International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes articles on causes, symptoms and diagnosis of various brain disorders, infections, trauma, stroke, seizures, and tumors of brain etc. The main objective of the journal is to disseminate the scientific work, publication, education, and exchange of ideas globally. The Journal provides authors with a platform to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among readers on brain diseases and management. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.
International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment focus on various aspects of brain disorders viz., ALS, Alzheimer's Disease, Bell's Palsy, Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord, Brain Aneurysm, Brain Injury, Brain Tumor, Cerebral Palsy, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Concussion, Dementia, Disk Disease of Neck and Lower Back, Dizziness, Epilepsy, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Headache - Cluster, Headache - Tension, Migraine Headaches, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Neuralgia, Neuromuscular and Related Diseases, Neuropathy, Parkinson's Disease, Psychiatric Conditions (Severe Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), Scoliosis, Seizures, Spinal Cord Injury, Spinal Deformity, Spinal Disorder (Subacute Combined Degeneration), Spine Tumor, Stroke, Vertigo, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are welcome for possible publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410043
Sergio Altomare, Maria Stella Aniello, Ruggiero Leone and Maurizio Giorelli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2022
Blepharospasm (BB) in an involuntary movement disorder characterized by stereotyped, bilateral, and synchronous spasms of the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscles. Spasms may be either brief or sustained and give rise either to narrowing or spasmodic closure of eyelids thus leading to functional blindness....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410042
Ruggiero Leone, Sergio Altomare, Maria Stella Aniello, Daniele Liuzzi, Immacolata Plasmati, Michele Sardaro, Maria Superbo, Daniela Tato, Rosella Carpentiere, Giuseppe Guglielmi and Maurizio Giorelli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 20, 2022
Juvenile Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare head and neck cancer in Western Countries. Neck radiotherapy (RT) is a routine procedure for treating or preventing the nodal metastasis in NPC patients. Ionizing radiation from RT has been associated with enhanced atherosclerotic process of large vessel arteries of the neck and brain which results in higher incidence of cerebrovascular events....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410040
Terawan A Putranto, Taruna Ikrar, Ardianto Pramono, Samuel Tandionugroho, Rachmanto HSA
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 17, 2021
Occlusion or rupture of cerebral blood vessel can cause a stroke. It can occur either on a child and adult even it unusual in children. Stroke in pediatric population is rare but it carries often long-term disability and mortality. We present two cases of pediatric stroke with metabolic disease as underlying disease. One of them admitted with weakness and clumsiness persisted of right hand and leg. The other one admitted with weakness in the left hand and leg. Both showed motor improvement and p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410041
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 08, 2022
Magnetic particles in the human body have various effects on the human health, ranging from positive effects in the treatment of diseases, e.g., by a hyperthermia treatment, to negative effects, e.g., on Alzheimer’s disease. In the present manuscript a short review is given on these effects of magnetic particles in the human body. It is written that by exposing diseased tissue to elevated temperature for a period of time, called hyperthermia, is a promising treatment of human diseases. Cells a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410039
Luz Fernandez, MD, Jon Becker, MD and Philip May, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 15, 2021
Neurodevelopmental Disorders (also known as Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities-ID/DD) are associated with multiple-complex-health-conditions that, in contrast to children, are often not evaluated and/or managed properly as adults. The specialty of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics exists for children with ID/DD, but there is no equivalent specialty for the adults. Since Family Medicine has taken the lead in providing primary care for adults with ID/DD, we propose that Family Medic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410038
Stanislaw R. Burzynski, Gregory S. Burzynski, Tomasz Janicki and Samuel Beenken
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 08, 2021
Individuals suffering from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) face a dismal prognosis with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months, and a 2-year survival rate of 10%. Long-term survival is very rare. To date, radiotherapy remains the standard of care at diagnosis, but offers a survival benefit of approximately 3 months. Chemotherapy has not shown to be effective. There is no Standard of Care for progressive DIPG after radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this case report is t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410037
Isabel C Londoño, Luz Miriam Leiva and Hamilton Delgado Argote
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2021
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a rare disease, difficult to diagnose and treat. It is characterized by a progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction with typical onset in the first two decades of life and by a set of clinical manifestations such as speech disturbance, focal or generalized dystonia, pigmentary retinopathy associated with mild cognitive impairment. 10-year-old male patient, who until this age was managed under a diagnosis of cerebral palsy sequelae with poor respon...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410034
Joshua Hendrix and Zhenggang Xiong
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 10, 2020
Pilocytic astrocytomas are tumors of the central nervous system mostly during the first two decades of life. Although they are mostly common in the midline structures of children, pilocytic astrocytoma within the ventricular system of an adult is rare. To our knowledge, only one single histologically and molecularly confirmed case was documented in the literature up to this time. We report a case of a 38-yearold woman with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a brain tumor within the third ven...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410035
Marco Antônio Machado Schlindwein, Letícia Caroline Breis, Isabelle Pastor Bandeira and Marcus Vinicius Magno Gonçalves, MD, PhD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 16, 2020
COVID-19 is an emergent disease with reported neurotropism and neuroinvasion, although its pathophysiology is not yet understood. We present the newly discoveries and hypothesis for SARS-Cov-2 neurological infection. Recently, the first case of encephalopathy associated with SARS-COV2 infection described was published. The patient rapidly progressed from fever and cough to an altered mental status, headache and unresponsive to verbal commands, with no alterations in the liquor, suggesting that t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410033
Gopi Battineni, Nalini Chintalapudi and Francesco Amenta
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2020
Machine Learning (ML) is a contemporary technique of artificial intelligence. These methods are exponentially rising in the medical field, especially in diagnosis and disease predictions. The present study was aimed to develop a decision tree model to predict late-life Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A dataset of 150 subjects along with 373 MRI sessions demographic values were considered in this paper. Pruned decision trees (J48) were employed to do predictive analysis on AD subjects. Model validati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410032
BAKOU Niangoran Francois, KPI-N'DIH Annabelle, BA Abdoulaye and ADOU Kobenan Fieni
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 04, 2019
The method used is that of named Route Learning Task (RLT). It is a path learning task (topographic memory) that is based solely on learning a route composed of visual but non-verbal cues so that there is no influence of Examiner language or signposts on patient behavior. At a normal walking pace, the subjects had to travel a 10-minute loop in the cocody university hospital. The route (approximately 200 m) included 7 crossings that required an orientation decision. The examiner showed the route ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410031
Juliana Emy Tolachinski Oikawa, Julia Gomes Leite de Souza, Vitoria Caroline Cardoso Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Wille, MD, PhD, Laura Fiuza Parolin, MD and Marcus Vinícius Magno Goncalves, MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2019
Optic perineuritis (OPN) is a rare inflammatory disease involving the optic nerve sheath, causing pain and disc edema and is often bilateral. The diagnosis of OPN is commonly based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features. In MRI it is possible to visualize a circumferential enhancement around the intraorbital optic nerve with preservation of the nerve itself (doughnut sign). This is better seen in contrast-enhanced and suppressed coronal MRI sequences with fat. Magneti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410030
Valerio Massimo Magro, MD, Carla Coppola, MD, Giovanni Scala, MD and Walter Verrusio, MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 28, 2019
Pneumocephalus or air within the cranial vault is usually associated with a series of symptoms caused by head trauma, the presence of neoplasms or after craniofacial surgical interventions or other causes. We report a case report of an elderly patient who presented with postural instability with an anamnestic history that didn’t talk about traumatic events. We review briefly the literature for nontraumatic causes causes of pneumocephalus, its symptoms and clinical manifestations and finally th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410029
Nuria Trallero, Ariadna Anunciacion-Llunell, Roger Prades and Teresa Tarrago
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2019
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a cytosolic serine protease with prominent expression in the brain. Inhibition of this enzyme leads to cognition-enhancing and neuroprotective effects in animal models with cognitive deficits. However, the biological function of POP remains unknown. Although in the past it was though that its catalytic activity was responsible for its physiological role, lately it has been hypothesized that POP is involved in the inositol pathway and that it interacts with several ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410028
Ozlem Kazan Kizilkurt, Buket Niflioglu, Fusun Mayda Domac and Sermin Kesebir
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2019
complex relationship exists between mood and pain, which is supported by different pain tolerance in clinically depressed patients compared to healthy people. In the present study we aimed to investigate pressure pain threshold (PPT) in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients and assess any differences between these two diagnoses. This study included 40 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression and 89 patients diagnosed with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria, also 40 healthy, age...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410027
Rascon-Ramirez Fernando Jose Salazar-Asencio OA and Trondin A
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2019
Brain radiation necrosis (BRN) is a side effect of radiotherapy (RT), affecting mainly the white matter and can appear from a few weeks to several years after RT. It's incidence of 3-9% is increasing as survival increases. Histopathology (HP) shows avascular damage, demyelination and direct necrosis. Brain radiation radionecrosis and the tumor progression are difficult to differentiate as both entities are presented with similar radiological and clinical characteristics, such as neurological def...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410026
Andre Eduardo de Almeida Franzoi, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves, Osvaldo Nascimento and Jefferson Becker
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: November 30, 2018
During development, they enter the brain by way of penetrating blood vessels, with which they remain associated. MCs can move through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of normal brain, but may also traverse the blood-spinal cord barrier and BBB when compromised by disease. They are capable of phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and can also modulate the adaptive immune response....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410025
Cheryl A Frye, Anton Hardy and Maria Lifrak
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 22, 2018
Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) can result in physical, cognitive and emotional symptoms and the constellation of sequelae that can linger for years and is termed post-concussion syndrome (PCS). For these ailments, therapy is available to help individuals recover; however, it is controversial whether cognitive rehabilitation can improve or forestall lost or damaged abilities. It is important to clarify this because insurances companies can be reluctant to pay for this treatment. To test the effic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410024
Juan Carlos Cespedes, Mingli Liu, Adriana Harbuzariu, Annette Nti, John Onyekaba, Hanna Watson Cespedes, Praveen K Bharti, Wesley Solomon, Precious Anyaoha, Sri Krishna, Andrew Adjei, Felix Botchway, Byron Ford and Jonathan K Stiles
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 10, 2018
Neuregulins, a family of EGF-like signaling molecules, are involved in cell-cell crosstalk and play an important role in development, maintenance and repair of the nervous system, heart, breast and other organs. Independent studies described a ligand for the oncogene ErbB2 (neu, Her2) and factors that stimulated proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as synthesis of receptors for acetylcholine by muscle. These ligands and factors are essentially products of the same gene, referred to by Marchio...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510023
SM Jay and MR MacFarlane
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2018
A 31-year-old male presented with a 4-month history of rising intracranial pressure. Initial computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles with periventricular signal change, an indistinct third ventricle with an ill-defined lesion in the anterosuperior part of the third ventricle. At time of operation two paired/dual colloid cysts were found lying side-by-side in the third ventricle and obstructing both foramena of Munro....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510022
Concomitant Behavioral, Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Study in Real Time on the Role of CRF and CRF Antagonist(S) in Anxiety and Depression: Possible Association CRF + 5-HT Receptor Antagonists?
Article Type: Research Proposal | First Published: February 08, 2018
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is involved in conditions of anxiety and stress: It stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Also, catecholamines increase ACTH release, while serotonin (5-HT) increases both ACTH and CRF. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510021
Rosanne Roelofsma and Eugene Rameckers
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 29, 2017
Former studies have shown that usual care in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) often lacks effectiveness. Task-oriented functional intensive therapies have been shown to be promising for CP patients. The present case study aimed to examine the effect of a task-oriented functional intensive therapy program....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510020
Anatoly A Mokrushin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 25, 2017
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) refers to antipsychotic drugs. CPZ is drug of first choice for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, its impact on the main excitatory neurotransmitter system, glutamatergic, is unclear. This issue is the aim of our study....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510019
Bruno Cabral de Lima Oliveira
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 11, 2017
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major disease leading to dementia. This disease is characterized by the presence of β-Amyloid (Aβ) extracellular deposits and neurofibrillary tangles, which induce senile plaques formation. Furthermore, inflammation in AD is mainly mediated by innate immunity-related cells, especially microglia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510018
Tetsuhisa Yamada and Yoshihiro Natori
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 27, 2017
Chronic subdural hematoma is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in neurosurgery. The treatment method is well established, but seizures develop as a complication in 2.3% to 20.4% of patients. We studied patients with seizures to clarify the status of patients at the onset of seizures and define risk factors for seizures....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510017
Mianwang He, Xiaolin Wang and Shengyuan Yu
Article Type: Editorial Letter | First Published: December 23, 2016
A 51-years-old man who had developed severe phobia, anxiety since took illicit drugs twice 10 years ago, subsequently palpitation and shortness of breath appeared, having a continuous feeling that someone would attack him and he would die soon. Only mastication can partially relieve phobia and anxiety, and continuous involuntary mastication habit with left side teeth was developed. Anxiety and depression diagnosis was made by local clinic, but he didn't take the prescribed drugs....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510016
Gang Yao, Ping Wang, Xiang-Dan Luo and Ting-Min Yu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 06, 2016
Despite recent research focus on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and epilepsy there is no consensus about the findings. To obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the association we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in epilepsy patients and healthy controls. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and CINAHL were searched to identify eligible studies. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510015
Bernhard J Mitterauer
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 03, 2016
Major depressive disorder is basically a disorder of the integration of distinct time periods generated in tripartite synapses and the astroglial networks. If the sequence of time periods is dysregulated, the patient does not only suffer from emotional impairment but also from cognitive deficits dependent on the brain region affected. Since the synaptic interactions operate on feedforward and feedback mechanisms, I speak of synaptic locations of self-observation in real time periods, information...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510014
Guixing Xu, Ping Xu, Jing Zhao, Zhiyong Guo and Xiaoshun He
Article Type: Prospective Observational Study | First Published: August 25, 2016
In this prospective observational study, we collected clinical data of acute neurocritical patients with a potential progression to BD, who was admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sen University from May 2015 to April 2016. Final endpoint was adjudicated brain death (BD). The clinical data were compared between patients who identified as BD within 7 days and those who identified beyond 7 days, the time of spontaneous respiratory arrest as start point. Neurological examination, l...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510013
Marquis L Jessie, Lili C Kudo, Nancy Vi, Kimbley Lau, Mina Desai, Michael G Ross and Stanislav L Karsten
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2016
Maternal undernutrition (UN) in rats inhibits neurologic development in offspring. To investigate these alterations we compared hippocampal global gene expression profiles of UN and control newborn pups. Whole transcriptome microarray analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of several genes including Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), a known neuro developmental regulatory factor. Expression of Ngn1 in the UN hippocampus was nearly 70% reduced. Western blot analysis using antibodies against Ngn...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510012
Christina B Young, Philip van Eijndhoven, Robin Nusslock, Guillen Fernandez, Aart Schene, Christian F Beckmann and Indira Tendolkar
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 22, 2016
Despite considerable research on the pathophysiology of unipolar depression, relationships between gray and white matter brain changes associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have been sparsely investigated. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics to examine differences in fronto-limbic gray matter volume and their connecting white matter tracts, respectively....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510011
Gerald T Voelbel, Zijin Wu, Cristina Tortarolo and Marsha E Bates
Article Type: Empirical Research | First Published: May 26, 2016
Individuals with chronic substance use disorders have demonstrated various types of executive dysfunction, including nonverbal planning and problem solving. Prior studies that have examined the cognitive abilities that support performance of the Tower of Hanoi, a measure of nonverbal planning and problem solving task, have predominately been investigated in healthy adult populations. The present study examined how executive functions such as concept formation and cognitive flexibility, as well a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510010
Arzu Ekici, Kursat Bora Carman, Ozlem Ozdemir, Aynur Kucukcongar and Mehmet Ali Ekici
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 18, 2016
Marin-Amat syndrome is a rare facial synkinesis and is characterized by the eyelid drooping on jaw opening. It is mostly an acquired phenomenon occurring after peripheral facial paralysis and very rarely congenital. Asymmetrical crying face is a rare minor congenital anomaly, that is the result of unilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle. Our case is the second one in which the onset of Marin-Amat Syndrome is congenital and the first case with asymmetric crying face....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510009
Kilinc O, Gulatar B, Gonul O, Yildizhan B and Midi I
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 26, 2016
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis is well-characterized and treatable subtype of inflammatory encephalitis. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women and characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion and psychological disturbances. In this report, we presented a case of anti-NMDAr encephalitis in a woman with a previously asymptomatic, giant posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (AC). With our report, we present our clinical approac...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510008
Shanshan Lu, Fushun Wang and Jason H. Huang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 09, 2016
Multiple lines of studies support the view that defective functions of astrocytes contribute to neuronal hyper-excitability in the epileptic brain. Autopsy and surgical resection specimens find that post-traumatic seizures and chronic temporal lobe epilepsy may originate from glial scars. Astrogliosis, a component of glial scar, which involves structural and metabolic changes in astrocytes, is often a prominent feature of temporal epilepsy and most animal models of recurrent seizures. Although g...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510007
Paola Caruso, Moretti R and Manganotti P
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2015
Data from literature on clinical manifestation of thalamic strokes have been published for ages. First in 1906 Dejerine e Roussy has spoken about sensory motor disturbances and have opened the door to new pathologic disorders that may occur after thalamic lesions. From 1925 behavior and speech disorders related with thalamic injury were described. Since then a classification of thalamic syndromes into four groups based on the four main arterial territories was accepted. As we know thalamic strok...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510006
Lescuyer Sylvain, Rondeau-Lutz Murielle, Martinez Camille, Rakotoarivelo Hanta-Nirina and Weber Jean-Christophe
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 22, 2015
We report the case of a 43 year-old patient with Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). He was diagnosed with EGPA because of asthma, naso-sinusal polyposis, asymmetrical peroneal neuritis, general signs, eosinophilic count at 4000/mm3, CRP at 50 mg/l and positive pANCA with anti-MPO specificity at 74 U/ml. Arteriography was normal. He was treated by methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Remission was complete. EGPA is a rare primary vasculitis. Only seventeen cases of central nervous haemorrhages h...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510005
Sneha Padidam, Jacqueline Kraft and M Kamran Athar
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 8, 2015
60-year-old man presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness that progressed to involve respiratory failure and are flexia over several weeks. Electromyography showed both demyelinating and axonal features. Lumbar puncture revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis. Given the abnormalities on these tests with a clinical picture of Guillain-Barre the patient underwent extensive paraneoplastic testing and full neuro-axis imaging. Imaging revealed abnormal enhancement of ventral and dorsal nerve roo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510004
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2015
The main point here is that CES method employ at both practices systematic applications of non-invasive, harmless electric currents in the range of 50 micro-to 2 milliamper, varying from 10 Hz to 100 kHz frequencies. They inject from 10 ms to 250 ms by each scalp pair out of an array of EEG electrodes transporting to regions of interest. Such electromagnetic forces induce equivalent number of ionic oscillatory streams crossing the brain in calibrated coulombs. Optimal control regulates by number...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510003
Melissa Ann Eppinger, Thomas J. Sernas and Catherine Anne Mazzola
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: September 9, 2015
Spasticity and dystonia may develop as a consequence of brain or spinal cord injury (SCI). Central nervous system (CNS) injury may be permanent or temporary, depending on the etiology of brain or spinal cord injury. In anoxic brain injury, there may be transient or reactive demyelination due to cell death or cell dysfunction. If there is ischemia without true infarction, or cell death, there may be some ability of the brain to repair itself or reconstitute the myelination of axons within the whi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510002
Michela Visani, Giorgia Acquaviva, Gianluca Marucci, Moira Ragazzi, Enrico Fraceschi, Alba A Brandes, Giovanni Tallini, Annalisa Pession and Dario de Biase
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 27, 2015
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs involved in regulation of several cellular processes and are involved in the silencing of cell's message in a variety of ways. In cancer, miRNAs can be involved in the regulation of important genes involved in tumorigenesis, tumor development, and angiogenesis. For these reasons, miRNAs could have considered oncogenic-miR (miRNA with oncogenic roles) or oncosuppressor-miR (miRNA with tumor suppressor roles). MiRNAs may alter the expression of genes involved in c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510001
Menarvia Nixon, Anil Nanda and Hugo Cuellar-Saenz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2015
We describe a case of ECA steal syndrome due to occipital- vertebral anastamosis in an 81 y/o female patient who presented with gait ataxia and dizziness. She was referred to Neuro-interventional Radiology after discovery of carotid bruits on her physical examination. A digital subtraction angiogram confirmed mild internal carotid artery stenosis, however, more concerning was the discovery of retrograde flow of the right vertebral artery with filling of the right external carotid artery via anas...
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