Corona Virus: An Immunological Perspective Review
Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Neeti Nema and Archna Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
As the world is seeing the plague of COVID-19, an illness brought about by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, developing hereditary qualities and clinical confirmations recommend a comparative way to those of SARS and MERS. A course of viral particles enters the body through the nose, eyes or mouth. Breathing conveys a portion of these particles to the lower respiratory tract where the spike proteins of the coronavirus, acting like a key, lock into epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract ...
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Inhibitors as Novel Immuno- Oncology Agent and Vaccine Adjuvant
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 06, 2020
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans causes lymphopenia and this provided the rationale for developing PNP inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. However, careful re-evaluation of clinical history of PNP deficient patients and clinical experience with PNP inhibitors together with new experimental data suggest inhibition of PNP may have immune activating effects through elevation of guanosine and activation of various tolllike receptors (TLRs). This paper proposes a mechani...
Is There A Vaccine for Covid-19 and Are We Unaware of It?
Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 20, 2020
Vaccine production and immunization of the susceptible population against novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is the most important public health strategy in controlling and preventing the spread of disease. Considering the absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, physicians have to treat symptomatically using potential antiviral drugs (e.g. Tadalafil, Atorvastatin, Telmisartan, Ribavirin, Dipyridamole, Chloroquine phosphate and so forth). In such circumstances, the main question may arise on how we can chan...
Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG on the Number and Differentiation of T Lymphocytes in the Intestine of Early Weaned Piglets
Seria Masole Shonyela, Bo Fong, Wentao Yang, Guilian Yang and Chunfeng Wang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2020
In recent years, with the rapid development of Chinas breeding industry, the weaning age of piglets is also in advance. The weaning time of piglets determines the number of piglets per year and the reproduction rate of sows. At the same time, the earlier weaning the piglets, the lower the production cost. However, early weaning of piglets will have a series of adverse effects on piglets. First of all, piglets will suffer from malnutrition due to early weaning, and their growth and development wi...
Simplified Neutrophil Isolation Protocol
Antonio Muniz-Buenrostro, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Edgar I Montes-Zapata, Rubi C Calderon- Melendez and Maricruz J Montelongo-Rodriguez
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 13, 2020
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in humans and among the first cells to arrive on the site of inflammatory immune response. Due to their key role in inflammation, neutrophil functions such as locomotion, cytokine production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and release of extracellular traps are extensively studied. In the presentstudy, we present a simplified neutrophil isolation protocol which has excellent reproducibility and low cost. Taken together, our findings point to the fact...
Role of Caspase-11 Non-Canonical Inflammasome in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Inflammation is a complex biological response mediated by macrophages to protect the body from the pathogens and danger signals. The inflammatory response is initiated by priming, a process increasing the expression of inflammatory genes by extracellular pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated detection of pathogens, followed by triggering, a process detecting cytosolic pathogens by intracellular PRRs. Triggering induces the formation of intracellular PRR complexes called inflammasomes compo...
Biomarkers in Relation to Disease Manifestations in Psoriatic Arthritis
Kristina Juneblad, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist and Gerd-Marie Alenius
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018
Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with established disease and 30 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine different serological biomarkers were investigated in relation to disease activity, disease manifestations and in comparison with controls. In addition to standard statistical methods, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to investigate different phenotypes of PsA....
Analysis of Membrane Antigens on Neutrophils from Patients with Pneumonia
Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yoji Koshibu, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Ryuichi Nakano, Go Kamoshida, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroto Ikeda, Yasuyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Sakamoto and Yasuo Ono
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in cell membrane antigens on neutrophils from peripheral blood obtained from patients with pneumonia. Neutrophils play an important role in the phylaxis against pneumonia caused by bacteria and fungi. The recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs is a multistep process that involves granulopoiesis, neutrophil release, expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and cellular adhesion molecules, and the eventual transmigration of neutrophils into ...
pTregs or iTregs are the Potent Tolerance Inducer for the growth and Metastasis of Cancer
Upendra P Hegde, Evan R Jellison and Nitya G Chakraborty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2018
It remains a wonder how Tregs induce tolerance for the development of cancer. Previously we have shown with melanoma patients that, increase in peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) number in blood is related to the poor prognosis of the disease. In vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) and pTregs are remarkably similar and significantly different in functionality from tTregs. Here, we worked with 12 melanoma patients- six HLA A2 positive and six HLA A2 negative. PBL and tumor cells were obtained from the ...
Durable Response with the Anti-Pd-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Avelumab in Non-Resectable Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Review of Literature
Daniel Ezekwudo, Richard Keidan, Bolanle Gbadamosi, Vonda K Douglas-Nikitin, Zhou Yu, Jeffrey Margolis, Michael Stender, Susanna Gaikazian and Ishmael Jaiyesimi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2018
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive form of skin cancer mostly seen in fair-skinned individuals between the ages of 60-80 years, and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Approximately 1500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed in the United States every year with an annual incidence rate of 0.7 per 100,000 persons....