International Journal of Stem cell Research & Therapy is an open access, peer reviewed journal that initiates reviews and publishes articles from original research field, clinical studies and other article types in all areas of stem cells. IJSCRT will be authoritatively launched in June, 2014 are distributed as quarterly journal, on frequent processing, while frequencies steadily secure the journal as bi-monthly to monthly. IJSCRT is the major forum for translational research into stem cell therapies.
A global companion looked into IJSCRT, it distributes amazing open access examining articles with an exceptional attention on essential, translational and clinical exploration into undeveloped cell therapeutics and regenerative helps, including creature models and clinical trials. The journal additionally gives audits, perspectives, editorials and reports. Journal covers all parts of science including fundamental, clinical and translational research on heredity, organic chemistry, and physiology of different sorts of stem cells including embryonic, grown-up and actuated immature microorganisms. IJSCRT likewise distributes survey articles, specialized reports and treatise on moral issues.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410069
Amber van Broekhoven, MD, Linde Woudstra, PhD, Elisa Meinster, Laura van Haren, Amber M Kay, Marit Koopman, Martine C Morrison, PhD, Marco N Helder, MD, PhD, Lynda J Juffermans, PhD, Casper G Schalkwijk, PhD, Hans WM Niessen, MD, PhD, Alexander BA Vonk, MD, PhD and Paul AJ Krijnen, PhD
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 08, 2020
Previously, we have shown that StemBell therapy (i.e. mesenchymal stem cell-microbubble complexes subjected to ultrasound) reduced plaque inflammation and plaque destabilization in the aortic root, and thereby inhibited atherosclerosis exacerbation after myocardial infarction (MI). MI also has an effect on heart valves as it increases valve thickness and remodeling. Moreover, hemodynamic disturbances following MI have also been suggested to affect aortic valve (AV) pathology. Therefore, we have ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410067
Mai Ibrahim, Sarah AL-Hajali, Mona Abdelmeguid and Saad Aswad
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2020
The use of umbilical cord blood, which is recognized as a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells, has become an alternative source to bone marrow for transplantation. Cord blood units used for transplant might be rejected due to positive bacterial microbiology. According to common cell therapy standards a microbiology bacterial identification is required to know the type of Bacteria, and to determine if the bacteria is considered critical or non-critical prior to the transplant determination. T...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410066
Mujib Ullah and Asma Akbar
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 14, 2020
DNA encodes RNA and is responsible for protein production in cells. RNA editing is the process by which genetic information is altered in the RNA molecule. RNA editing in cancer initiation, progression and development has been well documented and play an important role in tumorigenesis. Studying RNA editing and its application to change genetic information after transcription, RNA-editing technology could be an important innovation in cancer and has the potential for more effective precision tre...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410065
Ferreira DC, Silva IDCG, Lo Turco EG and Oliveira JSR
Article Type: Research article | First Published: January 25, 2020
The main barrier to the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD). The risk factors for aGVHD are mainly clinical and can be improved if additional biological factors are incorporated, such as the metabolomic profile. It is known that the levels of various metabolites measured are important in the process of immunoregulation. In our population study we investigated the systemic metabolic profile for 26 (Group I) allotransplant recipients...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410064
Mark Berman, MD, Elliot Lander, MD, Thomas Grogan, MD, Walter O'Brien, MD, Jonathan Braslow, MD, Shawntae Dowell and Sean Berman, MS
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 29, 2019
The management of osteoarthritis of the knee runs the spectrum of care from a variety of conservative treatments often culminating in total joint arthroplasty. We initiated a large prospective study to evaluate whether autologous adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF - rich in stem cells) therapy is a safe and effective option. A patient funded prospective study of 2,586 patients from a network of physicians participated in an IRB approved study using autologous stromal vascular fractio...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410063
Ashok Chakraborty and Anil Diwan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2019
Availability of DOPA in situ and thereafter Dopamine (DA) is the main therapeutic approach to treat the Parkinson's Disease (PD). Human neural stem cells (hNSCs), a good source of DA synthesis and release, have long been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for treating PD. However limited cell sourcing and low-growth rate are major concern of its applicability. Different types of other stem cells or reprogrammed somatic cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), holds tremendo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410062
Neveen A Salem
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 23, 2019
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disease with a multifactorial etiology, the predominant pathology of PD is the loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. It is characterized by hallmark signs of bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. Medical and pharmacological treatments for Parkinson's disease are limited to the symptomatic relief of patients, and has failed to prevent or slow down the process of neurodegeneration. Cell transpla...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410061
Robert J Henning MD, Abraham Khan MD and Xiao Wang MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 24, 2019
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of cardiovascular deaths and disability in the industrialized world. Although stem cells have been injected into hearts to limit MI damage, < 4% of stem cells remain in the heart for > 1 hour due to myocardial contractility which causes the rapid egress of the stem cells through the cardiac veins and lymphatics. We hypothesized that stem cells in chitosan gels would remain longer in the heart and therefore be more beneficial in MI repair....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410060
Somia Hassan, Faten Zahran and Shimaa Watad
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 16, 2019
Infertility affects 15% of couples worldwide. It is estimated that roughly half of the infertility cases are due to male factors. Male infertility could be caused by various reasons including failure in spermatogenesis, defects in sperm transportation or accessory gland function, genetic or environmental factors, and sexual disorders. Among these causes, spermatogenic defect is the primary one in male infertility. Spermatogenesis is a sophisticated multistep process involving three major phases:...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410059
Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Saeid Abroun, Masoud Soleimani and Seyed Javad Mowla
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 07, 2019
An efficient and practical ex vivo expansion of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells as an alternative source of HSC transplantation is crucial in understanding the potential of HSC transplantation in treating or supportive therapy in a variety of hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. The aim of this study was an ex vivo expansion of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in a novel three-dimensional polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold coated with collagen....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410058
Sara Fernandez-Guinea, Mercedes Zurita, Estefania Garcia, Jorge Mucientes, Cristina Lopez, Cecilia Fernandez-Mateos and Jesus Vaquero
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2018
The possibility of an increase in brain glucose metabolism after intrathecal administrations of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been recently reported, suggesting a role in the treatment of neurological disorders. We describe here the utility of this type of cell therapy in chronic neurological sequelae due to cerebral hemorrhage. A 49-year-old female suffered from 2009 severe neurological sequelae after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage open to ventricle in the left frontopar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410057
Jesus Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Jorge Mucientes, Gregorio Rodriguez-Boto and Cecilia Fernandez-Mateos
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2018
The authors report the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered paraplegia from 2013, due to shot by firearm. In april 2017 he underwent cell therapy consisting of administration of autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into injured spinal cord and subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture. Throughout one year of follow-up, the patient experienced clear improvement in sensitivity, motor, and sphincter functions. After BMSCs administration, studies with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410056
Susanne Jung, Lauren Bohner, Kathrin Spindler, Marcel Hanisch, Johannes Kleinheinz and Sonja Sielker
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 05, 2018
Dynamic conditions stimulate the bone remodeling process by improving the nutrients transport and increasing the expression of osteogenic cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulation on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells. Bone fracture defects require an interventional treatment which is dependent from the size of the injured site: Whereas smaller bone defects may be spontaneously solved and comprise minimal intervention...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410055
Pavel G Molchanov, Jorge E Moreno-Cuevas, Martin Hernandez, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Garza, Charles Garcia, Edward William Hillhouse, Christine Lopez, Eva M Zsigmond, Rick Wetsel, John Mazzilli, Hong Zeng8, Jeewon Kim, Jieying Yang, Raquel Cuevas, Pavel M Bulai, Taras N Pitlik, Andrey A Denisov, Sergey N Cherenkevich, Alla Yu Molchanova, Elena N Golubeva, Victor A Strukov and Victor V Boksha
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2018
On-chip cell sorting is a promising technique for sorting stem cells in culture. On-chip cell sorting allows minimization of lab personnel involvement in cells processing, dramatically reducing the risk of cell culture contamination. We developed a fluorescence-activated On-Chip Cell Culture Sorting (O3CS) system, which combines a biocompatible semiconductor light addressable microarray (chip) and optical setup for chip addressing and cell culture observation. The optical setup has fluorescent a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410054
Rafal H Abdullah, Nahi Yosef Yaseen, Shahlla M Saleh, Maeda H Mohamed and Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 05, 2018
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are the best adult stem cells that can be used for autologous regenerative medicine. These cells are easily manipulated for use in cell therapy. Therefore, rapid and simple method for culture MScs is needed. In this paper, we are showing simple and robust method for culturing the stem cells. The cells were flushed from the bone marrow of the thighbones of mice and cultured directly in tissue culture flask. Purification of BMSCs were based on the abili...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410053
Elton Mathias, Roveena Goveas and Manish Raja
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 28, 2018
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a cluster of metabolic diseases, resulting in high blood glucose levels, is prevalent in today's world. The global costs of diabetes and its consequences are rising and are expected substantially increase by 2030, especially in middle- and lower-income countries. Evidence-based therapies, specifically targeting the reduction of high blood glucose levels, and minimizing diabetic complications, are currently the choice of treatment. Stem cell therapy offers a promising visi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410052
David Cavalcanti Ferreira, Marcio Ribeiro de Andrade Filho, Fabio Rodrigues Kerbauy and Jose Salvador Rodrigues de Oliveira
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 30, 2018
According to the World Health Organization, the mantle cell lymphoma is a lymphoma subtype characterized by the translocation t (11;14) resulting in overexpression of the protein cyclin D1+. The clinical presentation typically includes extranodal, particularly bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. Of all B cell lymphomas, it has the worst prognosis and survival, around 3 to 5 years....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410051
Matthias Rieke, Afrim Bytyqi, Florian Frohns and Paul G Layer
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 25, 2018
Besides invention of iPSC technology, recent progress of stem cell-based organoids is founded on long-standing 3D-reaggregate approaches from embryonic tissues. In particular, histotypic in vitro reconstruction of avian retinal spheroids was most prolific. For instance, a complete reconstitution of all retinal layers was possible, which was supported by Wnt signalling and factors from the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE); similar in vitro findings are still missing for mammals. Using an establ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410050
Cecilie Gudveig Gjerde, Daniele De Santis, Massimo Dominici, Guglielmo Zanotti, Solve Hellem, Serena Piccinno, Jorge S Burns, Alba Murgia, Olivia Candini, Mauro Krampera, Pierfrancesco Nocini, Alessandro Addis, Jerome Amiaud, Pierre Layrolle, Kamal Mustafa and Elena Veronesi
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 29, 2017
Regeneration of atrophied alveolar bone prior to insertion of dental implants is a major challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgery....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410049
Sellamuthu Subbanna Gounder, Radha Kodiappan, Soon Choy Chan, Abhi Veerakumarasivam and Baskar Subramani
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 26, 2017
Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although treatable by liver transplantation, quality of life is unlikely to drop in all the patients after five years. The shortage of matching donors and the high risk of surgical-associated complications further limits the therapeutic potential of transplantation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410048
Jennifer Hilario Diaz and Jordana Kate Schmier
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2017
Gingival Black Triangles (GBTs), or gingival embrasures, are aesthetically displeasing even when they are not severe enough to require periodontal treatment. Multiple treatment modalities exist, including veneers, composite and other prosthetic modalities, with few, if any, treatments covered by insurance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410047
Robert J Henning, Abraham Khan, David Whitaker and Narendra Sastry
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 26, 2017
We utilized two separate techniques, human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells (hUCBC) and chitosan hydrogels, to limit acute myocardial infarction size and LV remodeling. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells (hUCBC), contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. Chitosan is a polysaccharide....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410046
Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Xiaofei Zhu and Chengfei Zhang
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 29, 2017
The development of cell lines with high cell density, controlled proliferation, apoptosisresistance, and easy adaptation into cultures of serum free media is essential for the success of tissue engineering strategies....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410045
Sushma Bartaula-Brevik, Anne Isine Bolstad, Kamal Mustafa and Torbjorn O Pedersen
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 20, 2017
Hypoxia is one of the factors that trigger the release of inflammatory and vasculogenic cytokines during tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with and without endothelial cells (EC) were cultured in vitro in normoxic and hypoxic environments. The mRNA expression of inflammatory and vasculogenic cytokines were evaluated at 1, 12, 24 and 48 hours. After 48 hours of incubation in normoxic and hypoxic conditions, supernatants termed as conditioned medium (CM) from each group were collec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410044
Patrick Narbonne, Abigail R Gerhold, Jean-Claude Labbe and Paul S Maddox
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 10, 2016
Adult stem cells hold tremendous potential for regenerative medicine. Harnessing their therapeutic benefits requires that we gain fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which stem cells function and divide in vivo. This is hampered by the fact that stem cells often reside in compartments that remain difficult to access using imaging approaches....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410043
Qilin Xu, Qunzhou Zhang, Steven Wang, Brian P Ford, Prem Pate, Lee R Carrasco, Anh D Le and Faizan Alawi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 07, 2016
Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign tumor of the jaw, which clinically presents as a slow-growing neoplasm with cortical bony expansion. It has been postulated that COF might be derived from the inactive-like small nests or islands of odontogenic epithelium. However, the pathophysiology of this rare benign tumor remains largely unknown. Herein, we reported a case of simple type of COF in the mandible in a 24-year-old man who presented with progressive mandibular swelling and ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410042
Advancing Research in Regeneration and Repair of the Motor Circuitry: Non-Human Primate Models and Imaging Scales as the Missing Links for Successfully Translating Injectable Therapeutics to the Clinic
Magdalini Tsintou, Kyriakos Dalamagkas and Nikos Makris
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 28, 2016
Regeneration and repair is the ultimate goal of therapeutics in trauma of the central nervous system (CNS). Stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) are two highly prevalent CNS disorders that remain incurable, despite numerous research studies and the clinical need for effective treatments. Neural engineering is a diverse biomedical field that addresses these diseases using new approaches. Research in the field involves principally rodent models and biologically active, biodegradable hydrogels....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410041
Malin Kele and Anna Falk
Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: August 17, 2016
A decade has passed since Shinya Yamanaka published his landmarking publication on how to produce pluripotent stem-cell-like cells and the term induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, was coined. This past decade has been a decade devoted to pluripotent cells, scrutinizing molecular mechanisms in cell identity, and optimizing derivation methods, culture conditions and characterization methods to xenofree and chemically defined clinical-grade pluripotent stem cells....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410040
Mohamad Almoussa, Volha Stoll, Diana Klein and Suleyman Ergun
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 13, 2016
Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in the immune system. Here, we identify CD44(+) vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs) as progenitors for macrophages and dendritic cell-like cells. Using human internal thoracic artery (hITA) tissue specimens we performed ex vivo sprouting assays followed by immunohistochemistry....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410039
Lina Maria Delgado-Garcia and Rogerio Martins Amorim
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 28, 2016
During the late 60's, the experiments with brain lesions in rats, suggested the possibility of neurogenesis in the adult brain. Three decades later, the conceptual link between adult neurogenesis and stem cells was proposed. We now know that the adult mammalian brain may have the ability to regenerate through adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Here are briefly reviewed classical and current theories in adult neurogenesis, NSCs and neurogenic niches....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410038
Valeria Fernandez Vallone and Marie-Isabelle Garcia
Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: July 01, 2016
The gastrointestinal epithelium is one of the tissues with highest self-renewing rates under steady-state conditions, and it thereby constitutes an excellent model to better understand how tissues maintain homeostasis. In the past decade, intense research in this field has allowed identifying stem cells responsible for this task and has contributed to uncover the main molecular mechanisms associated with self-renewal and differentiation properties of these cells....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410037
Rihab Loudhaief and Armel Gallet
Article Type: Perspective | First Published: July 01, 2016
Organisms are subjected during their lifespan to many environmental stresses such as starvation, temperature variations, chemicals, pathogens, injuries... In order to overcome the incoming stress and to yield an adapted answer, organisms have developed throughout evolution robust and conserved mechanisms such as immune response and tissue regeneration helping at maintaining their physiological equilibrium, i.e. their homeostasis. However, the maintenance of the homeostasis can be compromised in ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410036
Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Karen A Hasty and Hongsik Cho
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 01, 2016
Osteoarthritis (OA) is predicted to be the fourth leading cause of disability in the world by the year 2020. OA results in damage to cartilage tissue and underlying subchondral bone. Current therapeutic options for osteoarthritis (OA) are limited due to the unique nature of cartilage tissue. Alternatively, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been utilized for cartilage repair, but the formation of an intact neocartilage similar to hyaline cartilage is still a challenge. Kartogenin (KGN), a small ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410035
Justin D Glenn and Katharine A Whartenby
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: June 26, 2016
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-faceted cells capable of tissue regeneration, wound healing, and immunosuppression. Their immunosuppressive actions extend to most innate and adaptive immune cells, including TH17 cells, which have recently been discovered to be important pathogenic cells in a variety of disease settings, including many autoimmune diseases. As various long-standing treatments and therapies in autoimmune disease may face limitations and result in dangerous side effects, the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410034
Prakash Baligar, Veena Kochat, Snehasish Mukherjee, Abinaya Sundari T, Vikash Kumar, Zaffar Equbal and Asok Mukhopadhyay
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 28, 2016
All major metabolic and synthesis functions of liver are significantly perturbed in case of critical injury. Though liver regenerates by itself following acute injury, this process is impaired in case of chronic injury. In both cases, unless liver is allowed to regenerate by proving appropriate support, either internally or externally, depending up on the extent of injury it ceases to function and transplantation remains the only available treatment option. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410033
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid cells, which lose their ability to differentiate into normal mature cells. The initial observations of the possibility of treatment with agents which induce terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells were made by Leo Sachs and co-workers for more than 4 decades ago....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410032
Rachel Gater, Dan Nguyen, Alicia J El Haj and Ying Yang
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016
The retina is a complex, light sensitive tissue layer on the inner surface of the eye, which functions to translate light stimuli into nerve impulses which travel to the brain via the optic nerve. Retinal diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa can lead to significant vision problems and even blindness. Although there are some existing treatments for retinal disease, current treatments are invasive, need to be regularly repeated and do not have the capability of ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410031
Jonathan Kenyon, Gabrielle Nickel-Meester, Yulan Qing, Gabriela Santos-Guasch, Ellen Drake, PingfuFu, Shuying Sun, Xiaodong Bai, David Wald, Eric Arts and Stanton L. Gerson
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 24, 2016
Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1, an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of the epithelia and proximal mucosa....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410030
Carlos Rio, Andreas Jahn, Amanda Iglesias, Luis A Ortiz and Ernest Sala-Llinas
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are adult multipotent cells capable of differentiating into a number of different cell lineages, which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane and other tissues, expanded in culture and, subsequently, administered by systemic or local routes into injured animals or ill patients. As a result of their proliferative potential, multipotency, immunomodulatory effects, migratory ability and immunoprivileged state (MSC express ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410029
Yen-Shun Chen, Yi-An Chen, Pei-Hsun Tsai, Chih-Ping Chen, Sheng-Wen Shaw and Yogi Hsuan
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell type, and they are the most widely used cell type in stem cell therapies. Designing a new MSC drug is an intricate process, considering the versatile nature of cells and the susceptibility to manufacturing processes. As the number of MSC-based clinical trials rapidly grows over the years, there is an urgent need to develop a more stringent method to characterize MSC for quality and to enhance scrutiny ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410028
Guadalajara H, Garcia-Arranz M, Georgiev-Hristov T, Cortes D and Garcia-Olmo D
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016
Novel methods are needed for this condition, and cells appear to have potential to improve fistula healing. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in several clinical trials, including phase-III studies. After an analysis of the published papers we can conclude that MSCs have evident anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties, MSCs are safe for clinical practice and have decent results considering the challenging conditions surrounding the procedure and the safety profile of the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410027
Janet L. Paluh
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 30, 2016
Stem cell based therapy directed towards improving the long-term therapeutic outcome of heart disease in many regards remains in its infancy. Although strategies with bone marrow derived stem cells have been prevalent in clinical trials, other stem cell resources are less explored. The ability to use reprogrammed somatic cells for patient-optimized therapies, either from direct reprogramming to cardiac lineage or reprogramming first to pluripotent stem cells, requires expanding our understanding...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410026
Jessica B. Chang and Justine C. Lee
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 26, 2016
The regeneration of bone is a complex physiological process involved in fracture healing as well as defects created by trauma, infection, tumor resection, congenital abnormalities, and impaired or insufficient regeneration. Various bone regeneration and repair strategies exist to augment surgical reconstructive procedures, including use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, distraction osteogenesis, osteoconductive scaffolds, and bone morphogenetic proteins....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410025
Matthew J Tomlinson, Elena A Jones, Peter V Giannoudis, Xuebin B Yang and Jennifer Kirkham
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2016
Cell surface markers for isolating proliferative human dental pulp stromal cells are currently lacking. Other tissues containing mesenchymal stromal cells have been studied in greater depth and candidate markers for cell isolation identified, one such marker being CD271. Previous reports suggest CD271 as a marker for isolating dental pulp stromal cells from rat incisors. We aimed to study the utility of CD271 as a marker for isolating human dental pulp stromal cells. CD271 positive cells from bo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410024
Zhen Dong and Hongjuan Cui
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 08, 2016
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing cancer cells in tumors that are suggested to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression and relapse. The molecular mechanisms of CSCs biology could provide some novel managements for cancer treatment. Sirtuins, as a family of class III deacetylases, are recently found to play essential roles in the maintenance and differentiation of various cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs), colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs), breast cancer s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410023
Xianyang Zhang, Norman L. Block and Andrew V Schally
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016
Beta cell replacement, to supply the body with cells producing insulin, is considered as one of the most important alternative approaches to the treatment of diabetes. Transplantation of human islets and the resulting progressive improvement of clinical results confirm the approach as a positive trend in this field. Recent progress in beta cell differentiation, deriving from many types of pluripotent stem cells, has potentially provided an unlimited source of β cells for research and clinic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410022
Sylvie Shen, Ning Xu, Geoff Symonds and Alla Dolnikov
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016
The ability to target cancer cells using genetically enhanced immune effector cells armed with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) capable of recognising tumour associated antigen is a novel approach to the treatment of cancer. Remarkable success in early phase clinical trials has demonstrated a potent anti-cancer effect of T cells modified to express CAR (CART cells) targeting CD19+ B-cell malignancies....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410021
A Conceptual Integration of Extra-, Intra- and Gap Junctional- Intercellular Communication in the Evolution of Multi-cellularity and Stem Cells: How Disrupted Cell-Cell Communication during Development can Affect Diseases later in Life
James E Trosko
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016
An attempt will be made to provide a short conceptual review to integrate, from an evolutionary perspective, how the emergence of gap junctional intercellular communication helped to bring about multi-cellularity and new adaptive phenotypes. This new fundamental biological function of the metazoans was needed to provide homeostatic control of new cellular functions of an interacting society of different cell types existing in a 3-dimensional unit. Changing paleo-physics- and -chemistry of the ea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410020
Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare and Monica Mottes
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations in ALPL gene which encodes the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase isozyme (TNSALP). Defective/inactive TNSALP causes an increased concentration of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in bone matrix that impairs bone mineralization. The accumulation of extracellular PPi observed in HPP causes impairment in bone mineralization process and leads to a disturbance of calcium and Pi homeostasis. The pathogenesis of bone hypomineralization in HPP is relatively...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410019
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 13, 2016
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different adult tissues and can be differentiated along stromal lineages (i.e. osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). Recent data in the literature provided evidence that MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into additional cell types, such as endothelial cells. In our studies we showed the endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential of human neonatal foreskin derived stromal cells (hNSSCs) both in vitro and in vivo....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410018
Andrea L. George and Gilbert H. Smith
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2016
Implants of mammary glands from a single mammary fat pad in a H253 transgenic female mouse heterozygous for a lacZ-labeled X chromosome were analyzed at various time points following transplantation into the epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads of immune-compromised mice. The results show that the lacZ-marked X chromosome, demonstrated by nuclear-associated X-gal staining, was confined to a single epithelial clone that gave rise to the cap cells of all growing terminal end buds (TEB) in the expan...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410017
Silvana Bardelli and Marco Moccetti
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: January 03, 2016
Preliminary studies based on stem cells were initially applied to the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the purpose of delivering a cardioprotective effect. The field has then rapidly expanded to embrace chronic heart failure as a cardiorestorative therapy. For the easiness of collection as hematologic tissue, Bone Marrow (BM)-derived stem cells were utilized as the primary source of these applied therapies. Specifically, unselected Bone-Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNCs)...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410016
Jie Yuan and Qin Yang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 24, 2015
Reprogramming healthy somatic cells into disease-relevant cell types through cellular reprogramming has been intensively investigated. The discovery of reprogramming methods holds the promise of generating desired cells for disease modeling, drug screening studies and treatment of numerous diseases. Recently studies also focus on different disease cell reprogramming, including cancer cell reprogramming. Reprogramming and tumorigenesis share many similarities and the tumor suppressor p53 suppress...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410015
Jong-Hang Chen, Mei-Shu Chen, Su-Liang Chen and Ing-Ming Chiu
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 21, 2015
Stem cell-based therapies in alleviating symptoms or reversing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injuries have been investigated extensively. In this review, we first summarize our current understanding of the ontogeny of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their mobilization in vivo. We then focus on the cellular reprogramming in generation of iP-NSCs, iNeurons and iNSCs, and applications of NSCs and iNeurons in cell-based therapy, disease modeling and drug discovery. NSCs belong...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410014
S Tucker Price, Thomas H Beckham, Joseph C Cheng, Ping Lu, Xiang Liu and James S Norris
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 02, 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell population acquired most prominently from bone marrow with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and others. MSCs demonstrate the capacity to home to sites of injury and contribute to tissue repair. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid impacting proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis with changes in S1P concentration providing significant implications for vari...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410013
Sylvia Muller, Kenny Dalgarno, Anne Dickinson, Xiao-nong Wang and Lindsay Nicholson
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: November 27, 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stromal cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties. They can be isolated relatively easily from several tissues, including bone marrow and adipose tissue and can be expanded ex vivo to yield the large numbers required for a therapeutic dose. As such, MSCs are considered a promising cell source that can be used in cellular therapy for a wide range of diseases, including bone and cartilage defects. However, despite the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410012
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: October 22, 2015
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has widely been used for modeling of various genetic diseases. In the disease-modeling iPSC studies, it is necessary to generate hiPSC lines from peripheral tissues of multiple patients and of multiple age- and sex-matched control individuals in order to minimize the differences in genetic background that can affect the results. However, we can generate disease model-hiPSC line with mutant allele being expressing and normal control-hiPSC lin...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410011
Andrea Carpanetto, Chiara Gai, Enrica Favaro, Maria Maddalena Zanone and Giovanni Camussi
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: September 28, 2015
Several preclinical studies have shown potential immune-modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in type 1 diabetes leading to phase I/II clinical trials. Immune-modulatory properties of MSC have been mainly ascribed to their secretome. The extracellular vesicles (EV) have emerged as paracrine mediators of MSC actions. In fact, MSC-derived EV have been shown to carry proteins and nucleic acids capable to mimic the effect of originating cells. In the present short review we discuss e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410010
Negar Azarpira, Maryam Kaviani and Saeede Salehi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 02, 2015
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by progressive destruction of the beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The current primary treatment is changing the life style and insulin injection. However, this therapy cannot provide sustained physiological glycemic control. Pancreas or islet cell transplantation would be the preferred treatment options. However, the lack of donor tissue immunoincompatibility, cell rejection and using long term immunosuppression are the major barrie...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410009
Ricardo Rodrigues, Barbara Viana, Ivo Vieira, Joao Tavares, Renato Lobo, Ana Portela and Mario Vasconcelos
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 02, 2015
The oral cavity has proven to be an important reservoir of stem cells with the advantage of being a non-invasive source. These cells potential for maxillo-facial bone regeneration has been well documented throughout the last five years. This article aims at reviewing and discussing the different types of dental stem cells available in the oral cavity, their lineage characterization and potential applications in oral medicine; cell collection, isolation and preservation; bone regenerative potenti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410008
Anastasia Agrafioti, Maria Deimezi and Evangelos G. Kontakiotis
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 19, 2015
Regenerative endodontics is described as biologically based procedures designed to replace damaged structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentin complex, and is considered as an optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410007
Swenn Maxence Krähenbuhl, Anthony Grognuz, Murielle Michetti, Wassim Raffoul and Lee Ann Applegate
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 06, 2015
Co-culture techniques associating both dermal firoblasts and epidermal keratinocytes have shown to have better clinical outcome than keratinocyte culture alone for the treatment of severe burns. Since fat grafting has been shown to improve scar remodelling, new techniques such as cell-therapy-assisted surgical reconstruction with isolated and expanded autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) would be of benefit to increase graft acceptation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410006
S. Guggisberg, L. M. Benneker, M. J. Keel and B. Gantenbein
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28, 2015
Synthesized polyethyleneglycol (PEG) hydrogels are appealing with regard to potential for cell therapy or as vehicles for drug delivery or even to regenerate tissue with similar hydrogel-like properties such as the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc (IVD)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410005
Bertolo A, Schlaefli P, Malonzo-Marty C, Baur M, Potzel T, Steffen F and Stoyanov J
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 19, 2015
Bone marrow is a major source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC), which are used in tissue engineering and other autologous stem cell therapies. Studies designed to use large canine models and translate the results to human practice must take into account the ex vivo and in vitro differences in the bone marrow samples. A set of morphological and physiological markers was used to compare MSC derived from canine and human bone marrow. Despite anticlotting treatment, frequent bone marrow clotting was ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410004
Jesus Ciriza, Christa Caneda, Bryce McLelland and Jennifer O. Manilay
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Pancreatic progenitors have been identified and isolated during embryonic development showing their potential to differentiate into insulin producing cells after transplantation. Subsequently, they have been proposed as an alternative to the treatment of Type I diabetes. However, fetal pancreata represent a limited donor supply and we proposed that ESC-derived pancreatic progenitors are another possible option....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410003
Venu Polineni, Chi-Shuo Chen, Wei-Chun Chin and Anand Gadre
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2014
Biocompatible polymers have been successfully implemented to generate nanofibers for bone tissue engineering. This work focused on generating and functionalizing Poly-l-Lactic-coGlycolic Acid (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds in the range of 700 nm using the electrospinning technique. Our specific objective is to design synthetic biodegradable scaffolds comprising electrospun nanofibers that will not only be osteoconductive but also contain porosity for bone cell ingrowth enhanced with Adipose derived ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410002
Jianbo Wu and Radbod Darabi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2014
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) have unique differentiation and self- renewal potential which makes them a potential candidate for cell therapy in degenerative disorders. However, the limitation of deriving ES cells from embryos and their immune-incompatibility hinder their clinical applications. Fortunately, by introduction of somatic cell reprogramming technology into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), the limitations of ES cells have been circumvented. Therefore iPS cells have been c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410001
N. Sumru Bayin and Dimitris G. Placantonakis
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 13, 2014
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy, with an annual incidence of over 10,000 new cases in the US and a median survival of 14-16 months. The current standard of care includes surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy and treatment with the alkylating agent temozolamide. Sadly, prognosis for GBM patients has increased only incrementally and rather marginally over the past half century. The fact that GBM has lagged behind other solid malignancie...
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