In Sudan, obesity is increasing at an alarming rate especially in urban areas, becoming a social and medical concern. In pregnancy, overweight is associated with high risk of maternal death and many significant complications. Varied research and papers have also reported an increased risk of abnormality in offspring of obese and overweight pregnant woman. At the same time, carrying out an ultrasound examination on obese pregnant woman is a difficult task, due to the impaired acoustic window. This study investigates the rural-urban differences in risk for birth defects rates and the associated risk factors in the Northern State - Sudan.
A sample of 700 women, were examined by using ultrasound equipment and all cases also subjected to clinical check before and after ultrasound examination. Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity was studied. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height and weight, and individuals with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were categorized as obese. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine urban-rural differences after adjusting for sociodemographic, health, dietary, and lifestyle factors.
Weight, BMI, Percentage of Body fat, Waist Circumference and Waist: Hip Ratio (WHR) was significantly higher (p, 0.001) in Urban women as compare to Rural women. Compared to urban women and rural women reported the malformation categories among birth of urban women were higher than that among birth of rural women (95% confidence interval: 1.6, 1.2). Some tactile variables were not observed prior to examination and observed in most of the cases after examination. Technical and medical observations were recorded and analyzed.
The higher prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in Urban women as compared to Rural women. Malformation categories among birth of urban women were higher than that among birth of rural women (95% confidence interval: 1.6, 1.2).