International Archives of Public Health and Community Medicine is an open access, peer-reviewed journal with an aim of providing the most trusted scientifically authentic information to support the latest logical scientific initiatives and advancements in medical and clinical sciences which focuses on population groups and communities as opposed to individual patients. The journals main focus is promoting flawless, unbiased research information and data, by preserving utmost transparency in accordance with international publishing standards.
The journal is intended to share and explore wide range of topics including but not limited to adolescent and child health, basic epidemiology, behavioral health, biostatistics and health services, community health, community medicine, community mental health service, environmental medicine, essentials of management, gender and health, health economics, immunization, insurance medicine, issues in public health, media in public health, nutrition and health, occupational health, occupational medicine, population health, public health, public policy, research methodology, scientific communication & aids, social awareness, social health, strategic management, etc.
All the quality submissions submitted shall be screened under the stringent peer review process and selectively published upon acceptance by the editorial team.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710083
Olaleye DO, Aminu M, Olusola BA, Segun TO, Faneye AO, Opayele AV, Odeh E, Sarki M, Dairo MD, Fagbamigbe AF, Egbuna HC, Ajuwon AJ, Omilabu SA, Achi CE, Odaibo GN and Arinola OG
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 07, 2022
This community-based study was conducted to determine the proportion of individuals in the population that had been infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and developed antibodies before the second wave and introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria. Between December 2020 and March 2021, 2,244 markets sellers and shoppers aged ≤ 70 years across six states [two northern (Kano and Kaduna), two eastern (Ebonyi and Imo), and two western (Oyo and Lagos)...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710082
Kenao TS, Sossa Jerôme C, Paraiso MN, Belo M, Sopoh GP and Agueh V
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 11, 2022
Excessive salt/sodium (Sodium > 2 grams/day, equivalent to 5 g salt/day) and low potassium (less than 3.5 grams/day) intake increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. To fight against cardiovascular diseases, the nutritional strategy is to regulate the dietary intake of salt/sodium and potassium according to set standards....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710081
Jose Claudio Simao, PhD, Cassiano Victoria, PhD and Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, MD, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 02, 2022
In an urban area of recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, the spatial distribution of both VL and VL-HIV coinfection was negatively associated with per capita income, population density, paving of streets, existence of sidewalks and drains for rainfall. Poverty and urban infrastructure deficits may influence VL emergence....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710080
Ragini Bhatia, Anil Chauhan, Kulbir Kaur, Monika Rana, Pranita Pradhan and Meenu Singh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 23, 2022
In this review PRISMA guidelines (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) were followed. We did extensive literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science to identify relevant community based cross sectional studies that investigated the prevalence of ear diseases in children in India. We used STATA version 16.0 software to perform meta-analysis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710078
Alhassan Abibata, Musah Nihayatu, Joseph Owusu-Marfo, Ruth Nimota Nukpezah and Yaa Nyarko Agyeman
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 15, 2022
The adolescence period is generally perceived as being healthy, however, most adolescents in the Tamale Metropolisgo through this period with health challenges such as sexual and reproductive problems and unsafe abortion. This study aimed to determine the attitude and barriers toward Adolescent Sexuality and abortion in the Tamale Metropolis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710079
Annalee A. Mora
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2022
Human trafficking has been a global issue that significantly impacts the healthcare system and communities. Healthcare professionals working in different healthcare settings are in the position to identify, diagnose, treat, and refer potential victims of human trafficking....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710077
Annalee A. Mora
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 16, 2022
Multiculturism is rapidly growing. It affects all aspects of society, including healthcare. A culturally competent healthcare system has a critical impact on meeting the needs of the diverse population that it serves. The national Culturally and Linguistic Approach Services (CLAS) standards have been developed and implemented as a tool to improve the quality of care, potentially transforming how we address disparities in healthcare. Motivated by a nationalized concern about societal impartiality...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710072
Jose Luis Turabian
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2022
The kinetics of viral shedding of asymptomatic COVID-19 in families is not well understood. To study the characteristics of secondary cases in families, after the appearance of a primary asymptomatic case vs. symptomatic. An observational, longitudinal and retrospective study of families, in which there were at least two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed COVID-19 cases (one primary case or index and at least one secondary case), was conducted from March 15 to December 25, 2020, in a gene...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710076
Nicolás Alberto Cely-Aldana, MD, Luisa María Benjumea-Gómez, MD, Ronald Antonio Solís-Amin, MD, Alix Sabec Freire-Duran, MD and Maria Paz Bolaño-Romero, MS
Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: April 11, 2022
The COVID-19 pandemic has probably been the worst public health calamity of the 21st century. At the first peak of infection during the early to mid- 2020s, much was unknown about the pathophysiology, COVID-19 phenotypes, pharmacologic and supportive management, rehabilitation, and outcomes. With precision and celerity, several safe and effective vaccine prototypes were developed to achieve the desired herd immunity and reduce intensive care unit admission and death. Scales have also been design...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710075
Lodys Loreth López-Mosquera, Andrea Carolina Hurtado-Moreno, Faudy Jholey Puerta-Londoño, Valeria Vela-López, Lizeth Lorena Davila-Maya and Michael Gregorio Ortega-Sierra
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 31, 2022
The actual distribution of excess mortality throughout the world from the ravages of the COVID-19 pandemic remains a question mark. Deaths from COVID-19 and non-COVID causes, decompensation of previous illnesses, complications of acute illnesses, and loss of functional capacity due to progression of chronic and degenerative diseases have exacted an unparalleled toll on health care systems. Similarly, it has increased the global burden of disease and compromised the quality of human life in the m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710074
Rodrigo Gonçalves dos Santos, Arlindo Souza Amaral Neto, Mônica Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de Carvalho and Alessandro Jatobá
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2022
The work of physiotherapists in handling Covid-19 patients depends on the severity of the patient condition. These workers rely on adequate workplaces, especially Intensive Care Units (ICU), where critical patients are handled. Private and public hospitals in Brazil dealt differently with the demands imposed by the Covid-19, and consequently, workers in public and private hospitals had to rely on distinct working conditions. Thus, this article aims to identify the possible risks, and the effects...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710073
Daniel P. Dunham, MD, MPH and Christopher Cheney, MHA
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 17, 2022
Physician burnout has been increasing over the past decades. This phenomenon is found throughout the world and is multifactorial. Some causes are easily identified and treatable. Of the remedial causes, improved practice efficiency is one that deserves attention. Time spent directly with patients will always be a core component of health care. Provider time spent away from direct patient care is often a cause of frustration and should be minimized. High quality communication between patients and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710071
Awoderu BO and Omololu-Aso J
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 08, 2021
This study investigated the antibiogram profile of Serratia marcescens among hospitalized individuals, hospital environments and halls of residence of Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile Ife, Osun state with a view to provide key information on resistance factors that are of therapeutic importance among the understudied pathogen. Two hundred and twenty samples from clinical and nonclinical sources were collected with ethical clearance approval (ERC/2018/09/02) from the hospital advisory committee....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710070
Nevin Yılmaz, Ayşe Mısırlı, Dilara Kısaçam, Ecem Ersözlüoğlu, Görkem Becer and Sıdıka Nur Kardaş
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 06, 2021
COVID-19 has appeared in Wuhan in December 2019. It has become an epidemic, leading to the transition to online education in medical schools, and students have been affected in some way by the pandemic. This study aimed to investigate perspectives of Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) preclinical medical students on COVID-19 and its effects on their lives. The novel coronavirus has appeared at the end of December of 2019, in Wuhan city of China. It spread rapidly and affected other regions o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710069
Al Ashwal Shadi M, MSc, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 26, 2021
To evaluate the prevalence of visual impairment among school children in Qatar, through a screening protocol based on the WHO guidelines. Children of grades 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 underwent screening for low vision during the academic year 2019-2020. Visual acuity measurement was performed by well-trained screeners using a Snellen chart at 6 meters with E symbol in which the 6/6 line was the standard for normal vision. Based upon the results of the visual acuity, data of each individual was entered in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710068
Tah Aldof Yoah, Tendongfor Nicholas, Njukang Ernest Nkem, Kah Emmanuel Nji, Ndale Sylvanus Akonwei, Nde Fon Peter, Enow Orock George and Anna Longdoh Njunda
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 12, 2021
Hypertension has reached epidemic proportion among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and this could have a negative bearing on the quality of life and survival of these patients. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for incident hypertension among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. A 5-years retrospective cohort study was used to review the records or patient files of 1640 HIV patients enrolled between t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710067
Tah Aldof Yoah, Tendongfor Nicholas, Njukang Ernest Nkem, Kah Emmanuel Nji, Ndale Sylvanus Akonwei, Nde Fon Peter, Enow Orock George and Anna Longdoh Njunda
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 05, 2021
The aim of this study was to determine incidence and associated risk factors of hypertension among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. A 5-years retrospective cohort study was used to review the records or patient files of 1640 HIV patients enrolled between the years 2013-2015. These files were reviewed in 3 HIV treatment Centers which measured a recorded blood pressure routinely. Data was entered in SPSS 25 and analyzed using stata 13. L...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710066
Carmen Carolina Domínguez-Gutiérrez, Manuel Alejandro Jaramillo-Acosta, Julio César Mantilla- Pardo and Michael Gregorio Ortega-Sierra
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: October 28, 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised many questions about the long-, medium- and short-term prognosis of this disease. Studies such as that of Sosa Frias, et al. where the authors inquired about prognostic factors of the evolution of patients who developed the severe phenotype of COVID-19, who required invasive ventilation and died, showing that the leukogram and the initial chest X-ray are predictors of unfavorable evolution . However, it is necessary to widen the time window of the short- and m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710065
Cameron J Sabet
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 09, 2021
Though superficially secular, celebrification is an intrinsically religious phenomenon. Though celebrities fashion mighty podiums out of public personas of otherness, these platforms of deification can also quickly become their public gallows. Cyclical religious themes like idolization, impersonation, sacrifice, and redemption shape the career arcs and mental health of many high-profile figures because society craves drama. Therefore, this analysis will explore how digital media mediates and exp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710064
Cameron J Sabet
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 06, 2021
The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) defines the term physician-assisted suicide “as a physician providing, at the patient’s request, a prescription for a lethal dose of medication that the patient can self-administer by ingestion, with the explicit intention of ending life”. Although physicianassisted suicide has historically not been within the domains of standard medical practice, in recent years it has emerged as both an “explicit and covert practice across...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710063
Indira Ravena Pereira Alves Fernandes Macêdo, Francisco Afonso Tavares Junior, Jullianny Ribeiro Macedo, Alinne Farias Tavares, José Renato Ferreira Teixeira and Modesto Leite Rolim Neto
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 04, 2021
Sexual violence is a very big social and health issue, it sets up also as a gender and race problem, as it affects mainly girls and black girls; in addition, the crime is committed more than 90% of times by males. Sexual abuse is a harmful, humiliating, and traumatic experience to the physical and mental health of men and women with immediate and late consequences. A systematic literature search was performed according to guidelines in the PRISMA statement. Searches were conducted in PubMed. Key...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710061
Roberth S Gutiérrez-Murillo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 20, 2021
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the current hygienist interventions followed by the Republic of Costa Rica, in the context of COVID-19’s combat and prevention in the aged population. This investigation featured a documentary analysis, with qualitative slant and analytical-descriptive approach. Comprehensive lectures were conducted on specific national guidelines; epidemiological bulletins; specific health regulations for COVID-19; strategies, guidelines and recommendations; se...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710060
Bhavana K, MD, Puneet Khanna, MD and Abhishek Singh, MD
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 05, 2021
In a population of health care workers with a soaring level of burnout, this pandemic had the effect of rubbing salt to wound. The frontline workers were not only required to take this extra load, but their numbers had dwindled by illness, quarantine, and death. Though most of the focus during the pandemic has been related to clinical information, morbidity, mortality, and treatment strategies, there have been only a few reports highlighting the critical roles played by organizational leaders wh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710059
Zhijun Zhu, Kaiming Hu and Mei Zhu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2021
An outbreak of respiratory illness, officially named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly worldwide. The domestic situation has been controlled, now the resumption of production and work as well as people's normal life has been accelerating. We focused this article on laboratory changes in the infection confirmed case of COVID-19 hospitalized to clarify the immune characterizations and coagulation system. Coagulation dysfunction is common in patient with COVID-19, especially f...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710058
Reena Jatin Wani, MBBS, MD, FRCOG, FICOG, DNBE, FCPS, DFP, DGO, Hema Prakash Relwani, MBBS, DNB (OBGY), DGO,, Sayali Wankhedkar, MBBS, MS and Yashashree Shah, MBBS
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2021
The novel Covid-19 pandemic marked our lives in an indelible way. It affected negatively the educational training for all students worldwide; with significant modification within hospitals, especially postgraduate (PG) training experience in many ways. We conducted an online survey among currently pursuing PG students of all departments working in HBTMC & Dr. R. N. Cooper Hospital, Mumbai to find out the impact of COVID-19 on PG teaching and learning. Difficulties and problems faced by them duri...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710057
Nadeem Haider, Nijamudeen Kabeer, Kamil Vallabh, Zeyn Mahommed, Marcus Larsson and Fawzi Al Ayoubi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 26, 2021
To study the joint management of paediatric trauma by adult and paediatric surgeons, in an adult trauma system with an embedded paediatric component. We looked at the trauma registry data from January 2019 to June 2020 at Sheikh Khalifa Medical City in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The medical records, radiology findings and post discharge outpatients visits records were studied. We had total of 137 paediatric trauma patients (excluding burns). These ages range was between 6 weeks to 16 yea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710056
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 10, 2021
Based on the observation that language use can harm health, the paper looks at the public health situation in late 2020 as compared to the situation in spring 2020 - the health situation is mainly defined via A) The weekly deaths 2020; B) The weekly deaths 2020 compared to the 2016-2019 average; C), The death rates measured as weekly z-scores at the national level, and as additional indicators; D) The death rates attributed to COVID-19; E) The intensive care unit days attributed to COVID-19; and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710055
M. Walid Qoronbfleh
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: February 28, 2021
The vitality of developing a safety culture in healthcare settings has become increasingly emphasized following international investigations that highlighted failures in health care delivery. Weak patient safety culture has been identified as one of the major contributing factors to adverse events. This study used the English version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC ) to collect responses from nurses working in Qatar to determine their perceptions of patient safety cul...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710054
Ketha Francisco, Rashmi Kumar, Lucy Mungai, Dalton Wamalwa and Ruth Nduati
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 19, 2021
Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected children is particularly important since they face a very high mortality rate. With the recent availability of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), routine HIV testing is now an essential component of HIV prevention and care. However, many HIV infected children are never identified or are lost from the health care system before they can be enrolled into care contributing to high mortality. Early diagnosis of HIV infected children is critical for optimal the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710053
Ivan Lozada Martinez, Erick Gonzalez Amador and Daniela Torres Llinás
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2020
Taking a glimpse at the exponential growth of these alarming numbers, as the result of an infection that has wreaked havoc around the world, it is imperative to think about what will hold us shortly. This situation has affected all social and productive sectors at the national and international levels, leading to high rates of unemployment, poverty, inequity, violence, among others, making the solution of this scenario the main current objective of the United Nations (UN). Today, the region of t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710052
Ivan Lozada Martinez, Maria Bolaño Romero and Daniela Torres Llinás
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 03, 2020
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, the emotional sphere of health workers has been overwhelmingly affected, as a result of the collapse of global health systems, lack of support from the state, discrimination and stigmatization by the general population, family isolation, loss of colleagues, among other causes; another condition is added that contributes to the progressive deterioration of the mental health of these, which is the Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Currently, there are no reliabl...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710051
Peter Kamau Wanyoike and Felix Mwendwa Mutua
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 04, 2020
Born before arrival (BBA) is a childbirth that occurs outside health facility. BBA constitute a high-risk newborn population and have increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. BBA neonatal adverse birth outcome prolong hospital stay. Garissa Counties with the highest number of BBA (2%) compared with national (0.9%). The study adopted a multistage sampling technique and 122 postnatal mothers were interviewed and data analyzed using Statistic Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 26. Bivaria...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710050
Kamlesh Kumar Dubey and Mila Nu Nu Htay
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 30, 2020
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the commonest allergic manifestations affecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. It is associated with a reduced quality of life, low productivity in the workplace, and poor school performance. On the other hand, medical cost increases. Allergic rhinitis has a considerable effect on the quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. Many patients downplay rhinitis symptoms as an inconvenience rather than a disease. The majorit...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710049
Vinod K Ramani, MBBS, MD, MPH and Radheshyam Naik, MBBS, MD, DM
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 18, 2020
Incidence of breast cancer is steadily rising in the US. The role of estrogenic environmental contaminants such as the pesticide ‘Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT)’ and the industrial products ‘polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)’ are gaining concern in recent years. Our study tries to draw inference by reviewing published research articles on this association. Pesticides may be classified as chemical carcinogens and they operate in a variety of ways. Some are mutagenic which interact...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710048
Ana Belén Sánchez-García, Eva Abad-Corpa and Juan José Rodriguez-Mondejar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 10, 2020
A wide variety of studies have shown that new technologies facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and skills. New technologies were introduced into the nursing field in the mid-1960s with the advent of basic computer programs. In the 21st century, the use of mobile devices such as tablets, smart phones and PDAs has been introduced. Currently, gambling techniques and serious games are proposed and studied in nursing education....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710047
Jose Luis Turabian
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 09, 2020
Adherence to long-term treatments for chronic conditions remains a challenging issue in general medicine. A low proportion of patients follow the recommendations from general practitioners. The attention of all recurrent or chronic health problems and turning points of natural or physiological situations but that present medical health risks requires co-operation with patients and changes in behaviour. Taking into account the complexity of the phenomenon of therapeutic compliance, it is necessar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710045
Ibtisam AL-Tamimi, MD, MPH and Amen Bawazir, MD, PhD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 18, 2020
The purpose of this study was to examine the current knowledge levels, health beliefs, personal risk factors, and health-promoting behaviors related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among female Saudi teachers in Riyadh city. This study featured a cross-sectional descriptive design. A survey method was used to collect data from 400 women teachers who were randomly selected from ten public schools in five regions of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data......
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710044
Ignazio Grattagliano and Filippo Anelli
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 06, 2020
Health promotion aims at reducing differences in health status and ensuring equal opportunities and resources to enable all people to achieve the fullest health potential. The assistance model provided to immigrants in the Italian region of Puglia was evaluated by using a questionnaire administered to both immigrant patients and general practitioners (GPs)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710043
Rajit Jhingan, M.B.B.S, M.D, Vidushi Sharma, M.B.B.S, M.D, Prem Parkash Khosla, M.B.B.S, M.D, Deepak Bhasin, M.B.B.S, M.D and Harpal Singh, M.B.B.S, DA
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 25, 2020
At the very outset, it needs to be well understood that early assessment and anticipating the need for non-invasive measures will halt progression of disease into ARDS. This will not only reduce the chances for invasive ventilation but also aid in early weaning, thereby decreasing the overall ventilator use. COVID-19 patients should ideally be managed in negative pressure isolation rooms, but most public hospitals would not have this facility. The next best thing is to manage these patients in c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710042
Wanqing Zhang, PhD, MD, Paul R. Chelminski, MD and Dore R. LaForett, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 21, 2020
Opioids present unprecedented threat in the United States. Hospitalizations associated with opioid use disorders (OUD) among US children have doubled in the last decade. Important racial disparities in OUD have recently been noted. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of race in hospitalizations associated with OUD among children and adolescents across the 4 US Census Bureau-defined regions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710041
Dr. Abhishek Singh, M.D, Dr. Preeti Deedwania, MD, Dr. Vinay K, MBBS, Dr. Apala Roy Chowdhury MD and Dr. Puneet Khanna, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 18, 2020
In the last week of December 2019, the first case of pneumonia caused by a novel corona virus in Wuhan city, China, was diagnosed. Person to person transmission of novel coronavirus was confirmed by china on 21 January 2020 with more than 200 diagnosed cases and 4 death. On 30th January 2020, WHO declared the Chinese outbreak of COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern posing a high risk to countries with the poor health care system...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710040
Valeria De Las Casas, Sam Miller, Herbert DuPont and Zhi-Dong Jiang
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2020
Strains 052 and 055 showed the greatest toxin- neutralization activity for C. difficile 43255, while neutralization against toxin of strain 027 was seen only by BS, 055 and CVS. Of interest, the least active probiotic, PC, contained 10 different probiotic strains, demonstrating that containing more probiotic strains may not confer more activity. All probiotics showed anti-sporulation effects against C. difficile strain 087 strain, while the most active inhibitors of sporulation for C. difficile ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710039
Nganji N Bismarck, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric and Noumedem AC Nadia
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2020
Intestinal helminth infections are among the most common infections worldwide and tend to be higher in school children than in other members of the community. The present study was aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infections among children and youth in Kouoptamo. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the months of May and June, 2017 on 403 children and youth 3-20 years in six schools. Quality and number of eggs defaecated were determined using t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710038
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 25, 2020
The Coronavirus or Covid-19 is a large family of viruses that causes illnesses ranging from the common cold to acute respiratory syndromes, but the current virus is a novel strain not seen before. Common symptoms of the novel Coronavirus strain include respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, according to the WHO. The WHO has declared the Coronavirus epidemic as a global health emergency....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710037
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 17, 2020
Tuberculosis is one of the major global public health problems. Each year, there are around nine million new cases of tuberculosis, and close to two million deaths. Ninety eight percent of TB deaths are in the developing world affecting mostly young adults in their most productive years. Providing quality care for pulmonary tuberculosis patients is crucial in prevention and control of the disease. Studies show that consistent compliance with evidence-based guidelines can significantly improve pa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710036
Colette S Azandjeme, Florence Alihonou, Charles J Sossa, Ulrich Gbatcho, Fabien Gounongbe, Michel Makoutode and Victoire D Agueh
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 05, 2020
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in July 2016. It involved data collection regarding food and nutritional knowledge, nutritional habits and practices, physical activity level and health status which were obtained using survey research. The study took place in four schools from the Friendly School of Nutrition Initiative (FNSI) in Cotonou and focused on schoolchildren aged from eight to eleven (n = 182). Anthropometric data including weight and height were collected, BMI indices weight-...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710035
Enrique Burches, MD, PhD and Marta Burches, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 25, 2020
There is great interest in ensuring that health system resources are used effectively. Dictionary says efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency are synonymous. Curiously, it is in many scientific fields where there has been imposed an artificial interpretation of these terms. Efficacy, in the health care sector, is the capacity of a given intervention under ideal or controlled conditions. Effectiveness is the ability of an intervention to have a meaningful effect on patients in normal clinical con...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710034
Bruna Helena Kipper, Carlos Efrain Stein, Thais Helena Szabo Castro, Bruna Carvalho da Silva, Catiane Baumgartel, Kaiane Pereira, Milena Capo dos Santos and Marina Cardoso Fernandes
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 24, 2020
Leptospirosis is an infectious-contagious zoonosis caused by gram-negative bacteria, a spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is largely related to high rainfall levels, accumulation of litter, presence of rodents and lack of basic sanitation. The present study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of the population and the risk factors of leptospirosis in a region frequently affected by floods in Blumenau/Santa Catarina/Brazil, as well as the control of rodents carried out by the interviewees....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710033
Marcelo B Bastos, Mariana MM de Carvalho, Daiana CP de Santana, Priscila V Fialho, Luis CC dos Santos, Alana D Barboza, Diego M de O. Barbosa and Alexandre M Seixas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2019
The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign pathology that presents characteristics of aggression and local recurrence. The WHO considered it as an odontogenic tumor in 2005, but in the most recent classification in 2017 it was once again considered as an odontogenic developmental cyst. Most of the time it presents a symptomatically, but the patient can report the pain symptomatology. The aim of this article is to report a clinical case of OKC on maxilla describing its characteristics and forms...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710032
Osvaldo Batista Rojas
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 09, 2019
The epidemiology aims to describe and explain the dynamics of population health, identify the elements that compose it and understand the forces that govern it, in addition to promoting health, preventing and controlling diseases through the knowledge of their causes, in order to intervene in the course of their natural development to modify them. The nascent development of capitalism gave new impetus to the development of epidemiology and a renewed nuance to the causal conception of morbid stat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710030
Zeynep DOGRUL, MD, Nejdiye MAZICAN, MD and Meral TURK, Prof. Dr.
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 28, 2019
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are one of the common health problems of employees. WRMSDs are impairments of bodily structures such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones and the localised blood circulation system, that are caused or aggravated primarily by work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out. The aim of this study is; to determine the prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders and the related factors such as...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710029
Vanthy L, Chhorvann C, Bunleng H and Sopheab H
Article Type: Original Articl e | First Published: October 14, 2019
Despite declining rates for children under five years of age (U5M) in the last ten years, developing countries continue to challenge to meet Sustainability Development Goals (SDG) target, including reducing neonatal mortality to 12 deaths, and U5M to 25 deaths per 1,000 live births, by 2030. Cambodia, located in Southeast Asia, recently been reclassified by the World Bank as a lower middle-income country. Cambodia U5M has declined over the last decade, and Cambodia achieved the Millennium Develo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710028
Derwin KC Chan, Karen CH Lo and Felix Cheung
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 30, 2019
This study aims to examine the social influences of teachers, classmates and parents (i.e., positive reinforcement and punishment) on childrens commitment to physical education (PE) and language education (LE). Children from the UK (N = 614; Mean age = 13.05, SD = 2.01) completed the Perceived Social Influence Scale (Chan, et al. 2012), and also measures of competence, enjoyment, and effort in either the PE or LE context. Multi-group structural equation modelling (CFI = 0.97-0.98; TLI = 0.96-0.9...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710027
Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira and Dirceu Sole
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 14, 2019
Children and adolescents spend a lot of time in school where it is possible that critical allergic episodes occur. Also, there is some lack of knowledge of staff and teachers about how to assist a child in an emergency situation, especially if he or she is having an allergic reaction to something. Due to the need to improve care, knowledge, monitoring, and education regarding asthma, the Children's Asthma Prevention Program (Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma, PIPA) was implemented along w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710026
Santa Ponce, Will Pho, Cathy Farr and Ruby Skinner
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 04, 2019
This work, along with the vast amount of attention surrounding distracted driving led our research team to explore the behavioral and psychological characteristics of people that predispose them to risky behaviors and driving with distractions such as texting or mobile phone use. Our primary objective in this preliminary work is to characterize patterns of distracted behavior among adult drivers and to potentially identify high-risk subsets of our population to target prevention efforts. Based o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710025
Albert Nguessan Ngo, PhD and David Joseph Turbow, PhD
Article Type: A Systematic Review | First Published: August 09, 2019
A search was conducted for published data for the 20-year period between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2018. The keywords consisted of the terms: homeless, mortality, morbidity, United States, and health disparities. Data were drawn from cohort studies, observational studies and surveillance reports. Data were then extracted from eleven studies for meta-analysis using PCA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710024
S. Anuradha and Dhastagir Sultan Sheriff
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 02, 2019
Healthcare in India is undergoing a change that will meet the demands of the citizens from the village to the metropolitan city level. The National Health policy announced in 2017 is focused on "wellness" of patients and guarantees healthcare with suitable insurance to cover from primary to tertiary care. Ayushman Bharat Mission is a policy that promotes healthcare with a center-state co-operation. Program Indra Dhanush aims to cover immunization of children in rural and urban areas including th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710023
Julie Babyar, RN MPH
Article Type: Narrative Review | First Published: June 12, 2019
Nutrition science is currently viewed as part of healthcare, in a separate silo Nutrition science is currently not fully integrated into medicine. Food safety, malnutrition, access and quality issues, chronic conditions and obesity are all components of nutritional health, nutritional health is not viewed as a specialty partner with everyday presence. Additionally, research on nutrition is unorganized and lacking....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710022
Gazimbi MM, Magadi MA and Kruger C
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2019
Although both traditional and medical male circumcision are now being promoted as part of strategies for HIV prevention in Africa, particularly in countries with low circumcision prevalence, there are debates on the efficacy of male circumcision in the prevention of HIV at both individual and population levels....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710021
Lin Zhang, Lei Shen, Wei-Ti Chen, Meiyan Sun, Wenxiu Sun, Zheng Zhu and Hongzhou Lu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 06, 2019
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a kind of serious infectious disease caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In the report of World AIDS Day of 2015, the UNAIDS estimated that there are 3690 million HIV affected people and AIDS patients, including 200 million people newly infected with HIV and 1.2 million AIDS-related death that year. There are 15.8 million people living with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy as of June 2015. According to the latest AIDS report: by the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710020
Margita Spalekova, Martina Kotrbancova, Miriam Fulova and Danka Simonyiova
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 05, 2019
Community-acquired cases of Legionella infection or even outbreaks can be attributed to inhalation of aerosols from devices such as hot water system, cooling towers, hot tubs, industrial equipment and indoor fountains. Legionellae survive in water in temperatures between 20°C and 50°C and tend to colonize particularly water systems rich of sludge, rust, biofilms and amoebae where they can multiply. Cooling towers (CT) in industry are used as heat-transfer devices in which warm water is cooled ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IAPHCM-2017/1710019
Kunthea Soch, B POCH and Chanbora Chea
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 24, 2019
Cambodian Ministry of Health (MoH) is working towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) of HIV by 2025. According to national policy, following the antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive pregnant women (PW), HIV-exposed infants (HEI) are given antiretroviral prophylaxis for six weeks (PMTCT Guideline 2011), followed by a first PCR test (PCR1) and cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis at six weeks of age, and later followed with an HIV-antibody test (AB-Test) at 18 months. Based ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IAPHCM-2017/1710018
Robert Cancro, Kenneth Blum and Eric R Braverman
Article Type: Perspective Type | First Published: April 06, 2019
Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710017
Carmen Smotherman, Lori Bilello, Katryne Lukens-Bull, Julie Merten and Saran Wells
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 07, 2019
Prescriptions for opioid medications has increased during the past two decades. In 2016, there were 17,087 deaths involving prescription opioids, or approximately 46 deaths per day. This is a significant increase from 15,281 in 2015 (p < 0.05). The use of injectable opioids are often associated with skin infections, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between opioid dependence and MRSA colonization or infection in ho...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710016
Stephen H Linder, Anna-Maria Volkmann, Tami Wisniewski, Louise Hesseldal and A David Napier
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2018
Linder SH, Anna-Maria V, Wisniewski T, Hesseldal L, Napier AD (2018) Understanding Social and Cultural Factors Associated with Composite Vulnerability to Better Inform Community Intervention Strategies: Cities Changing Diabetes in Houston. Int Arch Public Health Community Med 2:016....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710015
Abdulrahman Mohammed Al Muammar, Zakiuddin Ahmed and Abdullah M. Aldahmash
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2018
Amidst the background of numerous challenges confronting the healthcare sector (such as rising costs, chronic disease upsurge and issues related to patient safety), this narrative review aims to shed light on the opportunities provided by patient-centered care and technology use as a means to improve and reshape the healthcare sector. The evolution of technology use in healthcare from telemedicine to the present era of connected health is highlighted and discussed as a pertinent emerging model t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710014
Chrishantha Abeysena and Harshana Bandara
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 24, 2018
Consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illicit narcotics affects the quality of life among mental health patients. The objective of this study was to describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit narcotic substances usage and associated factors among patients attending mental health clinics. Alcohol usage was higher among mental health patients. Being a male patient, alcohol consumption of caregiver and high family income were associated with alcohol usage of patients. Usage of those substanc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710013
Chrishantha Abeysena and Champa Hapugoda
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 22, 2018
Visual impairment is reduction in the vision. It is a worldwide health problem in both developing and developed countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), visual impairment includes low vision and blindness. Blindness is defined as visual acuity of less than 3/60 in the better eye with best correction. Low vision is defined as visual acuity of less than 6/18, but equal to or better than 3/60, in the better eye with best correction. In 2010, WHO estimated that there were 285 million...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710012
Mohana Faroug Attia
Article Type: Orginal Research | First Published: October 27, 2018
In Sudan, obesity is increasing at an alarming rate especially in urban areas, becoming a social and medical concern. In pregnancy, overweight is associated with high risk of maternal death and many significant complications. Varied research and papers have also reported an increased risk of abnormality in offspring of obese and overweight pregnant woman. At the same time, carrying out an ultrasound examination on obese pregnant woman is a difficult task, due to the impaired acoustic window. Thi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IAPHCM-2017/1710011
Victor HH Goh
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2018
Total body composition and bone scans were analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Exercise intensity scores were computed using the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET). Handgrip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Various hormones and metabolic parameters were measured and cognition function tests and data regarding general health and sexual functions were collected....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710010
Alessandra De Rose and Roberto Verna
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2018
This report contains the main results of a quantitative research aimed at testing, through the administration of multiple-level questionnaires- patients (n = 2500) and physicians (n = 100), a simple tool for detecting the individual perception of recurrence and the severity of the symptom of headaches and how it is dealt with in terms of drug use and the use of appropriate reference health structures (general practitioner and headache centers). The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a to...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710009
Sarah Callahan and Leonard A Jason
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 25, 2018
Drug use and recovery have received considerable attention from social scientists over the past few decades. Earlier theoretical explanations of drug abuse evaluated constructionist paradigms of stratification, labeling, and Marxist theories. However, many studies involving heroin use continue to focus on person-centered risk factors surrounding use and, to a lesser extent, recovery processes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710008
Aldof Tah Yoah, Jerome Fru-Cho, Emmanuel Kah, Ernest Njukang, Franklin Sevidzem Wirsiy, Christian Tetteh Duamor and Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2018
Malaria is an acute febrile disease caused by infection of the red blood cells with intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are inoculated into the human host by feeding female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents significant risks for the pregnant woman, the developing foetus and the newborn infant....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710007
Lauren Harrison and Mary B Short
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 18, 2018
Common childhood sicknesses, such as infections, colds, stomachaches, and headaches are inevitable for all children. The influence parents have on their sick children has been well studied in chronic illness populations; however, few studies have examined these associations among general sickness conditions in children. This study examined how parental accommodations and other parental variables affected frequency of sickness and functioning during sickness in children. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710006
Victor M Aziz, Natalie Hill and Danika Rafferty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2018
Psychiatric training consists of core psychiatry training for three years during which trainees has to pass the College membership examination MRCPsych before they enter the Old Age Psychiatry specialty training for further 3 years. The curriculum for specialist training in Old Age Psychiatry is being reviewed by the Old Age Faculty of the Royal College of Psychiatrists....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710005
Angel G Polanco Rodriguez
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: February 24, 2018
Actually, it is important the water conservation to prevent high impact on the public health, as well as the application of the environmental regulations, especially when there is a high fragility for water pollution in the ecosystem, particularly in developing countries. Throughout the world, there are rules and regulations that indicate the Maximum Permitted Limits of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) residues in water, which must be monitored so that the water quality does not exceed these limi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710004
Meers JM, Short MB, Zimet GD, Rosenthal SL and Auslander BA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 30, 2017
HPV vaccination is recommended for all adolescents aged 11 and 12; however, parental hesitancy about HPV vaccination contributes to lower than anticipated rates of uptake. Recommendations from healthcare providers are associated with increased parental vaccine intentions and uptake, but many providers fail to deliver strong recommendations. We sought to describe provider-parent communications about HPV vaccination in a sample of vaccine-hesitant parents....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710003
Timothy Waje, Anthony John Dadah, Muhammad Yusha'u and Chanu Iliyasu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2017
Hepatitis A infection formerly called infectious hepatitis is caused by the Hepatitis A Virus. The infection is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route through contaminated foods or drinks. The Virus poses a significant threat to public health because of its ability to cause fulminant hepatitis which still remains a point of concern....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IAPHCM-2017/1710002
Jerry Y Du, Alexander Aichmair, Joshua E Schroeder, Paul D Kiely, Joseph T Nguyen and Darren R Lebl
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2017
Neck Pain (NP) and Low Back Pain (LBP) are among the top four major causes of disability. There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence and Quality of Life (QOL) issues associated with NP and LBP in American medical students. The aim of the present study was to characterize NP and LBP in American medical students....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710001
Palak K Patel, Matthew Perri and Randall L Tackett
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2017
Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Medicare-linked database, a total of 6,868 patients aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with low risk localized prostate cancer in the year 2004 and 2005 were identified. Patients who received either immediate or delayed treatment (> 6 months after diagnosis) were followed for 5-years to determine toxicities and survival. ...
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