transparent sheath was then inserted under neuronavigation guidance. To observe the tumor, an endoscopic biopsy was performed using normal white lig...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/3/1051

Neurology and Cardiac Arrhythmias

Zhengqin Zhai, Min Tang and Shu Zhang

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: June 25, 2016

A host of studies on the cardiac innervation have found a complex link known as cardiac autonomic nervous system (CANS), connecting extracardiac nerves, intracardiac ganglia, and myocardial cells. Now it is well known that CANS plays a critical role in regulating the functions of the heart and its imbalance is regarded as one of the major causes of cardiac arrhythmias. With the development of medical technology and the advancement of ideas, several novel therapies of arrhythmias through modulati...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/3/1050

Permanent Memory Deficits with Normal MRI Following Heat Stroke after Physical Activity and Sauna

Massimiliano Ruggeri and Priscilla Rosini

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 24, 2016

Heat stroke is the result of high heat stress and determines multi-organ dysfunction with predominant encephalopathy. Heat stroke only rarely leads to permanent neurologic deficits with a propensity to cerebellar dysfunction while memory disorders are very unusual. We report a unique case of a patient who suffered from a heat stroke after strenuous physical activity and sauna, resulting in persistent memory deficit with normal acute and follow-up normal MRI. Neuropsychological assessment suggest...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/3/1049

Effect of Elasticity on Flow Characteristics Inside Intracranial Aneurysms

Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Gaku Tanaka and Hao Liu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 25, 2016

Many medical and bioengineering researchers have investigated flow behavior inside intracranial aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics. The majority of these studies assume to be rigid wall, but blood flows through a deformable elastic vessel. A few researchers have tried to simulate using fluid-structure interaction because an elastic wall implicates the decrease of wall shear stress inside the aneurysms. The current experimental model with the elastic wall has been carried out using part...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/3/1048

Developmental Venous Anomaly Adjacent to Aqueduct of Sylvius

Kenichi Nishiyama and Akira Hasegawa

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 13, 2016

A 15-year-old boy presented to our hospital with headache after head trauma caused by a traffic accident. T2-weighted axial MR-images demonstrated the deep medullary veins of the cerebellum converging on the roof of the fourth ventricle. These veins drained into the subependymal vein, which then drained into the precentral cerebellar vein (Figure 1). MR-cisternography with 3D Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (CISS), which can depict the venous anatomy when it is s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1047

In Dubio Pro Therapia: Unexpected Recovery after Palliative Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy and Temozolomide Chemotherapy in a Patient with Progressive Glioblastoma multiforme

Anne-Katrin Hickmann, Daniel Kirschenbaum, Lucas Widmer, MarcinSumila, Stephan Wetzel and Robert Reisch

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 18, 2016

A 38-year-old female with a 7-year history of recurrent high-grade astrocytoma was admitted to our institution presenting with progressive signs of increased intracranial pressure. MRI showed widespread tumor recurrence with diffuse infiltration of the ventricular walls, basal cisterns and concomitant hydrocephalus. After careful consideration a palliative endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. After surgery the patient's condition improved significantly. Thus far she had only undergone...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1046

Multiple System Atrophy: Moving towards a Multi-mechanistic Hypothesis

Monica Federoff

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 09, 2016

With an estimated incidence of 3-4 per every 100,000 individuals among adults 50-99 years of age, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by the following trio: cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction in conjunction with pyramidal signs. MSA usually progresses over a 7-9 year period, with an average age of onset of 57 and affects both sexes equally....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1045

Anterior Junction Syndrome Caused by Neuromyelitis Optica

Ma Eugenia Garcia Garcia, Javier Casas Limon, Aida Orviz Garcia and Alberto Marcos Dolado

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 08, 2016

The anterior junction syndrome is a specific manifestation caused by optic nerve involvement at the junction with the optic chiasm and the contralateral inferonasal nerve fibers (Wilbrand's Knee). Lesions at this point show a specific pattern of visual impairment which is characterized by an advanced monocular visual field loss, together with circumscribed visual field defects, respecting the vertical midline in the other eye (junctional scotoma). Although pituitary adenomas are the most frequen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1044

Trigeminal Neuropathy as a Relapse in Behcet Disease

Goncalo Cacao, Isabel Moreira, Jose Eduardo Alves, Fatima Farinha and Ernestina Santos

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 29, 2016

A 49 years old woman, diagnosed with Neuro-Behcet, was admitted with complains of numbness, aching and periods of electric shock-like pain in right side of the face. Associated with painful oral ulcers, anorexia, nausea and gait instability. Neurological examination revealed dysesthesia on right trigeminal nerve territory, horizontal-rotatory nistagmus on horizontal gaze bilateral with fast phase to the right and tandem instability. Brain MRI revealed new lesions. It was assumed a rhombencephali...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1043

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder in A Ninety-year-old Woman. A Case Report

Romero-Delgado Fernando, Cuello Juan-Pablo, Garcia-Dominguez Jose-Manuel, Higueras-Hernandez Yolanda, Goicochea-Briceno Haydee, Guzman-de-Villoria Juan Adan and Martinez-Gines Maria-Luisa

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 28, 2016

Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating, necrotizing disease of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. Clinical, radiological and immunopathological characteristics distinguish it from multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, new diagnostic criteria have been published, and the terms NMO and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) have been unified, allowing a diagnosis of NMOSD on clinical grounds or on anti-AQP4 antibody statu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/2/1042

MR-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for the Treatment of Medically Refractory Epilepsy

Shasha Wu, James X. Tao, Naoum P. Issa, Sandra Rose and Peter Warnke

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 02, 2016

Resective epilepsy surgery is highly effective in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it involves an open craniotomy and carries the risks of permanent functional deficits and cosmetic concerns. Multiple minimally invasive surgical approaches have been attempted to destroy seizure foci with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissue. Here we review the currently available minimally invasive surgical approaches for epilepsy, with an emphasis on MR-guided laser interstitial t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1041

A Critical View of Neurofeedback Experimental Designs: Sham and Control as Necessary Conditions

Marta Alino, Marien Gadea and Raul Espert

Article Type: Short Note | First Published: February 27, 2016

Neurofeedback (NF) emerged to employ neural feedback via EEG as an evolution of biofeedback in the 1960. Specifically, NF entails to learn to self-control the brain activity according to operant principles through a visual, auditory or even tactile representation of participant's brain activity as a feedback, with the aim of improving mental states, whether or not in clinical conditions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1040

Introducing a Developed Model of Reversible Cardiac Arrest to Produce Global Brain Ischemia and Its Impact on Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau Phosphorylation at Ser396

Shohreh Majd, John H. Power, Simon A. Koblar and Hugh J. M. Grantham

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 26, 2016

Brain ischemia is a consequence of stroke and cardiac arrest (CA), leading to short and long-term neurological impact involving cognitive function as well as dementia. An accurate, simple and reproducible model of CA ischemia and reperfusion is valuable in assessing the response to ischemia and therapeutic interventions. In the current study the effectiveness of a reversible model of CA has been assessed through examining the brain response in expressing tau and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1039

Ruptured Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

Masaru Honda and Takeo Anda

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 30, 2016

A 85-year-old woman was accepted to our institute with complaints of a headache and vomiting after vertigo and left ear tinnitus. Computed tomography (CT) revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT angiography identified an aneurysm at meatal loop of the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). A surgical trapping of aneurysm was performed via retrosigmoid craniectomy. The aneurysm was covered by thinned acoustic nerve and clot was found on the surface of the aneurysm, which penetrated the ner...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1038

Lateral Basal Space and Interlaminar Fatty Compartment of the Deep Cervical Fascia in the Posterolateral Craniocervical Junction - An Anatomical Basis for the Surgery in the Lateral Skull Base

Katsuyoshi Shimizu, Akira Wada, Mika Kushamae, Ryo Irie, Yuta Kawauchi, Yu Kato, Kazuki Iizuka, Minako Kubo, Yu Sakamoto, Hiromitsu Ezure, Naruhito Otsuka, Tohru Mizutani

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2016

In the lateral suboccipital area, the restricted space filled with thick muscles, and dangerous structures prevents neurosurgeons to attain safe and successful surgery. Now we have focus on the disposition of fascial layers and potential spaces of the deep cervical fascia in the posterolateral region of the craniocervical junction, which has barely been described before. Investigation with 32 lateral suboccipital surgical cases and 7 cadaveric dissections has revealed the detailed anatomy in thi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1037

Aggravated Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy in Postpartum Period: Case Report

Serhan Yildirim, Ahmet Sukru Kulualp, Rahsan Adviye Inan, Alper Arslan and Ulku Turk Boru

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 09, 2016

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease characterized with multifocal demyelination in peripheral nerves. Hashimoto thyroiditis is autoimmune disease of thyroid gland. We reported a patient having these diseases together in the postpartum period. Twenty-three year-old female patient presented with progressive weakness in lower extremities and walking disability for three months. Symmetric weakness (4/5) in both flexor and extensors of ankle and t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/3/1/1036

Inhalable Curcumin is an Efficacious Treatment Strategy for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Induced Neuropathology

Isamu Mori

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: January 07, 2016

Turmeric, which is derived from the root of the Curcuma longa plant, is one of the most widely used spices worldwide. Scientists from various disciplines have long studied the medicinal benefits of a polyphenol extract from Curcuma longa, curcumin. It has been shown to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities in cancer, inflammation, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In an epidemiological study, continuous curcumin intake improved cognitive function in aged individuals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1035

Severe Bradycardia after Topical Use of Papaverine during a Pons Cavernoma Surgery

Demian Manzano Lopez Gonzalez, Gerardo Conesa Bertran and Jesus Lafuente Baraza

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2015

Papaverine is a potent smooth muscle relaxant and has vasodilator properties. Topical use of papaverine is widely accepted in neurosurgery to prevent cerebral vasospasm. Growing evidence supports that papaverine may have a neural toxicity effect. We present a case of a 15 years-old patient that was operated on hemorrhagic cavernoma in the floor of the fourth ventricle. A transvermian approach was performed and neurophysiological monitoring was set up. During surgery, the motor evoked potentials ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1034

Association between the ERCC1 Polymorphisms and Glioma Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

Liu Yan, Cai Xiao Qin, Zhao Lian Ying, Shen Heng Shan, Hu Jian Wei

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 13, 2015

Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been shown to influence DNA repair processes and to modify cancer susceptibility. Published data regarding the association between excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group1 (ERCC1) polymorphisms and glioma risk have been inconsistent and inconclusive. To acquire a more precise effect of the association between these polymorphisms and glioma risk, a meta-analysis was performed....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1033

Cognitive Impairment and the Diabetic Brain

Kurt A Jellinger

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: October 12, 2015

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are the two most common and devastating health problems in the elderly. DM is a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Epidemiological and biological evidences support a link between type 2 DM (T2DM) and AD, but the precise mechanisms involved in the development of cognitive impairment in diabetics are not fully understood. Possible pathogenic pathways include genetic factors, ageing, ApoE status, hypo- and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1032

Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

Staci A. Gruber, Kelly A. Sagar, Mary Kathryn Dahlgren, Atilla Gonenc, Nina A. Conn, Jeffrey P. Winer, David Penetar and Scott E. Lukas

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2015

Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1031

Corpora Amylacea in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Cause or Effect?

Troy T. Rohn

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 28, 2015

The presence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the CNS is associated with both normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). CA are spherical bodies ranging in diameter (10-50 micro meter) and whose origin has been documented to be derived from both neural and glial sources. CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein. CA are typically loc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1030

Acute Treatment with Renal Denervation in a Patient with Resistant Hypertension and Hemorrhagic Stroke

Francesco Versaci, Antonio Trivisonno, Luca Brunese and Francesco Prati

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 28, 2015

A 49-year-old man with refractory hypertension was admitted to our hospital in a coma caused by hemorrhagic stroke. Severe hypertension was observed during hospitalization despite a full antihypertensive therapy. Considering the risk of enlargement of the intracranial hematoma, the decision was made to perform renal denervation (RDN). A significant blood pressure reduction was obtained after RDN. The patient had a progressive improvement of general conditions and came out of the coma after a few...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/2/1029

Clock Drawing Test (CDT): is Qualitative Analysis of the CDT Better to Screen Mild Cognitive Impairment than Quantitative Analysis?

Ji Hee Lee, Eung Seok Oh, Eun Hee Sohn and Ae Young Lee

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 06, 2015

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was originally used to describe a transitional state between normal condition and dementia. Revised and extended definition of MCI has been proposed that covers a broader range of cognitive impairment, distinct from normal ageing and from Alzheimer's disease. Despite the existence of reports regarding analyses of the Clock Drawing test (CDT) in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, those focusing on MCI subjects are still lacking. The purpose of this study wa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1028

The Barthel Index: Italian Translation, Adaptation and Validation

Galeoto G, Lauta A, Palumbo A, Castiglia SF, Mollica R, Santilli V and Sacchetti ML

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 19, 2015

The Barthel Index (BI) is widely used to measure disability also in Italy, although a validated and culturally adapted Italian version of BI has not been produced yet. This article describes the translation and cultural adaptation into Italian of the original 10-item version of BI, and reports the procedures for testing its validity and reliability. The cultural adaptation and validation process was based on data from a cohort of disabled patients from two different Rehabilitation Centers in Rom...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1027

Marburg's Variant of Multiple Sclerosis with Extensive Brain Lesions: An Autopsy Case Report

Ayumi Ludwig, Jaclyn Duvall, Jo Elle Peterson and Ryan Hakimi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 10, 2015

Marburg's variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a malignant and rapidly progressive form of MS that typically leads to deterioration or death within weeks to months. Here we present a case involving a 25-year-old woman who presented with fluctuating mild encephalopathy of one-week duration who progressed to coma and ultimately died on day seven after being admitted to our university based neurosciences intensive care unit (NSICU)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1026

Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Dual Diagnosis Patients: A Review

Marta Marin-Mayor, Jorge Lopez-Alvarez, Francisco Lopez-Munoz, Francisco AriasHorcajadas and Gabriel Rubio

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 30, 2015

Dual Diagnosis (DD), defined as the co-occurrence of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and a Severe Mental Illness (SMI), is associated with several negative outcomes. Typical antipsychotics (TAP) are not of great value for patients with DD as they are associated with poorer responses and can worsen SUD. Atypical antipsychotics (AAP) offer several advantages compared to TAP....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1025

Taking Neurology to the Underserved - A Pilot Initiative in an Urban Homebound Program

Ritesh A. Ramdhani, Michelle Fabian, Ania Wajnberg, Linda De Cherrie and Stephen Krieger

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: March 26, 2015

Over 2 million people are homebound in the United States with an increase of 50% expected over the next twenty years. Though home-based primary care programs are effective in reducing hospitalizations among this population, they have been slow to develop and lack subspecialty care. The objective of this pilot program was to establish a volunteer neurology consult service within the Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors (MSVD) Program serving over 1000 homebound patients in New York City....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1024

Current Pharmacotherapy Strategies and Considerations for the Cognitive Dysfunction Associated with Schizophrenia: A Mini Review

Hikaru Hori, Reiji Yoshimura, Asuka Katsuki, Kiyokazu Atake and Jun Nakamura

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: March 19, 2015

Cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia is a core symptom that is strongly related to functional levels. In fact, cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia is due to a combination of the cognitive impairment induced by schizophrenia itself and that induced by the medications that psychiatrists prescribe. It is difficult to differentiate between the two sources, and at present, no medications have a large effect size in terms of improving the cognitive dysfunction induced b...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1023

Warfarin is Associated with Increased Intracranial Hemorrhage and Mortality in Patients with Ground Level Falls: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Stephen Stanek, Varun Gupta, Tahir Jamil, Christopher Clancy, Brett Aplin, Anthony Archual, Mallory Williams and William Olorunto

Article Type: Retrospective Cohort Study | First Published: February 27, 2015

Fall is the number one mechanism of injury for admissions to trauma centers across the US. The use of anticoagulation therapy has also increased significantly, particularly among the older population. We hypothesized that anticoagulation with warfarin increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and death after a ground level fall. Methods: A retrospective cohort of all patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center, between 2008 and 2011, after a ground level fall was identified....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1022

Pathogenesis of Multiple System Atrophy - Recent Developments

Kurt A. Jellinger

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: February 27, 2015

Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain etiology, clinically manifesting with parkinsonism, cerebellar impairment, autonomic dysfunction and pyramidal signs. The pathological process affects striatonigral, olivopontocerebellar, and autonomic nervous systems. The major clinical variants correlate to the morphologic phenotypes of striatonigral degeneration (MSA-P) and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (MSA-C). Pathologically, MSA is characterized by G...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1021

Long-Term Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease is Associated with Progressive Reduction in Medication Utilization and Cost

Chandler E. Gill, Elyne N. Kahn, Aaron Bowman, Thomas L. Davis, Lily Wang, Yanna Song, Justin R. Smith and David Charles

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2015

Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) typically reduce anti-PD medication use by 25-50% within 6 months of device placement, but whether the reduction is maintained long-term is less clear. We performed a medical record review of 18 patients with PD treated with DBS and 18 matched control patients treated with medications alone and compared their patterns of medication use....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1020

Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures: Diagnostic Challenges and Treatment Dilemmas

Taoufik Alsaadi and Tarek M Shahrour

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 12, 2015

Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) are episodes of movement, sensation or behavior changes similar to epileptic seizures but without neurological origin. They are somatic manifestations of psychological distress. Patients with PNES are often misdiagnosed and treated for epilepsy for years, resulting in significant morbidity. Video-EEG monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis. Five to ten percent of outpatient epilepsy populations and 20 to 40 percent of inpatient and speciality epilep...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1019

Recurrent Ischemic Strokes and Headaches Originating from Lambl's Excrescences: A Case-Report

Oana Dumitrascu and Evgeny Tsimerinov

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 31, 2015

Determining recurrent stroke etiology and subsequent therapeutic approaches is an important, but not always straightforward task. Lambl's Excrescences (LE) are cardiac valve strands that can be a source of recurrent cerebral ischemic events. We report the case of a 60 year old female that was seen in neurologic consultation for recurrent ischemic strokes. The patient developed migraine headache with complex auras at the age of 59. She reported three admissions for ischemic strokes in the past ye...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1018

Does the Benefit of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Refractory Status Epilepticus Depend on Seizure Etiology?

Jessica R. Fesler, Ryan Hakimi, Emmaculate M. Fields and Andrea S. Hakimi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 19, 2015

Introduction : Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is seizure activity that persists despite acute administration of standard anticonvulsant therapy. It often occurs after cardiac arrest, indicating a poor prognosis. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) reduces neurological injury in this patient population, and post cardiac arrest protocols now incorporate TH into the treatment algorithm. However, TH is not routinely used in RSE from other etiologies and little is known about the appropriate role of TH...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1017

Intravenous Infusion of Ginsenoside Rb1 Ameliorates Compressive Spinal Cord Injury through Upregulation of Bcl-xL and VEGF

Pengxiang Zhu, Ryuji Hata, Kimihiko Nakata, Fang Cao, Keiichi Samukawa, Hiroko Fujita and Masahiro Sakanaka

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2015

Red ginseng root (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used clinically by many Asian people for thousands of years without any detrimental effects. Subsequent studies that focused on gRb1-induced expression of gene products responsible for neuronal death or survival revealed that gRb1 upregulated the expression of not only Bcl-XL, but also a potent angiogenic and neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 7 days after SCI. Ginsenoside Rb1 (gRb1), with putative anti-apoptoti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1016

Cortical Diffusion Restriction as the Single Abnormality on MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Johnny Samijn, Alisha Godschalk, Rezan Demir and Esther Brusse

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 12, 2015

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia and myoclonus. MRI is an important tool in discriminating CJD from other dementias. Among mimics of CJD are rapidly evolving Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia and paraneoplastic or immune-mediated limbic encephalitis. A CJD diagnosis can be missed and strong clinical suspicion is not always confirmed on autopsy. Typical imaging findings are white...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1015

Basis and Argument into the Work

Roberto Rodrigues, George Perry and Robert Petersen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 12, 2015

This synopsis is a brief report about the conclusions in which we have engaged from considering that Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment and aging could progress with analogous molecular signaling, with no frontiers between their phenotypes. We have also proposed that chronic depression, with or no anxiety and/or stress comorbidindication may interact with these AD manifestations - already product of genomic vulnerability - at any stage of the disease. A known example may bemutant short al...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/2/1/1014

Caspase Cleaved Tau in Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapeutic Target Realized

Troy T. Rohn

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: January 12, 2015

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an array of symptoms affecting memory and cognition. Some common symptoms of AD include memory loss that disrupts daily life, challenges in planning or solving problems, confusion with time or place, and changes in mood and personality. Central dogma to the etiology of AD is the beta-amyloid cascade, which stipulates that beta-amyloid in oligomeric forms represents the earliest step in a cascade eventually lead...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1013

The Importance of Stimulation Cycle in Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsies- Our Experience and Literature Review

Nicola Montano, Filomena Fuggetta, Fabio Papacci, Rina Di Bonaventura, Mario Meglio and Gabriella Colicchio

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 17, 2014

The impact of stimulation cycle on the outcome of patients submitted to Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) has been only marginally investigated in the literature. Nonetheless this is an important factor in term of tolerability of side effects, duration of generator and costs of therapy. Here the role of this parameter was evaluated on 21 patients who underwent to VNS implant at our Institution from January 1994 to February 2011 and responded to VNS (they reported a stable decrease of seizure number ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1012

Randomised Clinical Trial Comparing the Efficacy of A Gluten-Free Diet Versus A Regular Diet in A Series of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Rodrigo L, Hernandez-Lahoz C, Fuentes D, Mauri G, Alvarez N, Vega J and Gonzalez S

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 08, 2014

Objectives: To analyse the clinical efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) compared with a Regular Diet (RD) in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Methods: Seventy-two RRMS patients were included into a prospective study. Annual relapse rate (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and lesional activity were compared. Patients were randomly separated according to diet: (GFD, n=36) and (RD, n=36). Follow-up study period was 5.3 1.6 years (median 4.5 years). Results:...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1011

D-Leucine Suppresses Prion Formation in Prion-Infected Culture Cells

Kana Miyashita, Morika Suzuki, Kana Nishijima and Naomi Hachiya

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 24, 2014

Prion disease is an infectious and fatal disease. The pathogen consists of an abnormal form of the prion protein; designated PrPSc. PrPSc is insoluble, highly resistant to digestion by proteases and all disinfectants. In contrast, the cellular form of prion protein PrPC is easily soluble and digested by proteases. Direct interaction between PrPSc and PrPC is believed to induce the propagation of prions; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this step have not been clarified. Despite effor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1010

Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Neuromyelitis Optica

Lei Zhang, Yaqing Shu, Shaoyang Sun, Yinyao Lin, Yanqiang Wang, Bingjun Zhang and Xuejiao Men

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 30, 2014

Background and purpose: Homocysteine has been implicated in many kinds of neurologic diseases by inducing oxidative injury which is considered one of the pathogenic mechanisms of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any relationship between plasma homocysteine and clinical features of NMO patients. Methods: We measured plasma homocysteine in 66 patients with NMO and 66 controls. Results: The patients with NMO had significantly higher homocys...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1009

The Character and Frequency of Muscular Pain in Myotonic Dystrophy and Their Relationship to Myotonia

Parmova O, Vohanka S, Strenkova J

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2014

Background: Myotonic dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults. Pain is reported in various hereditary muscular diseases at a frequency of 64%83%. Methods: A group of 70 patients with myotonic dystrophy (21 persons with type 1 and 49 with type 2) was investigated by means of questionnaires structured around the subject of pain. Results: The frequency of long-term muscle pain was 57% in patients suffering from myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 55% among those with type 2....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1008

Novel Aneurysm Grown from a PcomA Infundibulum after Embolization of a Contralateral Posterior Communicating Aneurysm in an Isolated Polycystic Hepatic Patient: A Case Report

Rui Zhao, Chao Zou, Chuan-Chuan Wang, Qing-Hai Huang and Jian-Min Liu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 27, 2014

We present a case of a posterior communicating (Pcom) artery infundibulum that progressed to an aneurysm in a patient with Polycystic liver disease without kidney cyst after embolization of the controlateral Pcom aneurysm. The infundibulum had been documented on angiography 4 years earlier, while a ruptured controlateral Pcom aneurysm was embolised. The patient presented to the outpatient clinic with right postorbital headache and cranial Ⅲ nerve palsy. Head CT scan found no gross subarach...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1007

Environmental Risk Factors and Gene-Environment Interactions for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis

Hikoaki Fukaura

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 22, 2014

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System (CNS). The typical disease course is Relapsing-Remitting (RR) MS and treatment with Disease Modifying Treatment (DMT) should be initiated as soon as possible following a diagnosis of relapsing MS for individuals with a first clinical event and MRI features consistent with MS, in whom other possible causes have been excluded. Patients with MS tend to do not completely recover from relapses w...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1006

Celiac Disease in Multiple Sclerosis: A Controversial Issue

Silvia Salvatore, Alessandra Tozzo and Luigi Nespoli

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 22, 2014

Celiac disease is a common immune mediated disorder elicited by gluten that may manifest with neurological symptoms independent to gastrointestinal manifestations. The real prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis is still unclear because of limited population studies, different diagnostic assessment and possible non-celiac related response to gluten free diet. Recent studies have contributed to clarify genetic and immune overlap and discrepancy between the two conditions and are discu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1005

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Presenting With Meningoencephalitis; an Uncommon Presentation: A Case Report

Sonali Sihindi Chapa Gunatilake, Sanjeewa Bowatta Shalika Udayanga Jayasingha, Salinda Bandara, Sunethra Bandaranayake Athauda and Harith Wimalaratna

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 20, 2014

Introduction: Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare heterogeneous disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia with eosinophil mediated tissue infitration and organ dysfunction in the absence of a secondary cause. Clinical presentations involving nervous system vary markedly causing encephalopathy, thromboembolic disease or peripheral neuropathy. Eosinophilic infitration of meninges and central nervous system causing meningo-encephalitis is a rare presentation in hypereosinophilic syndrome a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1004

Contralateral Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Acquired HemichoreaHemiballism

Zaheer F, Sudhakar P, Escott E and Cambi F

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 20, 2014

Hemichorea-Hemiballism (HCHB) is a hyperkinetic condition characterized by abnormal, migratory, continuous, non-patterned movements of one side of the body. It results from involvement of contralateral basal ganglia that may be affected by metabolic, neoplastic, infectious, autoimmune [1], toxic or neurodegenerative processes [2]. The most common cause is ischemia from a focal vascular lesion [3]. Non-ketotic hyperglycemia has been reported as the second most common cause of HCHB in the Asian po...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1003

Therapeutic Significance of Frequency of Deep Brain Stimulation in Intractable Epilepsy

Alok Gupta and Harinder Jaseja

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: September 30, 2014

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is emerging as a viable alternative therapy in intractable epilepsy (IE), and although the exact mechanism and electrophysiology of its action remain elusive, some neuroscientists even believe that DBS may in near future become a first line treatment for the patients with IE who are not suitable candidates for epilepsy brain surgery. In addition to the exact placement of electrodes in the target site, the successful outcome of DBS depends largely upon correct choice ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1002

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease: An Inherited Leukodystrophy Natural History Studies in Understanding Neurogenetic Disorders

Jeremy J. Laukka

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 29, 2014

More than a century ago, in 1885 Friedrich Pelizaeus, a German Physician first identified a genetic disorder in five boys in a single family with nystagmus, spasticity of the limbs and developmental delay. Twenty-five years later in 1910, Ludwig Merzbacher independently reexamined this family and described further the neuropathology of 14 affected individuals and found that all affected members shared a common ancestor. Together, Pelizaeus and Merzbacher identified the exclusive X-linked inherit...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1/1/1001

Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency Modulation in Parkinson Disease - One Size May Not Fit All

Ritesh A. Ramdhani

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 11, 2014

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapeutic modality for patients with Parkinson's Disease who have developed complications from longstanding levodopa such as dyskinesias and motor fluctuations. It produces robust responses to segmental symptoms (ie, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity) while attenuating involuntary dyskinetic movements and smoothing out 'on' and 'off' period cycling. The subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internaare widely accepted surgical targets for stimulat...


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Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

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International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55