Role of Caspase-11 Non-Canonical Inflammasome in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Inflammation is a complex biological response mediated by macrophages to protect the body from the pathogens and danger signals. The inflammatory response is initiated by priming, a process increasing the expression of inflammatory genes by extracellular pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated detection of pathogens, followed by triggering, a process detecting cytosolic pathogens by intracellular PRRs. Triggering induces the formation of intracellular PRR complexes called inflammasomes compo...
Biomarkers in Relation to Disease Manifestations in Psoriatic Arthritis
Kristina Juneblad, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist and Gerd-Marie Alenius
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018
Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with established disease and 30 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine different serological biomarkers were investigated in relation to disease activity, disease manifestations and in comparison with controls. In addition to standard statistical methods, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to investigate different phenotypes of PsA....
Analysis of Membrane Antigens on Neutrophils from Patients with Pneumonia
Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yoji Koshibu, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Ryuichi Nakano, Go Kamoshida, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroto Ikeda, Yasuyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Sakamoto and Yasuo Ono
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in cell membrane antigens on neutrophils from peripheral blood obtained from patients with pneumonia. Neutrophils play an important role in the phylaxis against pneumonia caused by bacteria and fungi. The recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs is a multistep process that involves granulopoiesis, neutrophil release, expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and cellular adhesion molecules, and the eventual transmigration of neutrophils into ...
pTregs or iTregs are the Potent Tolerance Inducer for the growth and Metastasis of Cancer
Upendra P Hegde, Evan R Jellison and Nitya G Chakraborty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2018
It remains a wonder how Tregs induce tolerance for the development of cancer. Previously we have shown with melanoma patients that, increase in peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) number in blood is related to the poor prognosis of the disease. In vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) and pTregs are remarkably similar and significantly different in functionality from tTregs. Here, we worked with 12 melanoma patients- six HLA A2 positive and six HLA A2 negative. PBL and tumor cells were obtained from the ...
Durable Response with the Anti-Pd-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Avelumab in Non-Resectable Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Review of Literature
Daniel Ezekwudo, Richard Keidan, Bolanle Gbadamosi, Vonda K Douglas-Nikitin, Zhou Yu, Jeffrey Margolis, Michael Stender, Susanna Gaikazian and Ishmael Jaiyesimi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2018
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive form of skin cancer mostly seen in fair-skinned individuals between the ages of 60-80 years, and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Approximately 1500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed in the United States every year with an annual incidence rate of 0.7 per 100,000 persons....