Modification of Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Patients Attending an Urban Teaching Hospital in Kenya
AO Owuor, GN Lule, CF Otieno, EO Omonge, MC Maritim and P Memiah
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2014
Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with ART modification among HIV patients on 1st line therapy attending a large Teaching Hospital in Kenya.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional clinical record review. All patients who commenced ART from January 2005 to June 2011 and had at least 1 follow-up visit were evaluated. Baseline data, including socio demographic and clinical variables was collected using a standard chart abstraction tool.
Results: Out of 1,022 patients 658 (64.4%) were female and the mean age of study participants was 37.8years. The median CD4+ cou...
Prognostic Value of Some Acute Phase Reactants in the Management of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease
Akpotuzor Josephine O, Ekarika Evelyn A and Akwiwu Euphoria C
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014
This study was conducted to assess the relevance of serum C- reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), relative plasma viscosity (RPV) and fibrinogen level in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) disease. One hundred (100) PTB patients attending the TB clinic of Dr Lawrence Henshaw Memorial Specialist Hospital Calabar, and 70 age and sex-matched apparently healthy subjects between 15-65 years of age were selected and enrolled. Standard techniques were used for the assays. Results showed significantly lower PCV (p<0.05) in PTB patients (0.35 ± 0.07L/L) when compare...
Identification of Ten Novel Mutations in Factor VIII Gene: A Study of A Cohort of 52 Haemophilia A Patients
Rosa Santacroce, Angelica Leccese, Roberta Trunzo, Giuseppe Lassandro, Paola Giordano, Cosimo Ettorre, Stefano Antoncecchi, Isabella Cantori, Alfredo Dragani, Donata Belvini, Roberta Salviato and Maurizio Margaglione
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 14, 2014
Introduction: Haemophilia A (HA) is the most common X-linked recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) resulting in spontaneous bleeding.
Aim: The aim of our study is to provide additional information about the genetic causes of HA describing the correlation between the observed mutations and the clinical phenotype in a cohort of 52 patients suffering from HA to different degrees.
Methods: First we performed a search of inversion 22 (IVS22) and of the intron 1 (IVS1) for severe HA patients; inversions negative and moderate/mild HA ...
Allergy to General Anesthetics: Evaluation of Patients Profile
Carla Irani, C. Saade, C. Dagher and P.Yazbeck
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 02, 2014
8 millions procedures requiring anesthesia are performed yearly in France with 75% of them being general anesthesia. In 45% of those procedures, a NMBA (neuromuscular blocking agents) is used. Th incidence of allergy to general anesthetics ranges between 1/20000 in Australia and 1/350 in Great-Britain. Th incidence of peranesthestic allergic reactions estimated in 1996 in France was 1/9000, all drugs confounded and the incidence of allergic reactions to NMBA was evaluated to be 1/6500 anesthesia. Allergic reactions can be benign or fatal in some cases (6%), presenting with urticaria /angioedem...
Assessment of Learning Guides Improvement in Diabetes Education Program: A QI Initiative for Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents
Manmohan K. Kamboj, Kathryn J. Stephens, Richard J. Brilli, Heather L. Yardley, Jeff Lewis, Richard E. McClead, Jr. and David R. Repaske
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2014
Aims: To develop objective assessment tools to evaluate proficiency of well-day (WD) and sick-day (SD) diabetes knowledge and management skills in families of pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and to utilize this information to modify our diabetes education (DE) program to improve learning of the desired knowledge and skills.
Methods: Vignette-based assessment quizzes were developed to evaluate WD and SD diabetes knowledge and management skills. Vignettes assessed basic knowledge and skills including calculation of insulin doses, treatment of hypoglycemia, and management of hyperglycemia an...
Type 2 Diabetes and Lifestyle- A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study among Rural Men
Anders Thelin and Sara Holmberg
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014
The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to lifestyle but less is known about how lifestyle factors interact and how they impact the risk when combined. This study was performed to analyze how lifestyle factors relate to the cumulative incidence of T2D in a Swedish rural population. Outcomes were generated from national registers and from two surveys. Two hundred sixty men (11%) with diabetes were found in the registers, and 193 men with T2D were identified in the surveyed population (9.8%). Physical activity (OR for high physical activity=0.55 (95% CI 0.31-0.97) and meal quality (OR for h...
Role of Infections in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis- A Study from South India
Poovazhagi Varadarajan and Saradha suresh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Cerebral edema is the commonest cause of mortality in DKA worldwide. Infections are known to precipitate new onset DKA, they also adversely affect the outcome of DKA in children from developing countries. Infections are major contributory factors for DKA in children with established diabetes mellitus (DM) along with poor compliance to therapy. This study among 118 episodes of DKA from a pediatric tertiary care Institute has identifid infections as a signifiant risk factor for severe metabolic derangements, complications and poor outcome in children with DKA. Infections were signifiantly associ...
The Role of Netrin-1 in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy
Wenyi Wu and Luosheng Tang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Netrin-1 which belongs to axon guidance cue is necessary for neural and vascular development. It involves in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Many evidences have proved that netrin-1 plays an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression and inflmmation disease. Here we provide a comprehensive review on the role of netrin-1 in retinal and angiogenesis developments. What's more, some associated signaling pathways in diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Overall, the current available da...
Does GABA Metabolism Play any Specific Role in the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Β-Cells?
J. Pizarro-Delgado and J. Tamarit-Rodriguez
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 05, 2014
It was recognized quite a few years ago that islet GABA metabolism might be implicated in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Since then, some studies have been addressed to investigate how GABA release by β-cells might exert a negative autocrine control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a parallel paracrine inhibition of glucagon release trough the activation of GABAB and GABA A receptors, respectively. More recently, it has been shown that some nutrient secretagogues like glucose and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) suppress islet GABA release simultaneously to th...
Recent Advances in Insulin Therapy for Diabetes
Aiman Ahmad, Iekhsan Othman, Anuar Zaini Md Zain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 27, 2014
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting a great number of the world's population. Insulin therapy for diabetes is most commonly delivered via subcutaneous injections, up to four times a day. Long-term insulin therapy, compounded by the invasive nature of its administration, has caused problems with patient compliance, ultimately inflencing patient outcomes. Extensive research has been carried out to date, to explore possible improvements to insulin therapy for diabetic patients, with some new products already available and FDA-approved. This review aims to highlight the new discoverie...