International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy is an open access journal which is an essential reading for scholars in all areas of immunological research and practical therapy studies. The journal publishes papers describing original work in all areas of immunology including cellular and molecular immunology, immunochemistry, immunogenetics, imaging, mathematical modelling, allergy, transplantation immunology, cancer immunology, clinical immunology and immunological therapies, physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease, malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders and therapies (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection), the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.
International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. It encourage authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410035
Article Type: REVIEW ARTICLE | First Published: February 23, 2019
The interaction between CD8 and HLA class I is largely monomorphic and of low affinity. Previous HLA mutation studies have indicated that manipulation of the affinity of this interaction can have dramatic biological effects. Reductions in CD8-HLA class I affinity can lead to inhibition of T cell mediated target cell killing, whilst modest affinity increases lead to enhanced target cell killing whilst retaining antigenic specificity. Here it is sh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410034
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Inflammation is a complex biological response mediated by macrophages to protect the body from the pathogens and danger signals. The inflammatory response is initiated by priming, a process increasing the expression of inflammatory genes by extracellular pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated detection of pathogens, followed by triggering, a process detecting cytosolic pathogens by intracellular PRRs. Triggering induces the formation of intr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410033
Kristina Juneblad, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist and Gerd-Marie Alenius
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018
Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with established disease and 30 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine different serological biomarkers were investigated in relation to disease activity, disease manifestations and in comparison with controls. In addition to standard statistical methods, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to investigate different phenotypes of PsA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410032
Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yoji Koshibu, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Ryuichi Nakano, Go Kamoshida, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroto Ikeda, Yasuyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Sakamoto and Yasuo Ono
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in cell membrane antigens on neutrophils from peripheral blood obtained from patients with pneumonia. Neutrophils play an important role in the phylaxis against pneumonia caused by bacteria and fungi. The recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs is a multistep process that involves granulopoiesis, neutrophil release, expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and cellular adhesion molecules, an...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410031
Upendra P Hegde, Evan R Jellison and Nitya G Chakraborty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2018
It remains a wonder how Tregs induce tolerance for the development of cancer. Previously we have shown with melanoma patients that, increase in peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) number in blood is related to the poor prognosis of the disease. In vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) and pTregs are remarkably similar and significantly different in functionality from tTregs. Here, we worked with 12 melanoma patients- six HLA A2 positive and six HLA A2 neg...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410030
Daniel Ezekwudo, Richard Keidan, Bolanle Gbadamosi, Vonda K Douglas-Nikitin, Zhou Yu, Jeffrey Margolis, Michael Stender, Susanna Gaikazian and Ishmael Jaiyesimi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2018
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive form of skin cancer mostly seen in fair-skinned individuals between the ages of 60-80 years, and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Approximately 1500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed in the United States every year with an annual incidence rate of 0.7 per 100,000 persons....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410029
Meir Djaldetti and Hanna Bessler
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 23, 2018
The introduction of corticosteroids in the therapeutic armamentarium has been a great contribution to human health. Budesonide, a semi-synthetic glucocorticoid derivative gained its popularity due to its anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and even anti-carcinogenic properties....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410028
Ashley S Plant and Eugene I Hwang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 13, 2018
Immunotherapy for pediatric oncology is a robust and prolific area of active research and has changed the face of treatment for some cancers, such as, B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and neuroblastoma. However, the field faces challenges and hurdles unique to the pediatric population especially in the area of neuro-oncology....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410027
Nagahito Saito, Nobuo Takemori, Enrique Rewald, Hiroshi Nagura, Yutaka Kohgo and Hong-Kean Ooi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2018
High dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) has been performed for increase of platelet to patients with immune-thrombocytopenia (ITP). We observed by standard and immunoelectron microscopy the phenomenon of the direct cell to cell contact between red blood cells (RBCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) in bone marrow (BM) of patients with ITP (ITP-patients) after IVIG and then compared to that of the mice injected human immunoglobulin (IgG). R...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410026
Isabel C Hageman, Frans J van Overveld and Ger T Rijkers
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 24, 2017
Activation and control of the immune system is regulated by costimulatory molecules as well as by checkpoint inhibitors. Checkpoints are essential in maintaining self-tolerance and minimizing collateral damage by modulating the immune response....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410025
Vanessa Elizabeth De Gregorio, Silvia Carino, Juan Carlos Valdez, Silvio Eugenio Castillo and Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 07, 2016
A non-specific vaccine used as immunotherapy can be used to prolong an equilibrium phase in the tumor growth, similar to the doxorubicin treatment used in the model, although by different mechanisms. Non synergic effect was observed in the group treated with both vaccine and doxorubicin (low dose). Future studies should be necessary to evaluate the correct combination of vaccination and cytotoxic drug can be used for this purpose and to achieve ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410024
Alice Kohli, Martin Glatz and Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 22, 2016
Data on the safety of a cluster regimen to start a subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with house dust mite (HDM) extract in pediatric patients are scarce. This study investigates the rate of adverse events (AEs) and the applicability of a cluster regimen for HDM SCIT in pediatric patients, and identifies possible risk factors for the development of AEs....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410023
Nicholas A Young, Marshall V Williams, Wael N Jarjour, Michael S Bruss, Brad Bolon, Samir Parikh, Anjali Satoskar and Maria Eugenia Ariza
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 20, 2016
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor with strong links to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) pathogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether the EBV protein "deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase)", which can induce aberrant immune responses, contributes to the immunopathology of lupus nephritis (LN). Using the NZM2410/J SLE mouse model, we demonstrated that i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410022
Clifford M Snapper
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: August 03, 2016
Anti-Ig-dex was originally conceived as a means for modeling BCR-mediated B cell activation in response to polysaccharides. Polysaccharides consist of long chains of repeating sugars that are capable of multivalent cross-linking of BCR on the surface of polysaccharide-specific B cells. Normal B cells of a given antigen-specificity are present in the host at frequencies so low that studying the behavior of such B cells is highly challenging techni...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410021
Tatiana Barbosa dos Santos, Cassio Santana Meira, Cibele do Carmo Miranda, Leociley Rocha Alencar Menezes, Livia Macedo Dutra, Liviane do Nascimento Soares, Andersson Barison, Emmanoel Vilaca Costa, Elisalva Teixeira Guimaraes and Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 27, 2016
Immunomodulatory drugs are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions; however, their prolonged use is usually associated with the appearance of side effects and many immune disorders continuous without a suitable treatment. Natural products are an important source of therapies to a variety of illnesses. The present work investigated the immunomodulatory activity of a hexane extract and isolated compounds from An...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410020
Caroline Maria Oliveira Volpe, Elisa Duarte Candido, Celio J Castro-Junior, Paula Martins Ferreira Anjos and Jose Augusto Nogueira-Machado
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 18, 2016
Diabetes mellitus is a immunological disease characterized by metabolic deregulation and inflammation. Hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs interact with their respective receptors (RAGEs), a multiligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, inducing activation of cascade of several si...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410019
H Kobayashi, Y Kobayashi, S Ode, K Sugiyama, N Kitamura and M Takei
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 16, 2016
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiac involvement such as myocarditis and myocardial infarction is common. This cardiac involvement may have serious consequences and can contribute to worsening of a patient's cardiac-related morbidity and mortality. Importantly, cardiac involvement is typically clinically silent, only manifesting as cardiac dysfunction after an extended preclinical phase. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410018
Gail Gullickson, Elise C. Ambrose, Richard G. Hoover and Jacki Kornbluth
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 24, 2016
Uridine cytidine kinase like-1 (UCKL-1) is a largely uncharacterized protein over-expressed in many tumor cells, especially in highly malignant, aggressive tumors. Sequence analysis indicates that UCKL-1 has homology to uridine kinases, enzymes that play a role in DNA and RNA synthesis and that are often up-regulated in tumor cells. Previous studies have shown that UCKL-1 is a substrate for natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM), an E3 ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410017
Ozgenc O, Meltem A
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 23, 2016
Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, this bacterium is an important cause of severe infections in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, transplant recipients, and other patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Various clinical features due to L. monocytogenes have been described such as sepsis, central nervous system infections, endocarditis, gastroenteritis and localized infections. A ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410016
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 16, 2016
A recently diagnosed 6-year-old child with XLA was started on SCIG. A loading dose of 6 g, in three consecutive days (2 g/day) was prescribed. Initially, the aim was trough serum IgG over 500 mg/dL. Nevertheless, 15 months later, IgG levels fell below 500 mg/dL, and some infections occurred. A new aim of IgG over 700 mg/dLwas established, after current recommendations. Dose was increased to 3 g every 7 days. IgG levels rose over 700 mg/dL, and in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410015
Gabriel Moran, Evelyn Arevalo, Miguel Barria, Alexander Ortloff and Hugo Folch
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a protein family of cellular receptors that mediate the recognition of microbial challenges and the subsequent inflammatory response. The role of these receptors in allergic diseases of airways remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the lung in a murine model of bronchial hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus. Different groups of 5-month-old mice (Balb/c) ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410014
Senol Comoglu, Ece Comoglu, M. Nesil Keles and Kemal Deger
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2015
Idiopathic rhinitis (IR), previously referred to as 'intrinsic rhinitis' or 'non-allergic perennial rhinitis', is a form of rhinitis that occurs without a known predisposing factor. In fact, IR is a subtype of non-allergic non-infectious rhinitis; the pathophysiology of IR has not been completely elucidated. Negative skin-prick test (SPT) along with the classical symptoms at the time of presentation may lead to misdiagnosis of vasomotor rhinitis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410013
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 16, 2015
During the stress-mediated response to infection and tissue injury, their levels markedly increase and contribute to acute and chronic inflammatory disorders as cell autonomous and non-autonomous activators of toll-like receptors (TLRs). There is controversy, however, whether S100A8 and S100A9 are pathogenic or protective during infection and inflammation. Some studies suggest that S100A8 and S100A9 proteins function extracellularly to amplify TL...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410012
Nagahito Saito, Kiminari Ito, Katsuhiro Higashiura, Rinji Murakami, Naotaka Miyoshi, Toshiaki Nakagawa, Maneo Yamamoto, Chiko Ueno, Kenta Honma, Makio Ishikawa, Kazunori Ehata, Tomoyuki Yanami, Katsumi Katagiri and Hong Kean Ooi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 27, 2015
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematological disorder due to abnormal maturation and differentiation of stem cells. It is clinically manifested as cytopenia and commonly seen in elderly persons. Some MDS cases are known to show longitudinal hemolysis, which is attributed to various factors. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) had been found in blood for transfusion and is also capable of infecting immature erythroid cells. In our study, we made a th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410011
Hanna Bessler and Meir Djaldetti
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2015
Fever is one of the leading signs of the inflammatory process and it is one of the mechanisms that activate the immune system to defend the organism from various pathogens. For this goal, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are among the first to be mobilized by triggering their capacity for phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410010
Musabak Ugur, Kartal Ozgur, Demirel Fevzi, Gulec Mustafa, Safali Mukerrem, Battal Bilal, Nevruz Oral, Baysan Abdullah, Yesillik Sait, Karaman Murat and Sener Osman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 20, 2015
Good's syndrome (GS) that consists of hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma is a rare adult-onset disease. Some paraneoplastic syndromes like pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and myasthenia gravis (MG) may accompany to this immunodeficiency disease. We herein reported two fatal cases of GS....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410009
Article Type: Opinion | First Published: April 03, 2015
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus. Although the underlying etiology is unknown, EoE is thought to be a TH2 response to environmental allergens in a genetically predisposed individual....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410008
Maria Yaldo, Katherine Caretti, Jessica Kado and Darius R Mehregan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to be involved in the immunogenic response in a variety of dermatological disorders including psoriasis, condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the expression of TLRs in Molluscum contagiosum has not yet been clearly defied.Expression of TLRs 1-9 was examined in molluscum by immunohistochemical staining....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410007
Takayuki Fujita, Yusuke Murata, Seiichiro Hemmi, Mamiko Kajiwara, Minako Yabuki, Yoshinobu Fuke, Atsushi Satomura and Masayoshi Soma
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2015
Insulin resistance is a major player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. C3 converts to C3a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) by complement activation. ASP activates adipose tissue macrophages and accelerates continuous inflammation. Tissuebound C3a is known to induce insulin resistance. We examined the relationship between insulin resistance and complement activation by the in vivo alteration of ASP....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410006
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 21, 2015
Steroid immunosuppression has maintained a long-lasting relevance in renal transplantation. In addition to its role in preserving allograft survival, it is often the fist line agent in the rescue treatment of acute rejection events. Its major drawbacks include metabolic adverse effects and long-term cardiovascular morbidities. Motivated by the need to avoid growth impairment, pediatric renal transplant community provided a template for steroid mi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410005
Mie Nieda, Hiroshi Terunuma, Yuuta Eiraku, Xuewen Deng and Andrew J Nicol
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 05, 2015
The CD56+ cells freshly isolated from human peripheral blood contain a substantial subset of CD14+CD86+HLA-DR+ cells which spontaneously differentiate into enlarged DC (dendritic cell)-like cells. We show here that interferon-α (IFN-α)-induced DC-like cells expressing high levels of CD56 and CD14 can be differentiated from monocytes obtained as adherent cells from patients with various cancers, in the presence of IFN-α and granuloc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410004
Development of a Method for Detection of Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Belonging to Clinically Important Twelve O Serotypes Based on the Combination of PickPen-Assisted Immunomagnetic Separation and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification
Ahmad Yaman Kayali, Oscar Escalante-Maldonado, Varaporn Vuddhakul, Kazuko Seto, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, and Mitsuaki Nishibuchi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 22, 2015
Not only O157 Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) but some of non-O157 STECs are attracting attentions as clinically important STEC and a possible food-borne spread of these pathogens is becoming a worldwide concern. In this study, we developed a sensitive, specific, and simple method to detect STECs of clinical significance in retail beef so that it can be used even in resource-limited countries. We designed and fie-tuned a protocol cha...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410003
Samia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellao Tavares, Wilame de Lima Bravo Junior and Jessica Lissandra Alves Leite
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015
The aging process is complex and affects a variety of functions, including lower defense capability of the immune system. The immune activity, as most of physiological functions, decreases with age. The principal alterations in humoral immune response are associated with concentration of immunoglobulins, amount and activity of B cells and also the changes in the affinity of the antibodies. The current study aimed to analyze the levels of IgG and ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410002
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Cockroach allergen-derived proteases play a direct role on airway epithelial as well as dendritic cells thru activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Cockroach-derived proteases lead to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen thru disturbing airway epithelial integrity, which can activate innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells) via binding to Toll-like receptor or C-type lectin receptors. The activated dendritic cells pro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410001
Michael J. Littlefild, Isaac Teboul, Iryna Voloshyna and Allison B. Reiss
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 08, 2014
Rationale: Macrophages are key players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. They express surface receptors of different subtypes for the endogenous autocoid adenosine. Macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions attain two clear-cut functional phenotypes M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (immunosuppressive). This study examines the relative expression of adenosine receptors and proteins involved in cholesterol transport in THP-1 human macrophages upon ...
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