International Archives of

Public Health and Community MedicineISSN: 2643-4512

Current Issue

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710045

Knowledge and Perceived Susceptibility of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) among Saudi Female Teachers

Ibtisam AL-Tamimi, MD, MPH and Amen Bawazir, MD, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 18, 2020

The purpose of this study was to examine the current knowledge levels, health beliefs, personal risk factors, and health-promoting behaviors related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among female Saudi teachers in Riyadh city. This study featured a cross-sectional descriptive design. A survey method was used to collect data from 400 women teachers who were randomly selected from ten public schools in five regions of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data......

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710044

Health Assistance to Immigrants in the Italian Region of Puglia: Effectiveness of General Practitioners' Care

Ignazio Grattagliano and Filippo Anelli

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 06, 2020

Health promotion aims at reducing differences in health status and ensuring equal opportunities and resources to enable all people to achieve the fullest health potential. The assistance model provided to immigrants in the Italian region of Puglia was evaluated by using a questionnaire administered to both immigrant patients and general practitioners (GPs)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710039

Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors amongst School Aged Children in Kouoptamo Noun Division, West Region, Cameroon

Nganji N Bismarck, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric and Noumedem AC Nadia

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2020

Intestinal helminth infections are among the most common infections worldwide and tend to be higher in school children than in other members of the community. The present study was aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infections among children and youth in Kouoptamo. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the months of May and June, 2017 on 403 children and youth 3-20 years in six schools. Quality and number of eggs defaecated were determined using t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710043

Coping with Shortage of Ventilators in COVID-19 Pandemic: Indian Context and Exploring Effective Options in Countries with Limited Healthcare Resources

Rajit Jhingan, M.B.B.S, M.D, Vidushi Sharma, M.B.B.S, M.D, Prem Parkash Khosla, M.B.B.S, M.D, Deepak Bhasin, M.B.B.S, M.D and Harpal Singh, M.B.B.S, DA

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 25, 2020

At the very outset, it needs to be well understood that early assessment and anticipating the need for non-invasive measures will halt progression of disease into ARDS. This will not only reduce the chances for invasive ventilation but also aid in early weaning, thereby decreasing the overall ventilator use. COVID-19 patients should ideally be managed in negative pressure isolation rooms, but most public hospitals would not have this facility. The next best thing is to manage these patients in c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710041

Is India's Health Care Infrastructure Sufficient for Handling COVID 19 Pandemic?

Dr. Abhishek Singh, M.D, Dr. Preeti Deedwania, MD, Dr. Vinay K, MBBS, Dr. Apala Roy Chowdhury MD and Dr. Puneet Khanna, MD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 18, 2020

In the last week of December 2019, the first case of pneumonia caused by a novel corona virus in Wuhan city, China, was diagnosed. Person to person transmission of novel coronavirus was confirmed by china on 21 January 2020 with more than 200 diagnosed cases and 4 death. On 30th January 2020, WHO declared the Chinese outbreak of COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern posing a high risk to countries with the poor health care system...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710042

Racial and Geographic Differences in Hospitalizations for Pediatric Opioid Use Disorders

Wanqing Zhang, PhD, MD, Paul R. Chelminski, MD and Dore R. LaForett, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 21, 2020

Opioids present unprecedented threat in the United States. Hospitalizations associated with opioid use disorders (OUD) among US children have doubled in the last decade. Important racial disparities in OUD have recently been noted. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of race in hospitalizations associated with OUD among children and adolescents across the 4 US Census Bureau-defined regions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710040

In vitro Effects of Probiotics on Clostridium Difficile Toxin Production and Sporulation

Valeria De Las Casas, Sam Miller, Herbert DuPont and Zhi-Dong Jiang

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2020

Strains 052 and 055 showed the greatest toxin- neutralization activity for C. difficile 43255, while neutralization against toxin of strain 027 was seen only by BS, 055 and CVS. Of interest, the least active probiotic, PC, contained 10 different probiotic strains, demonstrating that containing more probiotic strains may not confer more activity. All probiotics showed anti-sporulation effects against C. difficile strain 087 strain, while the most active inhibitors of sporulation for C. difficile ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710036

Factors Associated with the Nutritional Status of Schoolchildren in the Main City of Benin Republic, Sub-Saharan Africa

Colette S Azandjeme, Florence Alihonou, Charles J Sossa, Ulrich Gbatcho, Fabien Gounongbe, Michel Makoutode and Victoire D Agueh

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 05, 2020

This was a cross-sectional study conducted in July 2016. It involved data collection regarding food and nutritional knowledge, nutritional habits and practices, physical activity level and health status which were obtained using survey research. The study took place in four schools from the Friendly School of Nutrition Initiative (FNSI) in Cotonou and focused on schoolchildren aged from eight to eleven (n = 182). Anthropometric data including weight and height were collected, BMI indices weight-...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710035

Efficacy, Effectiveness and Efficiency in the Health Care: The Need for an Agreement to Clarify its Meaning

Enrique Burches, MD, PhD and Marta Burches, MD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 25, 2020

There is great interest in ensuring that health system resources are used effectively. Dictionary says efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency are synonymous. Curiously, it is in many scientific fields where there has been imposed an artificial interpretation of these terms. Efficacy, in the health care sector, is the capacity of a given intervention under ideal or controlled conditions. Effectiveness is the ability of an intervention to have a meaningful effect on patients in normal clinical con...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710034

Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge of the Population and Risk Factors Related to Leptospirosis in an Endemic City

Bruna Helena Kipper, Carlos Efrain Stein, Thais Helena Szabo Castro, Bruna Carvalho da Silva, Catiane Baumgartel, Kaiane Pereira, Milena Capo dos Santos and Marina Cardoso Fernandes

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 24, 2020

Leptospirosis is an infectious-contagious zoonosis caused by gram-negative bacteria, a spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is largely related to high rainfall levels, accumulation of litter, presence of rodents and lack of basic sanitation. The present study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of the population and the risk factors of leptospirosis in a region frequently affected by floods in Blumenau/Santa Catarina/Brazil, as well as the control of rodents carried out by the interviewees....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710033

Odontogenic Keratocysts Associated with Dental Displacement for Orbita Floor: Case Report

Marcelo B Bastos, Mariana MM de Carvalho, Daiana CP de Santana, Priscila V Fialho, Luis CC dos Santos, Alana D Barboza, Diego M de O. Barbosa and Alexandre M Seixas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2019

The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign pathology that presents characteristics of aggression and local recurrence. The WHO considered it as an odontogenic tumor in 2005, but in the most recent classification in 2017 it was once again considered as an odontogenic developmental cyst. Most of the time it presents a symptomatically, but the patient can report the pain symptomatology. The aim of this article is to report a clinical case of OKC on maxilla describing its characteristics and forms...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710032

Epidemiology as a Tool for Social Communication as a Fulfillment of the Millennium Goals: An Updated Look at the Causes in Parasitosis. Havana 2019

Osvaldo Batista Rojas

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 09, 2019

The epidemiology aims to describe and explain the dynamics of population health, identify the elements that compose it and understand the forces that govern it, in addition to promoting health, preventing and controlling diseases through the knowledge of their causes, in order to intervene in the course of their natural development to modify them. The nascent development of capitalism gave new impetus to the development of epidemiology and a renewed nuance to the causal conception of morbid stat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710031

Assessment on the Awareness of the Overweight People towards Benefits of Physical Activities on the Prevention of Chronic Disease: A Case Study of Wolaita Sodo Town, Ethiopia

Tarekegn Girma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 06, 2019

World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2011 that 34% of Ethiopian population is dying from non-communicable diseases, with a national cardiovascular disease prevalence of 15%, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence of 4% each, and diabetes mellitus prevalence of 2%. Therefore, purpose of this study was to understand the level of awareness shared by overweight people towards benefits of physical activities on the prevention of the chronic disease; in Wolaita Sodo town, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710030

The Prevalence of Work-Related Muskuloskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) and Related Factors among Occupational Disease Clinic Patients

Zeynep DOGRUL, MD, Nejdiye MAZICAN, MD and Meral TURK, Prof. Dr.

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 28, 2019

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are one of the common health problems of employees. WRMSDs are impairments of bodily structures such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones and the localised blood circulation system, that are caused or aggravated primarily by work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out. The aim of this study is; to determine the prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders and the related factors such as...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710029

Determinants of Children Under-Five Mortality in Cambodia: Analysis of the 2010 and 2014 Demographic and Health Survey

Vanthy L, Chhorvann C, Bunleng H and Sopheab H

Article Type: Original Articl e | First Published: October 14, 2019

Despite declining rates for children under five years of age (U5M) in the last ten years, developing countries continue to challenge to meet Sustainability Development Goals (SDG) target, including reducing neonatal mortality to 12 deaths, and U5M to 25 deaths per 1,000 live births, by 2030. Cambodia, located in Southeast Asia, recently been reclassified by the World Bank as a lower middle-income country. Cambodia U5M has declined over the last decade, and Cambodia achieved the Millennium Develo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710016

Understanding Social and Cultural Factors Associated with Composite Vulnerability to Better Inform Community Intervention Strategies: Cities Changing Diabetes in Houston

Stephen H Linder, Anna-Maria Volkmann, Tami Wisniewski, Louise Hesseldal and A David Napier

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2018

Linder SH, Anna-Maria V, Wisniewski T, Hesseldal L, Napier AD (2018) Understanding Social and Cultural Factors Associated with Composite Vulnerability to Better Inform Community Intervention Strategies: Cities Changing Diabetes in Houston. Int Arch Public Health Community Med 2:016....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710015

Paradigm Shift in Healthcare through Technology and Patient-Centeredness

Abdulrahman Mohammed Al Muammar, Zakiuddin Ahmed and Abdullah M. Aldahmash

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2018

Amidst the background of numerous challenges confronting the healthcare sector (such as rising costs, chronic disease upsurge and issues related to patient safety), this narrative review aims to shed light on the opportunities provided by patient-centered care and technology use as a means to improve and reshape the healthcare sector. The evolution of technology use in healthcare from telemedicine to the present era of connected health is highlighted and discussed as a pertinent emerging model t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710014

Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Illicit Narcotic Substances Usage and Associated Factors among Patients Attending Mental Health Clinics Conducted by a Group of Hospitals in Sri Lanka

Chrishantha Abeysena and Harshana Bandara

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 24, 2018

Consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illicit narcotics affects the quality of life among mental health patients. The objective of this study was to describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit narcotic substances usage and associated factors among patients attending mental health clinics. Alcohol usage was higher among mental health patients. Being a male patient, alcohol consumption of caregiver and high family income were associated with alcohol usage of patients. Usage of those substanc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710013

Prevalence of Visual Impairment among Adults Aged Forty Years and above in a Medical Officer of Health Area in Sri Lanka: Cross-Sectional Study

Chrishantha Abeysena and Champa Hapugoda

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 22, 2018

Visual impairment is reduction in the vision. It is a worldwide health problem in both developing and developed countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), visual impairment includes low vision and blindness. Blindness is defined as visual acuity of less than 3/60 in the better eye with best correction. Low vision is defined as visual acuity of less than 6/18, but equal to or better than 3/60, in the better eye with best correction. In 2010, WHO estimated that there were 285 million...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710012

Maternal Obesity and Risk for Birth Defects in an Urban and Rural in the Northern State - Sudan

Mohana Faroug Attia

Article Type: Orginal Research | First Published: October 27, 2018

In Sudan, obesity is increasing at an alarming rate especially in urban areas, becoming a social and medical concern. In pregnancy, overweight is associated with high risk of maternal death and many significant complications. Varied research and papers have also reported an increased risk of abnormality in offspring of obese and overweight pregnant woman. At the same time, carrying out an ultrasound examination on obese pregnant woman is a difficult task, due to the impaired acoustic window. Thi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IAPHCM-2017/1710011

Health Benefits of Physical Exercise as a Lifestyle Habit in Asian Men and Women

Victor HH Goh

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2018

Total body composition and bone scans were analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Exercise intensity scores were computed using the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET). Handgrip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Various hormones and metabolic parameters were measured and cognition function tests and data regarding general health and sexual functions were collected....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710010

A Test (Test_a) for the Assessment of Headache

Alessandra De Rose and Roberto Verna

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2018

This report contains the main results of a quantitative research aimed at testing, through the administration of multiple-level questionnaires- patients (n = 2500) and physicians (n = 100), a simple tool for detecting the individual perception of recurrence and the severity of the symptom of headaches and how it is dealt with in terms of drug use and the use of appropriate reference health structures (general practitioner and headache centers). The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a to...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710009

Contextual Perspectives on Heroin Addiction and Recovery: Classic and Contemporary Theories

Sarah Callahan and Leonard A Jason

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 25, 2018

Drug use and recovery have received considerable attention from social scientists over the past few decades. Earlier theoretical explanations of drug abuse evaluated constructionist paradigms of stratification, labeling, and Marxist theories. However, many studies involving heroin use continue to focus on person-centered risk factors surrounding use and, to a lesser extent, recovery processes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710008

Impact of Adherence to a Full Course of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy on Pregnancy Outcome in Muyuka Health District: A Cross-Sectional Study

Aldof Tah Yoah, Jerome Fru-Cho, Emmanuel Kah, Ernest Njukang, Franklin Sevidzem Wirsiy, Christian Tetteh Duamor and Theresa Nkuo-Akenji

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2018

Malaria is an acute febrile disease caused by infection of the red blood cells with intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are inoculated into the human host by feeding female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents significant risks for the pregnant woman, the developing foetus and the newborn infant....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710007

A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Parental Accommodations on Frequency of Sickness in Children

Lauren Harrison and Mary B Short

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 18, 2018

Common childhood sicknesses, such as infections, colds, stomachaches, and headaches are inevitable for all children. The influence parents have on their sick children has been well studied in chronic illness populations; however, few studies have examined these associations among general sickness conditions in children. This study examined how parental accommodations and other parental variables affected frequency of sickness and functioning during sickness in children. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710006

Survey of Curriculum and Training Opportunities for Higher Old Age Psychiatry Speciality Trainees in the UK

Victor M Aziz, Natalie Hill and Danika Rafferty

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2018

Psychiatric training consists of core psychiatry training for three years during which trainees has to pass the College membership examination MRCPsych before they enter the Old Age Psychiatry specialty training for further 3 years. The curriculum for specialist training in Old Age Psychiatry is being reviewed by the Old Age Faculty of the Royal College of Psychiatrists....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iaphcm-2017/1710005

Impact of the Pesticides in the Environment and Public Health: The Case of Yucatan, Mexico

Angel G Polanco Rodriguez

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: February 24, 2018

Actually, it is important the water conservation to prevent high impact on the public health, as well as the application of the environmental regulations, especially when there is a high fragility for water pollution in the ecosystem, particularly in developing countries. Throughout the world, there are rules and regulations that indicate the Maximum Permitted Limits of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) residues in water, which must be monitored so that the water quality does not exceed these limi...

Volume 2
Issue 1