International Journal of

Immunology and ImmunotherapyISSN: 2378-3672

Current Issue

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410053

Durable and Effectiveness of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

Carlos Gil Moreira Ferreira, MBBS, Gustavo Bittencourt Camilo, Eleusa Nogueira Dias, Bianca Lopes de Oliveira, Carlos Murilo Schanuel, Juliana Abreu de Vasconcellos and Emílio Campos Augusto Pereira de Assis

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 09, 2020

Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (AJEG) is a neoplasm that is globally prevalent with generally bad clinical outcome. It is estimated that there is an annual incidence of new tumors in the order of 572,034 in the US with about 28,000 new cases and 10,960 deaths attributable to the disease. In Brazil, an estimated 11390 new cases, corresponding to 8690 in men and 2077 in women for the year 2020. About half of the people with cancer of the esophagus or the gastroesophageal junction have me...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410052

COVID-19: A Cure and Preventive Options

Dr. Roli Jain and Dr. Archana Panday

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020

The world encounters the episode of coronavirus infection that undetermined worldwide pandemic in 2002-2003 by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and in 2011 by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 indicate similar, but distinct genome composition of SARSCoV and MERS-CoV. The World Health Organization (WHO) also declared a global emergency on January 31st due to increasing concerns over its fast spread, and on March 11th the disease was recognized as ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410051

A Systemic Review: Structural Mechanism of SARS-CoV-2A Promising Preventive Cure by Phytochemicals

Dr. Roli Jain, Dr. Sandeep Shukla, Dr. Neeti Nema and Dr. Archna Panday

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 24, 2020

Phytochemicals are a powerful group of compounds, belonging to secondary metabolites of plants and including a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organ Sulphur compounds, and vitamins. The potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. The ideal technology would be vaccine that gives lifelong immunity with a single dose. When whole world community of scienti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410050

Corona Virus: An Immunological Perspective Review

Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Neeti Nema and Archna Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020

As the world is seeing the plague of COVID-19, an illness brought about by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, developing hereditary qualities and clinical confirmations recommend a comparative way to those of SARS and MERS. A course of viral particles enters the body through the nose, eyes or mouth. Breathing conveys a portion of these particles to the lower respiratory tract where the spike proteins of the coronavirus, acting like a key, lock into epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410048

Association of Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Knee Osteoarthritis in Saudi Population

Amani A Alrehaili, Khadiga A Ismail, Ashjan Shami, Maha K Algethami, Hadeer W Elsawy and Amal F Gharib

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 08, 2020

Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most prevalent joint diseases. Reduced patient life quality and productivity represent a major personal and community strains. GDF5 gene is involved in the development of bone and cartilage. Studies reported a clear and highly reproducible association between susceptibility of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and GDF5. This study aims to detect GDF5 gene polymorphism and to evaluate its association with susceptibility to KOA....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410043

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Inhibitors as Novel Immuno- Oncology Agent and Vaccine Adjuvant

Shanta Bantia

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 06, 2020

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans causes lymphopenia and this provided the rationale for developing PNP inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. However, careful re-evaluation of clinical history of PNP deficient patients and clinical experience with PNP inhibitors together with new experimental data suggest inhibition of PNP may have immune activating effects through elevation of guanosine and activation of various tolllike receptors (TLRs). This paper proposes a mechani...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410044

Is There A Vaccine for Covid-19 and Are We Unaware of It?

Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 20, 2020

Vaccine production and immunization of the susceptible population against novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is the most important public health strategy in controlling and preventing the spread of disease. Considering the absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, physicians have to treat symptomatically using potential antiviral drugs (e.g. Tadalafil, Atorvastatin, Telmisartan, Ribavirin, Dipyridamole, Chloroquine phosphate and so forth). In such circumstances, the main question may arise on how we can chan...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410042

Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG on the Number and Differentiation of T Lymphocytes in the Intestine of Early Weaned Piglets

Seria Masole Shonyela, Bo Fong, Wentao Yang, Guilian Yang and Chunfeng Wang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2020

In recent years, with the rapid development of Chinas breeding industry, the weaning age of piglets is also in advance. The weaning time of piglets determines the number of piglets per year and the reproduction rate of sows. At the same time, the earlier weaning the piglets, the lower the production cost. However, early weaning of piglets will have a series of adverse effects on piglets. First of all, piglets will suffer from malnutrition due to early weaning, and their growth and development wi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410041

Simplified Neutrophil Isolation Protocol

Antonio Muniz-Buenrostro, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Edgar I Montes-Zapata, Rubi C Calderon- Melendez and Maricruz J Montelongo-Rodriguez

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 13, 2020

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in humans and among the first cells to arrive on the site of inflammatory immune response. Due to their key role in inflammation, neutrophil functions such as locomotion, cytokine production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and release of extracellular traps are extensively studied. In the presentstudy, we present a simplified neutrophil isolation protocol which has excellent reproducibility and low cost. Taken together, our findings point to the fact...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410040

Total Flavonoid Extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf) Harms (Meliaceae) Inhibits the Pro-Inflammatory Function of Asthmatic Patients Neutrophils

Oumar Mahamat, Guessom K Oulianovie, Tume Christopher and Kamanyi Albert

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 12, 2020

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting approximately 300 million individuals. Asthma or anaphylaxis are allergic diseases essentially characterized by eosinophilia and mast cells release histamine which is responsible for the production of IgE. Nevertheless, neutrophils are highly implicated and it is demonstrated in about 50% of asthma cases. Consecutive to bronchial allergen challenge for example, there is an influx of neutrophils in proximal and distal airways. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410039

Transfer Factors or Dialyzable leukocyte Extracts as Immunomodulating Peptides: A Conceptual Review on Broad Spectrum of Therapeutic Areas, Immunologic and Clinical Responses, Trends and Perspectives

Dina Tulina, Mike KS Chan, Michele WBF and Shing Yi Pan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Immune Modulating Peptides (IMP) discussed in literature as a universal immunocorrectors with wide areas of usage which balance the immune system without causing global immune suppression or overreaction. The present article aim is to review the effect and drawbacks of IMPs in form of Dialyzable leukocyte Extracts (DLE) or Transfer Factors (TF) during and following chemotherapy, radiotherapy, drugs interactions, cancer response and clinical outcomes in different cases of cancers such as metastat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410034

Role of Caspase-11 Non-Canonical Inflammasome in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

Young-Su Yi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2018

Inflammation is a complex biological response mediated by macrophages to protect the body from the pathogens and danger signals. The inflammatory response is initiated by priming, a process increasing the expression of inflammatory genes by extracellular pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated detection of pathogens, followed by triggering, a process detecting cytosolic pathogens by intracellular PRRs. Triggering induces the formation of intracellular PRR complexes called inflammasomes compo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410033

Biomarkers in Relation to Disease Manifestations in Psoriatic Arthritis

Kristina Juneblad, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist and Gerd-Marie Alenius

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018

Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with established disease and 30 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine different serological biomarkers were investigated in relation to disease activity, disease manifestations and in comparison with controls. In addition to standard statistical methods, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to investigate different phenotypes of PsA....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410032

Analysis of Membrane Antigens on Neutrophils from Patients with Pneumonia

Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yoji Koshibu, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Ryuichi Nakano, Go Kamoshida, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroto Ikeda, Yasuyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Sakamoto and Yasuo Ono

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in cell membrane antigens on neutrophils from peripheral blood obtained from patients with pneumonia. Neutrophils play an important role in the phylaxis against pneumonia caused by bacteria and fungi. The recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs is a multistep process that involves granulopoiesis, neutrophil release, expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and cellular adhesion molecules, and the eventual transmigration of neutrophils into ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410031

pTregs or iTregs are the Potent Tolerance Inducer for the growth and Metastasis of Cancer

Upendra P Hegde, Evan R Jellison and Nitya G Chakraborty

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2018

It remains a wonder how Tregs induce tolerance for the development of cancer. Previously we have shown with melanoma patients that, increase in peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) number in blood is related to the poor prognosis of the disease. In vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) and pTregs are remarkably similar and significantly different in functionality from tTregs. Here, we worked with 12 melanoma patients- six HLA A2 positive and six HLA A2 negative. PBL and tumor cells were obtained from the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410030

Durable Response with the Anti-Pd-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Avelumab in Non-Resectable Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Review of Literature

Daniel Ezekwudo, Richard Keidan, Bolanle Gbadamosi, Vonda K Douglas-Nikitin, Zhou Yu, Jeffrey Margolis, Michael Stender, Susanna Gaikazian and Ishmael Jaiyesimi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2018

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive form of skin cancer mostly seen in fair-skinned individuals between the ages of 60-80 years, and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Approximately 1500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed in the United States every year with an annual incidence rate of 0.7 per 100,000 persons....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410029

Budesonide Modulates the Immune Cross-Talk between Mononuclear and Colon Cancer Cells

Meir Djaldetti and Hanna Bessler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

The introduction of corticosteroids in the therapeutic armamentarium has been a great contribution to human health. Budesonide, a semi-synthetic glucocorticoid derivative gained its popularity due to its anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and even anti-carcinogenic properties....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410028

Immunotherapy and the Immune Infiltrate in Pediatric Brain Tumors: An Illustration and Review of the Unique Challenges Facing Immunotherapy for Pediatric Oncology

Ashley S Plant and Eugene I Hwang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 13, 2018

Immunotherapy for pediatric oncology is a robust and prolific area of active research and has changed the face of treatment for some cancers, such as, B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and neuroblastoma. However, the field faces challenges and hurdles unique to the pediatric population especially in the area of neuro-oncology....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410027

Cellular Contact between Red Blood Cell and Endothelial Cells after High Dose Immunoglobulin Therapy Might Depend on Non-Immunological Mechanism

Nagahito Saito, Nobuo Takemori, Enrique Rewald, Hiroshi Nagura, Yutaka Kohgo and Hong-Kean Ooi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2018

High dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) has been performed for increase of platelet to patients with immune-thrombocytopenia (ITP). We observed by standard and immunoelectron microscopy the phenomenon of the direct cell to cell contact between red blood cells (RBCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) in bone marrow (BM) of patients with ITP (ITP-patients) after IVIG and then compared to that of the mice injected human immunoglobulin (IgG). RBCs were observed to adhere directly to the ECs of...

Volume 5
Issue 1