Role of IL-17 and IL-23 in the Pathogenesis of Neutrophilic Asthma
Nightingale Syabbalo, MB, ChB, PhD, FCCP, FRS
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 21, 2020
Asthma is a complex chronic airway disease with several distinct phenotypes characterized by different immunopathological pathways, clinical presentation, physiology, comorbidities, biomarker of allergic inflammation, and response to treatment. Approximately 10% of patients with asthma have severe refractory disease, which is difficult to control on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and other modifiers. About 50% of these individuals suffer from neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilic asthma is a ...
An Immunological Algorithm to Defeat Covid-19
Ajay Gupta and Ayush Gupta
Article Type: Commentaries | First Published: April 27, 2020
Countries like Italy, Spain or Germany etc. with very low prevalence of tuberculosis and discontinued BCG immunization since decades, are witnessing the worst form of this global pandemic of Corona virus. It has also been seen that Covid-19 affected more of those countries who have robust and free influenza vaccination programme. High mortality of Covid-19 patients is probably result of the reduced Th1 immunity due to lack of past exposures to various infections and poor or absent local innate i...
Blood Plasma from Survivors of COVID-19: A Novel and Next Frontier Approach to Fight against Pandemic Coronavirus
Nimesh Singh and Archana Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 26, 2020
Blood from people who have recovered can be a rich source of antibodies, proteins made by the immune system to attack the virus. The part of the blood that contains antibodies, so-called convalescent plasma, has been used for decades to treat infectious diseases, including Ebola and influenza. In the absence of a cure or vaccine for the coronavirus, a group of scientists is searching for a fast solution in an unconventional place: The veins of people who have recovered. Starting in New York City...
The Role of Genetics Mutations in Genes PORCN, TWIST2, HCCS in Goltz Syndrome
Shahin Asadi and Mahsa Jamali
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
Goltz syndrome (focal skin hypoplasia) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the skin, skeletal system, eyes and face. People with Goltz syndrome have birth defects. These disorders include very thin skin veins (skin hypoplasia), pink yellow nodules, subcutaneous fat, lack of upper skin layers (aplasia cutis), small clusters of superficial skin vessels (telangiectasia), and veins in dark skin Or bright. Goltz syndrome is caused by mutation genes PORCN, TWIST2, HCCS. Goltz syndrome (focal ...
Rituximab Modifies Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Immune Responses
Meir-Djaldetti, MD, Chyia-Leibovitch, MD, Esther-Ganelin-Cohen, MD, PhD and Hanna-Bessler, PhD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
Rituximab, the monoclonal antibody against B lymphocyte protein CD20, is a major asset for treatment of diseases in which B CD20 cells are the foremost etiologic culprit. Based on observations that rituximab is capable to modulate immune responses the question if the drug may affect the capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for cytokine production was posed. The discovery of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against B lymphocyte membrane protein CD20, contributed greatly to ...
S-Nitrosoglutathione Modulates Expansion of Activated CD4CD25 Cells by Apoptosis under Inflammatory Condition
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2019
The regulation checkpoints of CD4CD25 expansion in presence and absence of transcription factor FOXP3 are critical to maintain balance between inflammatory TH17 and anti-inflammatory FOXP3CD4CD25 Treg cells. We investigated impact of potent inflammatory mediator nitric oxide NO(.) on commitment of normal spleen T cells following activation. The single cell suspension of healthy C57BL/6 mice splenic CD4 cells was stimulated by plate-bound antiCD3/antiCD28 antibodies in presence of cytokine cockta...
Cancer Immunotherapy Therapeutic Manipulation of the CD8-HLA Class I Interaction: Potential and Challenges
Article Type: REVIEW ARTICLE | First Published: February 23, 2019
The interaction between CD8 and HLA class I is largely monomorphic and of low affinity. Previous HLA mutation studies have indicated that manipulation of the affinity of this interaction can have dramatic biological effects. Reductions in CD8-HLA class I affinity can lead to inhibition of T cell mediated target cell killing, whilst modest affinity increases lead to enhanced target cell killing whilst retaining antigenic specificity. Here it is shown that target cells bearing a high affinity chim...