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International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy is an open access journal which is an essential reading for scholars in all areas of immunological research and practical therapy studies. The journal publishes papers describing original work in all areas of immunology including cellular and molecular immunology, immunochemistry, immunogenetics, imaging, mathematical modelling, allergy, transplantation immunology, cancer immunology, clinical immunology and immunological therapies, physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease, malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders and therapies (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection), the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.

International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. It encourage authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible.


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A non-specific vaccine used as immunotherapy can be used to prolong an equilibrium phase in the tumor growth, similar to the doxorubicin treatment used in the model, although by different mechanisms. Non synergic effect was observed in the group treated with both vaccine and doxorubicin (low dose). Future studies should .. read more

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Data on the safety of a cluster regimen to start a subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with house dust mite (HDM) extract in pediatric patients are scarce. This study investigates the rate of adverse events (AEs) and the applicability of a cluster regimen for HDM SCIT in pediatric patients, and identifies possible risk .. read more

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor with strong links to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) pathogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether the EBV protein "deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase)", which can induce aberrant immune responses, contributes to the immunopathology of lupus nephritis (LN). .. read more

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Anti-Ig-dex was originally conceived as a means for modeling BCR-mediated B cell activation in response to polysaccharides. Polysaccharides consist of long chains of repeating sugars that are capable of multivalent cross-linking of BCR on the surface of polysaccharide-specific B cells. Normal B cells of a given antigen-specificity are present in the .. read more

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Immunomodulatory drugs are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions; however, their prolonged use is usually associated with the appearance of side effects and many immune disorders continuous without a suitable treatment. Natural products are an important source of therapies to a variety of illnesses. The present work .. read more

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Diabetes mellitus is a immunological disease characterized by metabolic deregulation and inflammation. Hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs interact with their respective receptors (RAGEs), a multiligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of .. read more

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In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiac involvement such as myocarditis and myocardial infarction is common. This cardiac involvement may have serious consequences and can contribute to worsening of a patient's cardiac-related morbidity and mortality. Importantly, cardiac involvement is typically clinically silent, only manifesting as cardiac dysfunction after an extended preclinical .. read more

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Uridine cytidine kinase like-1 (UCKL-1) is a largely uncharacterized protein over-expressed in many tumor cells, especially in highly malignant, aggressive tumors. Sequence analysis indicates that UCKL-1 has homology to uridine kinases, enzymes that play a role in DNA and RNA synthesis and that are often up-regulated in tumor cells. Previous studies .. read more

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Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, this bacterium is an important cause of severe infections in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, transplant recipients, and other patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Various clinical features due to L. monocytogenes have been described such as sepsis, central .. read more

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A recently diagnosed 6-year-old child with XLA was started on SCIG. A loading dose of 6 g, in three consecutive days (2 g/day) was prescribed. Initially, the aim was trough serum IgG over 500 mg/dL. Nevertheless, 15 months later, IgG levels fell below 500 mg/dL, and some infections occurred. A new .. read more

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a protein family of cellular receptors that mediate the recognition of microbial challenges and the subsequent inflammatory response. The role of these receptors in allergic diseases of airways remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the lung in a .. read more

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Idiopathic rhinitis (IR), previously referred to as 'intrinsic rhinitis' or 'non-allergic perennial rhinitis', is a form of rhinitis that occurs without a known predisposing factor. In fact, IR is a subtype of non-allergic non-infectious rhinitis; the pathophysiology of IR has not been completely elucidated. Negative skin-prick test (SPT) along with the .. read more

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During the stress-mediated response to infection and tissue injury, their levels markedly increase and contribute to acute and chronic inflammatory disorders as cell autonomous and non-autonomous activators of toll-like receptors (TLRs). There is controversy, however, whether S100A8 and S100A9 are pathogenic or protective during infection and inflammation. Some studies suggest that .. read more

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Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematological disorder due to abnormal maturation and differentiation of stem cells. It is clinically manifested as cytopenia and commonly seen in elderly persons. Some MDS cases are known to show longitudinal hemolysis, which is attributed to various factors. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) had been found in .. read more

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Fever is one of the leading signs of the inflammatory process and it is one of the mechanisms that activate the immune system to defend the organism from various pathogens. For this goal, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are among the first to be mobilized by triggering their capacity for .. read more

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Good's syndrome (GS) that consists of hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma is a rare adult-onset disease. Some paraneoplastic syndromes like pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and myasthenia gravis (MG) may accompany to this immunodeficiency disease. We herein reported two fatal cases of GS. .. read more

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Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus. Although the underlying etiology is unknown, EoE is thought to be a TH2 response to environmental allergens in a genetically predisposed individual. .. read more

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to be involved in the immunogenic response in a variety of dermatological disorders including psoriasis, condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the expression of TLRs in Molluscum contagiosum has not yet been clearly defied.Expression of TLRs 1-9 was examined in molluscum by immunohistochemical .. read more

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Insulin resistance is a major player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. C3 converts to C3a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) by complement activation. ASP activates adipose tissue macrophages and accelerates continuous inflammation. Tissuebound C3a is known to induce insulin resistance. We examined the relationship between insulin resistance and complement .. read more

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Steroid immunosuppression has maintained a long-lasting relevance in renal transplantation. In addition to its role in preserving allograft survival, it is often the fist line agent in the rescue treatment of acute rejection events. Its major drawbacks include metabolic adverse effects and long-term cardiovascular morbidities. Motivated by the need to avoid .. read more

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The CD56+ cells freshly isolated from human peripheral blood contain a substantial subset of CD14+CD86+HLA-DR+ cells which spontaneously differentiate into enlarged DC (dendritic cell)-like cells. We show here that interferon-α (IFN-α)-induced DC-like cells expressing high levels of CD56 and CD14 can be differentiated from monocytes obtained as adherent cells from patients .. read more

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Not only O157 Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) but some of non-O157 STECs are attracting attentions as clinically important STEC and a possible food-borne spread of these pathogens is becoming a worldwide concern. In this study, we developed a sensitive, specific, and simple method to detect STECs of clinical significance in retail .. read more

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The aging process is complex and affects a variety of functions, including lower defense capability of the immune system. The immune activity, as most of physiological functions, decreases with age. The principal alterations in humoral immune response are associated with concentration of immunoglobulins, amount and activity of B cells and also .. read more

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Cockroach allergen-derived proteases play a direct role on airway epithelial as well as dendritic cells thru activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Cockroach-derived proteases lead to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen thru disturbing airway epithelial integrity, which can activate innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells) via binding to Toll-like .. read more

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Rationale: Macrophages are key players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. They express surface receptors of different subtypes for the endogenous autocoid adenosine. Macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions attain two clear-cut functional phenotypes M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (immunosuppressive). This study examines the relative expression of adenosine receptors and proteins involved in cholesterol transport in .. read more

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Contact our editorial office at: editor.immunology@clinmedlib.com


Editor-in-Chief

Nejat K. Egilmez
Professor with tenure and Chairman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
School of Medicine
University of Louisville
Hancock, USA


Editor-in-Chief

Takayuki Fujita
Professor
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology
Nihon University School of Medicine
Tokyo, Japan
Tel: +81-3-3972-8111


International Journal of Anesthetics and Anesthesiology (ISSN: 2377-4630)
International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders   (ISSN: 2469-5696)
International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-5866)
International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2378-3419)
International Journal of Clinical Cardiology (ISSN: 2469-5696)
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-584X)
Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports (ISSN: 2378-3656)
Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy (ISSN: 2469-5750)
International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2377-3634)
Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention (ISSN: 2469-5793)
Journal of Genetics and Genome Research (ISSN: 2378-3648)
Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (ISSN: 2469-5858)
International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy (ISSN: 2378-3672)
International Journal of Medical Nano Research (ISSN: 2378-3664)
International Journal of Neurology and Neurotherapy (ISSN: 2378-3001)
International Archives of Nursing and Health Care (ISSN: 2469-5823)
International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2378-346X)
International Journal of Oral and Dental Health (ISSN: 2469-5734)
International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2469-5807)
International Journal of Pediatric Research (ISSN: 2469-5769)
International Journal of Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine (ISSN: 2378-3516)
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-5726)
International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine (ISSN: 2469-5718)
International Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy (ISSN: 2469-570X)
International Journal of Surgery Research and Practice (ISSN: 2378-3397)
Trauma Cases and Reviews (ISSN: 2469-5777)
International Archives of Urology and Complications (ISSN: 2469-5742)
International Journal of Virology and AIDS (ISSN: 2469-567X)
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