International Journal of Transplantation Research and Medicine provides a forum of information on the latest advances and new findings in the field of transplantation and medicine. This journal covers varied specializations of transplantation which under open access category provides the readers with wealth of information.
International Journal of Transplantation Research and Medicine is a peer-reviewed open access journal that ensures the faster publication of high quality articles. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJTRM under open access category provides its global readers with free access to its content, thus serving the scientific community.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510045
Natacha Rodrigues, Filipe Rodrigues, Alice Santana and Pedro Neves
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 21, 2019
The definition of Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) has suffered significant changes over the last decade as our knowledge on the matter grows. The complexity of this subject is even bigger if you consider renal transplant recipients (RTRs) - they already have a legacy of CKD-MBD previous to transplant, their bones will be under the direct and indirect effects of immunosuppression and they will develop CKD-MBD secondary to their graft (dis) function. All these issues occur...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510043
Preemptive Cautions Prior to Final Intestinal Transplantation: Four Golden Criteria in Predicting the Outcome and Long- Term Survival of Short Bowel Syndrome: Is the Remaining Bowel Length is at or above 50 Cm? Can Patient Survive Over 24 Months in spite of any Complications? Younger Age? and Lesser Accompanying Co-Morbidity?
Ethem Unal, MD
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: August 26, 2019
The principal aim at the initial surgery is to preserve life, then to preserve gut length, and maintain its continuity. In the immediate postoperative period, there needs to be a balance between keeping the patient alive through the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and antisecretory agents, and promoting gut adaptation with the use of oral nutrition. If following this, the patient still has a short bowel syndrome (SBS), then the principal options remain either long term TPN, or intestinal...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510042
Reslem Feitosa Custódio, Matheus De Souza Mendes, Maximilian Pinho Schwermann, Ivelise, Ivelise Regina Canite Brasil, Jose Eudes Bastos Pinho and Andrea Benevides Leite
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 29, 2019
Orthotopic Liver transplantation is the primary treatment for most end-stage-liver diseases. Victims of snakebite are potential organ donors since the venom's ability to induce irreversible brain damage. However, in the literature, reports of liver transplants obtained from victims of these accidents, their outcome and follow up are practically non-existent. Our purpose is to report a case of a donor with brain death following complications of a bothropic accident, and the patient who receives t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510041
Jorge Morales Pedraza
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 04, 2019
The donation of human tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of human organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners' system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this vital goal, national competent health authorities should consider the establishment of a mechanism that promotes the broadest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organiz...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510040
Hanna Wisniewska, Marta Bander, Dorota Bander, Aleksandra Biront, Samir Zeair and Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 11, 2019
Vitamin D deficiency can cause many health problems and higher mortality. Chronic liver disease impairs vitamin D status by various mechanisms. The aim of our study was to estimate and directly compare vitamin D status in liver recipients before and within six months after LT to see whether there is an impact of restoration of proper liver function on 25(OH)D concentration. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was determined and compared in the group of 110 adult patients before and within six months aft...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510039
Mahendra Narain Mishra, David Turner, Puja Dudeja and Vandana Lal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 07, 2019
Prior to 2013, most centers in India performed only Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDCXM) for detection of donor specific antibodies. This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of Luminex based crossmatch (LXM) for pretransplant detection of HLA class I and II donor specific IgG antibodies in patients with end stage renal disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510038
Sema Yuksekdag, Ahmet Topcu and Ethem Unal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2019
The first choice for hemodialysis access in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients is native arteriovenous fistulas (AVF). In all over the world, the experience and cumulative data gained from CRF patients yielded KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) guidelines and it was revised in 2015, stating that the main goal is creating an AVF at the most distal part of the non-dominant arm. The present study aims to represent our experience in AVF operations with preliminary results....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510037
Kenneth A Softness, Ahmed ElSabbagh, Alexander Kroemer, Jason Hawksworth, Cal S Matsumoto, Thomas Fishbein and Raffaele Girlanda
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 26, 2018
Infections are frequent complications after liver transplantation. The impact of surgical site infections on patient outcome remains unclear. The aim of our retrospective study is to analyze the incidence and predictors of surgical site infections after liver transplant at our program and to determine their impact on patient outcome. Twenty-four (9.5%) surgical site infections were recorded among 252 liver transplants performed between January 2011 and December 2013. Among perioperative variable...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510036
Kada AY, Kastali M and Bouyoucef KA
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 25, 2018
Brain death is the cause of a major systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) affecting all organs and responsible for part of their primary dysfunction and their lower survival after transplantation. Kidney failure (AKI: Acute Kidney Injury) is one of those consequences, it may be the cause of post-transplant complications if it is not supported quickly....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510035
Phillips BL, Forman CJ and Banga NR
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2018
This is a case report examining a urine leak and ureteric stricture following pediatric dual en-bloc renal transplantation. Despite intraoperative ureteric stenting, and post-operative nephrostomy, urinary leak continued. Both grafts grew in size from 5 cm at implantation, to 9.5 cm within 3 months. Ureteric reconstruction would expose the patient to unacceptable risk of losing both grafts, due to the close proximity of the ureters....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510034
Alexandru Mogaldea, Karolina Theodoridis, Klaus Hoffler, Axel Haverich, Andres Hilfiker and Serghei Cebotari
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2017
The surgical treatment of end-stage chronic venous insufficiency involves valvular repair or transplantation to restore venous valve function and structure. Current valve substitutes can have issues with durability, thrombogenicity, susceptibility to infection, and a lack of growth potential. Therefore, the development of tissue-engineered venous valves represents a promising solution....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510033
Olga Blau, Axel Nogai, Kathrin Rieger, Lutz Uharek, Antonio Pezzutto, Eckard Thiel and Igor Wolfgang Blau
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 12, 2017
Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GvHD) remains a major complication of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (alloSCT). Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG), however, reduces the incidence and severity of GvHD after alloSCT. A small number of studies suggest a role for ATG in Match-Related Donor (MRD) alloSCT. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of acute and chronic GvHD, engraftment, survival, and mortality in patients who received ATG prior to MRD alloSCT....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510032
Yip AMC, Chong AY, Stadnick E, Davies RA, Haddad H, Mielniczuk LM and Sharon Chih
Article Type: LITERATURE REVIEW | First Published: August 11, 2017
The majority of coronary artery fistulas are congenital and discovered incidentally on coronary angiography. Coronary artery fistulas may also develop after cardiac transplantation as a complication of endomyocardial biopsies. The natural history and optimal management of post-transplant coronary artery fistulas are uncertain....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510031
Shennen A Mao, Jaime M Glorioso, Faysal M Elgilani, Silvana B De Lorenzo, Michael C Deeds, Dominique Seetapun, Brian Perrault, Bruce P Amiot, Anisha Singh, Clara T Nicolas, Yujia Wang, E Heidi Cheek, Taofic Mounajjed, Allan B Dietz, Jeff J Ross and Scott L Nyberg
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 12, 2017
Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease. With only 6000 donor livers available each year nationally, the need far exceeds the supply. Innovative cell-based therapies, such as hepatic tissue engineering, offer alternatives to supplement the limited supply of quality organs for transplantation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510030
Lorena Noriega-Salas and Sinhue Escalona-Delgado
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2017
A 27-years-old female with end stage kidney disease, received a deceased donor kidney transplant, the induction immunosuppression consisted in polyclonal anti-lymphocyte therapy. The maintenance therapy included plus to the immunosuppressive drugs, valganciclovir as prophylaxis of CMV....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510029
Tori Tucker, Kevin Labadie, Christopher Kopan, Michael Alexander and Jonathan RT Lakey
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2017
Over the years, pancreatectomy has been the primary treatment for chronic pancreatitis. Since the 1970s, total pancreatectomy has been shown to be effective at relieving pain that was experienced due to chronic pancreatitis. However, total pancreatectomy alone has the significant side effect of post-surgical diabetes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510028
Walker A Julliard, Keith C Meyer, Satoru Osaki, James D Maloney, Richard D Cornwell, David A Sonetti, Mehgan Holland and Nilto C De Oliveira
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 08, 2017
The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Lung Allocation Score (LAS) adopted in April 2005 to prioritize lung transplantation for patients at high risk of dying without a transplant may adversely affect outcomes for patients transplanted for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510027
Maria Claudia Rodrigues Moreira, Adriana Bonomo, Suzana A Pinheiro-da-Silva, Andrea Cordovil Pires, Rômulo Gonçalves Galvani, Daniela de Oliveira Pinto, Eliana Abdelhay and Maria Isabel Doria Rossi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2017
Alterations in immune reconstitution have been implicated with the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. Since T cells are important mediators in this disease, the aim of this study was to search for a biologic marker for cGVHD moderate and severe forms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510026
Fontsere S, Chacon N and Cordero E
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 13, 2017
Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence of between 25%-75%. This varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510025
Supriya Bhat, Maria Bembi, Sivagini Ganesh and Emily Blodget
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 29, 2017
Ochroconis is a darkly pigmented "black mold", which is thermotolerant and found in soil as well as in decaying vegetables, hot springs, cave rocks and Paleolithic paintings. It is known to cause encephalitis in domestic poultry, but there are increasing reports of it being a human pathogen....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510024
B Daniel Campos, Natalia Velez-Ramos, Stephanie M Smith, Colin Lenihan and Marc L Melcher
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 09, 2017
Long-term lithium therapy is known to cause renal dysfunction, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (nDI) and chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in approximately 1% of patients. We report a case of resolution of lithium-induced nDI following living related kidney transplantation for ESRD secondary to chronic lithium toxicity....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510023
Manuel Muro, Santiago Llorente, Jose A Galian, Francisco Boix, Jorge Eguia, Gema Gonzalez-Martinez, Maria R Moya-Quiles and Alfredo Minguela
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: October 22, 2016
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in allograft transplantation can be defined with a rapid increase in the levels of specific serological parameters after organ transplantation, presence of donor specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, blood group (ABO) antigens and/or endothelial cell antigens (e.g. MICA, ECA, Vimentin, or ETAR) and also particular histological parameters....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510022
Ana Carolina Alba, Eva Bain, Nicholas Ng, Madeleine Stein, Kathleen O'Brien, Farid Foroutan and Heather Ross
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 10, 2016
For selected patients living with the most advanced stages of heart failure, cardiac transplantation is considered the gold-standard treatment, providing substantial improvements in survival and quality of life. However, heart transplantation is not without risk, and almost all transplant recipients will suffer some form of complication, from mild to potentially fatal,and should be informed of this prior to transplant....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510021
Abby S Kazley, Raj Amarnath, Arun Palanisamy, David Taber, Kenneth Chavin, Prabhakar Baliga and Wendy Balliet
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 21, 2016
Living kidney donors have emerged as the best option to overcome the severe shortage of transplantable kidneys. A growing number of these living donor kidneys come from anonymous altruistic donors who are not related to the recipients according to UNOS data. This study examines the process of anonymous altruistic kidney donation and identifies barriers and variance in transplant center practices. Using a mock patient caller, 73 transplant centers were contacted and asked about the process of alt...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510020
Ethem Unal and Aylin Acar
Article Type: Editorial Letter | First Published: July 17, 2016
he profound organ shortage has resulted in longer waiting times and increased mortality for those awaiting kidney transplantation. Consequently, patients are turning to older living donors. It is unclear if an upper age limit for donation should exist, both in terms of recipient and donor outcomes. However, there is a fact that surgery can present additional risks for older patients; this requires physicians to be especially careful about who they deem fit to undergo donor transplant procedures....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510019
Francine Attie de Castro, Vera Lucia Lanchote and Belinda Pinto Simoes
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2016
Individualization of busulfan (BU) dosing during pre-transplant conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been performed worldwide for more than a decade. The pharmacokinetic parameters of BU show high variability and studies report that high plasma concentrations (> 900 ng/mL) are associated with sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS), whereas low plasma concentrations (< 600 ng/mL) are associated with graft rejection and/or disease recurrence....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510018
Gayathri Kumarasinghe, Arjun Iyer, Mark Hicks, Alasdair Watson, Hong Chew, Ling Gao, Jeanette Villanueva, Andrew Jabbour, Eugene Kotlyar, Christopher S Hayward, Anne M Keogh, Emily Granger, Paul C Jansz, Kumud K Dhital, Peter S Macdonald and Phillip Spratt
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2016
With the increasing success of heart transplantation, older and higher-risk donors and recipients are being accepted for transplantation. The risk of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is thus increased. We investigated a 'pharmacological conditioning' strategy, where Celsior preservation solution supplemented with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and erythropoietin (EPO) was used for cardioplegia and hypothermic storage, and determined graft recovery and patient survival after cardiac transplantation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510017
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 28, 2016
Skin disease is a significant cause of morbidity in chronically immunosuppressed patients, including organ transplant recipients. Cutaneous neoplasms are much more common in renal transplant recipients than in the general population, and are the most common malignancies in these patients. Better surgical techniques and recent advances in immunosuppressive therapy allow patients to survive for many years, free from any complications due to rejection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510016
Sashi G Kasmisetty, Alana Shigeoka, Reza Elahimehr, Andrew Scheinok and Dianne B McKay
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2016
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex consisting of the sensor molecule NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), the adaptor molecule Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1. Molecules with conserved molecular motifs trigger the assembly of the inflammasome and lead to maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines that induce a mature inflammatory response. Emerging data suggest that inflammasome activation i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510015
Megan Berger, Melena Bellin, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg and Srinath Chinnakotla
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 19, 2015
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an uncommon diagnosis in children, with an estimated incidence of fewer than 0.5 cases per 100,000 in patients younger than 25 years. Chronic pancreatitis in children most commonly results from genetic mutations, including mutations in the PRSS1, SPINK1, and CFTR genes. A recent multinational cross-sectional study of children with chronic pancreatitis demonstrated genetic etiology in upwards of 67% of cases while obstructive etiology including biliary calculi and con...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510014
Megan Berger, Gregory J Beilman, Ty Dunn, David Sutherland and Srinath Chinnakotla
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 02, 2015
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive and irreversible process that can lead to pain, pancreatic dysfunction, and even malignancy. Management can be difficult, with some patients proving refractory to standard medical or endoscopic treatments. These patients generally depend on narcotics to manage their symptoms. Total pancreatectomy and Islet Auto-Transplantation (TP-IAT) can offer relief for such patients by removing the root cause of their pain. The pancreas is entirely resected and islets ar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510013
Paul Alexander, Emma Aitken, David Mansouri and David Kingsmore
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2015
The benefits of renal transplantation are now more accessible to older, more comorbid patients. Currently, those with peripheral vascular disease are often excluded partly due to the theoretical risk of post transplantation limb ischemia, where blood is diverted away from an already under-perfused leg. This study aims to determine if renal transplantation affects lower limb perfusion....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510012
Behairy El-Sayed Behairy, Hatem Abdel-Sattar Konsowa, Haidy Mohammed Zakaria, Osama Hegazy Abd-Elsalam and Mostafa Mohamed Sira
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2015
The study was a retrospective cohort. It included 27 pediatric patients underwent liver transplantation (LTx). All patients' records were reviewed. A wide range of potential risk factors for infection and post-transplant complications were recorded. Follow-up data were collected for 1.5 years post-transplant, every infection attack during this period were subjected to detailed risk analysis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510011
Humberto C Gonzalez, Paige E Morgan, Sheila Jowsey, Laura J Myhre, Adriana Vasquez and Kymberly D Watt
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 09, 2015
Bipolar disorder and end stage liver disease commonly intersect and their management may include evaluation for liver transplantation. Psychiatric illness may impair adherence to medical regimens jeopardizing the allograft, thus, generating divided opinions by liver transplant selection committees whether transplantation is even possible in this scenario. There is very limited data about the optimal management of bipolar disorder before and after liver transplantation. We analyze a case series o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510010
Gregor Mlinsek, Alexander Jerman, Damjan Kovac, Jelka Lindic, Miro Mihelic, Nikola Lakic, Aljosa Kandus and Jernej Pajek
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 22, 2015
Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well recognized complication of kidney transplantation. Hypertension with or without an increasing creatinine level is the most common presentation. Recognition of TRAS is important because it represents a potentially reversible cause of hypertension, allograft loss and adverse patient outcome. Here we report a demanding case of TRAS in a kidney transplant recipient who received a pediatric kidney. The complicated course included conservative therapy,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510009
Mohamed S. A. Mohamed
Article Type: Retrospective Study | First Published: August 20, 2015
Heart failure is the end result of various cardiac diseases that might be of ischemic or non-ischemic etiology. Implantation of ventricular assisting devices has been introduced as a bridge to heart transplantation, when heart failure reaches a critical degree of decompensation. The ischemic background of heart failure was suggested to have a protective effect in comparison to the non-ischemic background, based on the principles of ischemic conditioning....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510008
Athanasia Mouzaki, Marios I Garyfallou and Kokona Chatzantoni
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 13, 2015
In severe, drug-resistant Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT) was introduced as a treatment option about 20 years ago. Application of autologous SCT is based on the assumption that MS is not inherited in a Mendelian fashion and the auto reactive immune system can be replaced by a healthy one. Allogeneic SCT ensures that all leukocytes are of donor origin, but is applied rarely. Both approaches are fraught with problems resulting, mainly, from the high-intensity pre-transplan...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510007
Jose M. Borro, Maria Delgado, Teresa Rey and Pablo Rama
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 04, 2015
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent opportunistic infection after lung transplantation. It is reported in between 20% and 50% of cases after discontinuation of prophylaxis, depending on the series. CMV usually remains dormant in the lymphatic system, and its reactivation, due to immunosuppressive therapy, may have considerable adverse consequences in the immunocompromised host. Its many and varied effects include inflammation, increased morbidity, and decreased graft and patien...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510006
Kathryn Milks, Sriyesh Krishnan, Melanie Caserta, Robert J Stratta and Hisham Tchelepi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 20, 2015
Urothelial carcinoma in renal transplant patients has been well described, particularly in the Asian literature, owing to the higher incidence of the disease in this part of the world, both in the native urothelial system and in the transplanted kidney. In the United States, however, urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplant is quite rare in the native urothelial system and extraordinarily rare in the renal allograft. It has been proposed in areas with a high incidence of urothelial carcinoma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510005
Manuel Muro, Francisco Boix, Jorge Eguia, Maria R. Moya-Quiles, Gema GonzalezMartinez and Santiago Llorente
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 06, 2015
Th true role of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody (DSA) response to a solid allograft is not fully understood. Recently, new serum-screening assays (mainly based in the luminex technology) have strongly increased and defined the detection and specificity analysis of DSA in allosensitized patients in waiting list of transplantation or in transplanted recipients....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510004
Kirk B. Russ and Ashwani K. Singal
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 02, 2015
Since the introduction of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 2002 for listing patients for liver transplantation, frequency and proportion of simultaneous liver kidney (SLK) transplantation has increased by over 300%. This is mainly due to incorporation of renal function and serum creatinine as one of the major factors in determining the MELD score. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510003
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 26, 2015
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access have defied the access related care for patients with end-stage renal disease . However, the standard of care across the world has fallen short of the KDOQI targets. One potential explanation for these shortcomings is the lack of compelling evidence in the literature to support the recommendations. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510002
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 23, 2015
Multiple Sclerosis usually affects young adults aged between 20 to 40 years, although it can begin earlier or later in life. Women are affected almost twice as often as men. Symptoms include sensory disturbances in the limbs, optic nerve dysfunction, pyramidal tract dysfunction, bladder or bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, ataxia and diplopia. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4045.1510001
Jay M. Pensler
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 16, 2015
Auto transplantation of adipose cells and adipose derived stem cells is an increasingly popular procedure in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Utilizing liposuction to harvest an individual's fat the lipo-aspirate that was once harvested, is purified prior to auto transplantation. A number of techniques including low speed centrifugation, decanting, and/or blotting the various layers of the aspirated are utilized to increase the harvest of multi-potential stem cells and adipose cells while removing col...
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