International Journal of Virology and AIDS is an open access peer reviewed journal that publishes, reviews, original research, news and views, articles, clinical reports, short communications, and letters to the editor and application studies across all fields of virology and publishes the very latest ground breaking research on AIDS. It deals with the various viruses involvement in humans followed by their replication to acquire immune deficiency syndrome, which became a major challenge for many scientist and doctors for treating deadly virus HIV. Main focus will be on various topics from classification of viruses, replication, host-phage interactions immunology, viral infections in humans to their treatment, advances in AIDS research and many more within the scope of subject.

The main objective of the journal is to act as a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. Through open access it expands shared knowledge across doctors; it provides the free, immediate, availability of the published work online. This journal also involved into publishing news with time by time developments and advances in research of various viral infections and their treatments, which helps users to understand the severity and precaution measures to be taken.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Virology and AIDS

ISSN: 2469-567X

Editor-in-chief: Abubaker ME Sidahmed

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Virol AIDS

ICV: 86.68

ISO abbreviation: Int J Virol AIDS

Other titles: IJVA

Category: Biological Science / General Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510094

Understanding Low Vaccine Uptake in African, Caribbean, and Black Populations Relative to Public Health in High-Income Countries: A Scoping Review Protocol

Josephine Etowa, Sheryl Beauchamp and Victoria Cole

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2024/03/21

Vaccination has significantly contributed to reducing once common and even deadly infectious diseases, yet vaccine hesitancy threatens the emergence of vaccine-preventable diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the need for the largest mass vaccination campaign ever undertaken to date; however, African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) populations have shown both a disproportionately high degree of negative impacts from the pandemic and the lowest willingness to become vaccinated. Low vaccination ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510093

Factors Associated with HIV/Tuberculosis Coinfection among People Living with HIV after Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment in Lingwala Health Zone from 2021 To 2023

Jean Claude Mikobi Maleshila, Espérant Ntambue Malu, Fabrice Sewolo, Tacite Kpanya Mazoba and Jean Nyandwe Kyloka

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2024/03/08

Around 8% of incident cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported among people living with HIV worldwide in 2022. Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV. Africa accounts for the majority of co-infection episodes, with over 50% of cases in some parts of southern Africa. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), around 9% of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) develop TB and 11% of TB patients are infected with HIV. The DRC is one of the 30 countries in the world bearing...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510092

Incidence and Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult on First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Gullele Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2023: A Retrospective Study in Selected Public Health Facilities

Masresha Wondimgezahu Shawangardew, MPH and Tefera Tezera, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/12/31

Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa that was most affected by the HIV epidemic. In response to HIV/AIDS, Ethiopia implemented the antiretroviral therapy program in an effort to preserve lives. However, the occurrence of first line ART failure has had an impact on the outstanding success documented in lowering morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to identify the incidence and predictors of first-line ART failure in selected public health facilities at Gullele sub ci...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510091

siRNA-Therapy for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV): A Novel Choice for HBV Treatment

Myra Sarfraz Iqbal

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/11/11

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a virus that may lead to chronic infection of the liver. Once infected, HBV may stay in the blood and liver for a lifetime. HBV is a non-retro virus that infects hepatocytes, with an underlying mechanism of converting its relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA), into closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The cccDNA then serves as a transcription template to transcribe viral RNAs utilizing the transcription factors meant for the host system's transcription....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510090

Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV Patients Attending Federal Medical Centre Asaba, Delta State

Odiase Edgar Onyeka, Olley Mitsan, Daniel Ohilebo Ugbomoiko, Theophilus Ogie Erameh, Ezekiel Dauda Gambo, Ofili Sandra Kanwulia, Muhammad Adamu Ibrahim and Paul Yiran Ntasin

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2023/10/09

Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health issue worldwide. Despite greater access to antiretroviral medication (ART), mortality in PLHIV remains high, with tuberculosis (TB) being the major cause of death. The rising prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection is concerning. Understanding the incidence of tuberculosis among HIV seropositive people...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510089

AI in the Management of HIV: Case Study Cameroon

ANGYIBA Serge Andigema, NGNOTOUOM NGNOKAM Tania Cyrielle, KOUDOM Patrice Landry and ABENA Jerry Vladimir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/07/19

With the spread of HIV, the world is currently confronting an unprecedented problem. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to the management of HIV is a hotly debated subject. Over 6,000 people are newly diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million people have the disease (CDC, 2020). HIV-positive individuals need ongoing medical care as their condition worsens in order to track the virus' development and ensure that the right therapy is being given...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510088

Cardiovascular Involvement in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

H.K. Aggarwal, Deepak Jain, P Harish, Shaveta Dahiya, Sandeep Kaur and Ashwani Kumar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/06/21

The present study was a cross-sectional, observational study carried out in a tertiary care centre from January 2021 to July 2022. 200 HIV positive individuals on HAART for atleast 2 years were included who underwent ECG, chest radiograph, 2D Echocardiography and CD4+ T cell count along with other routine investigations. Presence of cardiovascular involvement was determined on the basis of echocardiographic abnormalities and these findings were associated with demographic, haematological and bio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510087

Aids and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Report of a Case

López de la Cruz Denisse, Azucena Casanova Lara and María Valeria Jiménez Báez

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/06/15

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system and weakens the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases. Approximately 37.6 million people (about twice the population of New York) worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) according to data from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV-AIDS....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510085

Current Update of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

Behre Dari Mosa, Yasin Awol Wabe and Neja Awol Mohammed

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/04/19

Coronaviruses are group viruses belong to Corona viridae family the order Nidovirales, and the genus Coronavirus. They are the largest group of viruses causing respiratory infections. There are four genera under this family; Alpha coronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus, and Delta coronavirus....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510084

Thrombotic Microangiopathies as Initial Presentation of HIV: Two Case Reports and Literature Review

Rawan AlAgha

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 09, 2023

Thrombotic microangiopathies have been recently a recognizable presentation of patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Most of those who present similarly noted to have poor prognosis as majority have advanced HIV with low CD4 counts. It has postulated by some authors and researches that it should be recognized as an AIDS defining condition. Here we present two cases of adult males who presented with features of thrombotic microangiopathy and were diagnosed to have HIV for the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510083

The Intersection of Two Pandemics: Elucidating the Impact of COVID-19 Restrictions on HIV Services among Key Populations in Northeast Nigeria

Moses Katbi, Maryam Bello, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Amalachukwu Ukaere, Rachel Goldstein, Kent Klindera, Iyiola Faturiyele, Helina Meri, Homsuk Swomen and Adegboye Adeoye

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 05, 2022

The global impact of COVID-19 continues to affect all sectors, especially the healthcare sector. This retrospective study was conducted using data generated from routine program implementation in low and middle income setting across 2 north eastern states of Nigeria in sub- Saharan Africa....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510082

Sexual Health Code Mobile Application to Reduce Transmission of Sexual Diseases

Kadir Uludag

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 10, 2022

Sexual diseases are very common although many people are unaware of their high prevalence and potential risks of being infected by sexual diseases such as human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and gonococcal infection. Further, due to the associated social stigma with sexual diseases, individuals incline not to reveal their previous or current sexual diseases. Therefore, sexual diseases slowly spread among healthy individuals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510081

Atypical Toxoplasmosis and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV Infected Patients

Andrea Gutiérrez Villanueva, Alberto Díaz de Santiago, Sara De la Fuente Moral, Fernando Martínez Vera, Jesús Herráiz Jiménez, Rocío Velasco and Lucía Alba Alcántara

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 12, 2022

Concerning two cases of atypical toxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy coinfection in HIV-positive patients and due to the clinical and prognostic relevance of both entities, we decided to make a review of space-occupying lesions in the CNS in HIV patients. Both patients presented neurological symptoms and atypical intracranial lesions on imaging tests. On admission they were diagnosed with advanced stage HIV, so we made the differential diagnosis with the most frequent op...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510080

Prevalence and Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Distribution among HIV-Positive and -Negative Young Women Aged 20 to 37-Years-Old with Cervical Cancer in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Nanga Yessé Zinzendorf, Cablan Mian Asher, Zaba Flore Sandrine, Apete Tahou Sandrine, Brou Kouakou Pierre, Ouassa Timotée, Dotia Agathe, Lathro Serge Joseph and Agbessi-Kouassi Bra Thérèse

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 12, 2022

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the major etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Both human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are classified as carcinogens. We describe the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among HIVpositive and -negative women aged 20-37 years-old in Côte d’Ivoire. Women were recruited among those who come to the gynaecology department of the Military Hospital, Abidjan with a positive acetic acid test. HIV testing was performed on t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510079

Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 in HIV Patients Co-Infected with COVID-19

Rumpa Saha, Alpana Raizada, Pooja Dewan, Kirti Nirmal, Vikas Saini, Amir Maroof Khan, Narender Singh Mogha, Shweta Jain, Sunil Gomber and Narender Pal Singh

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 30, 2021

As the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope has been shown to be highly immunogenic and is the main target for neutralizing antibodies, the present pilot study aimed to evaluate the IgG antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in HIV seropositive patients coinfected with COVID 19. This cohort study was carried out in Delhi with HIV seropositive patients infected with COVID -19 whose 6 consecutive blood samples were collected after a gap of every 15 days starting at day 20 post Covid-19 ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510078

Structural Racism and HIV Risk: Low African American Male to Female Sex Ratio and HIV Diagnosis Rates by State

Leonard Anang Sowah, MBChB, MPH, FACP and Brittany Yerkes, PA, MSc

Article Type: Brief Communication | First Published: October 28, 2021

HIV diagnosis rates in the US differ significantly by race and ethnicity. There are also geographic differences in HIV diagnosis rates across US states and regions. The determinants of these differences are not always easy to disentangle. Some believe structural racism may contribute to the differences in HIV diagnosis by race. This may also explain state and regional variations in HIV diagnosis. Using data from the 2010 US census and 2010 HIV surveillance data from CDC we did a test to determin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510077

Management and Attitudes of Patients Victims Accidental Exposure to Blood at the Day Care Unit of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (Cameroon) From January 2007 to December 2016

Defo Defo, Emmanuel Armand Kouotou, Ulrich Nguena Feungue, Joseline Domo, Antonin Wilson Ndjitoyap Ndam, Dahlia Noelle Tounouga and Elie Claude Ndjitoyap Ndam

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 11, 2021

There is little data on Accidental Exposure to Blood (AEB) in Cameroon. to learn about the management of AEB among professional and non-professional patient at the day care unit of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé. This was a 10-year retrospective study in which data concerning socio-demographic characteristics, exposure and consultation circumstances, measures taken after the accident, the status of the source patient and of the patient consultant and the prescribed ARV protocol were analyzed. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510076

A Review on Interventions against COVID-19

Sintayehu Tsegaye Tseha

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 24, 2021

COVID-19 remains the main public health problem in the world. The major objective of this review is to discuss interventions that have been employed against COVID-19. The preventive and control measures that have been employed against COVID-19 include: staying at home, social and physical distancing, quarantine, washing hand with sanitizer, using face mask, immunization, timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In spite of its high false negative rate, real time-PCR remains the gold standa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510075

Prevalence of, and Factors Influencing First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure among Adult HIV Patients at Antiretroviral Treatment Clinic of Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, South Western, Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study, 2021

Gudisa Bereda and Gemechis Bereda

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2021

Antiretroviral treatment failure is defined as progression of disease and high risk of mortality after beginning of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. First-line ART failure has emerged as a growing concern. ART failure is a major challenge to HIV/AIDS management in resource-limited settings including Ethiopia where the diagnosis and management of ART failure is a key problem. Principal factors involving fist-line antiretroviral regimen failure include poor adherence to medication, younger a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510074

Subclinical Iron Overload Hampers the Beneficial Effect of Human Pegivirus (Hpgv) On Disease Progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infected Blood Donors

Debasish Chattopadhya, Alice Verghese, Uma Sharma and Arvind Rai

Article Type: Researc h Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

A prospective study on HIV-1 disease progression was undertaken in three HIV-1 infected blood donor subgroups at early asymptomatic stages: Those with HPgV co-infections (n = 60), with TTV co-infections (n = 48) and without the two co-infections (n = 54). Within each subgroup, both replacement and voluntary donors are examined. The markers of HIV-1 disease progression included the following virological and immunological parameters: Rate of increase in plasma HIV-1 viral load, rate of fall in CD4...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510073

Influenza A or COVID-19 Reinfection? Making the Right Diagnosis during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Njideka Udochi, MD, MPH, FAAFP, AAHIVS, Hazel Jones Parker, DNP, CRNP, AAHIVS and Melonie Owusu, BSN, RN

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 16, 2021

As the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) rages through the Unites States (US), it is coinciding with Influenza season, both being spread via respiratory droplets. Influenza symptoms such as cough, myalgia, and fever mirror symptoms of COVID-19. Reinfection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been described but is relatively rare. Several studies have described patients with long periods of positivity after initial COVID-19 infections. Disrupted care...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510072

The Transformation of Burnet’s Immune Surveillance Cells into Natural Killer Cells and its Circumstances

Joseph Geza Sinkovics and Joseph Csaba Horvath

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 17, 2020

In 1969 it was very difficult to explain the sudden unexpected appearance of some finely granulated large lymphoid cells that had been hidden in the human blood for over a full century, as they suddenly revealed themselves in our laboratory at M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston TX. At first, the hematopathologists considered these cells to be of monocytoid (M) derivation; by accidental misprint, instead of monocytoid noted as “macrophagic” in the legends. These new cells appeared clearly distin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510071

Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in HIV Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy at Lubango Pediatric Hospital- Angola

Ketha Francisco, Beatriz Pole, Sandra Tchiva, Thomas Ngwiri, Ruth Nduati, Lucy Mungai, David Gathara and Habbas Qadreh

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 24, 2020

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proved to be an important intervention in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality of HIV infected patients. As the use of ART increases, a number of studies have associate it to some metabolic complications including glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. Despite the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Africa and the recent increased access to Antiretroviral drugs, information on ART related insulin resistance and glucose metabolism in the Af...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510070

False Negative Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) Response in Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infected Blood Donors with Subclinical Iron Overload Developing High Incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis on Follow Up

Alice Verghese, Naveen Kumar Singh and Debasish Chattopadhya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 06, 2020

Tuberculin skin testing (TST) response as a predictive tool for development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infected subjects, is likely to be more valuable at early stage of illness in order to adapt timely management strategy. Earlier reports on HIV-1 infected blood donors with history of oral iron intake and biochemical evidence of iron overload documented development of high incidence of PT on follow up. A group of HIV-1 infected asymptomatic blo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510069

Virologic Response among Key Populations Living With HIV following a Switch to Dolutegravir-Based Regimen in Southern Nigeria

Moses Katbi, Adefisayo O Adedoyin, Maryam Bello, Adeoye Adegboye, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Abiye Kalaiwo, Kent Klindera, Iyiola Faturiyele, Tolu Alamu, Homsuk Swomen, Bartholomew Ochonye, Michele Russell, Abdulmalik Abubakar and Babatunji Odelola

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 05, 2020

Achieving optimal virologic suppression among key population groups is essential to HIV epidemic control. The recommendation to transition HIV positive key populations from efavirenz-based regimen (Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Efavirenz (TLE)) to dolutegravir-based regimen (Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Dolutegravir (TLD)) considered the effectiveness of dolutegravir in achieving suppressed viral loads within a short period of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the virologic outcome of key popula...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510068

Closing the Gap in Pediatric HIV Case Finding: A Review of the PASS Strategy in Southern Nigeria

Moses Katbi, Doreen Magaji, Tessie Philips-Ononye, Emnet Aberra, Maryam Bello, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Rebecca Carthcart, Adeoye Adegboye, Abiye Kalaiwo, Angela Agweye, Akinyemi Atobatele, Abdulmalik Abubakar, Homsuk Swomen, Temitayo Odusote, Onyeka Igboelina and Michele Russell

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 24, 2020

Achieving optimal treatment for all groups of individuals living with HIV is essential to attaining epidemic control. About 191,395 children and adolescents under 19 are living with HIV (C/ALHIV) with only 46,461 (24%) on treatment in Nigeria. In order to close this treatment gap, the pediatric ART saturation strategy (PASS), was developed between care and treatment team and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) team to ensure identification and treatment of C/ALHIV and return of children who we...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510067

Emerging and Re-Emerging Viral Diseases: The Case of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)

Gedif Meseret Abebe

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020

Infectious viral diseases are the never-ending challenge that can emerge or re-emerge in unpredictable regions and at unpredictable times. Human beings are facing an intractable problem in unexpected time and place due to these viral diseases. Human, ecological, and viral related factors are the contributing factors in the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Travel, mass gathering, urbanization, fragile or deteriorated health systems, weak disease surveillance system, limited ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510066

Sapling and Handling of COVID-19 Patients in India

Nihar Gupta, Shweta Bahadure, Obaid Noman and Arvind Bhake

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 27, 2020

This is a review article on how we can sample the COVID-19 patients, what samples can be obtained, what are the procedures to collect those samples and the precautions some laboratory personnel need to take while processing the samples. This review article mainly focuses on the various methods used in India while sampling COVID-19 patients. For now, RT-PCR is the most reliable test for COVID-19 detection. Few rapid test kits were introduced by ICMR, but now have been withdrawn as they were showi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510065

A Review on Remdesivir: An Alternative Antiviral Drug to Fight against COVID-19

Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Sandeep Shukla and Archna Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2020

Coronavirus contamination that was found in mid-2019 has just hampered the world’s motivation up until now. The quantity of irresistible cases has become worldwide to 35 lakhs thus the episode has been portrayed as a pandemic by the planet’s wellbeing association, yet there have not been any “particular medications” or antibodies accessible to date. Applicable reports have distinguished a novel coronavirus with 80% homology. So there are not many signs accessible when different nations a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510064

Vitamin D: A Review and Proposed Evidence for Treatment or Prevention in COVID-19

Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Sandeep Shukla and Archna Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2020

WHO declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. The ambitions of this paper are to assess if there is any affiliation between mean levels of diet D in various countries and cases respectively mortality because of COVID-19. Low vitamin D repute in winter allows viral epidemics. During iciness, those who do not take Vitamin D supplements are possibly to have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations. Vitamin D can reduce the chance of viral epidemics and pandemics in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510063

Prenatal is Still Neglected in Resource-Limited Areas despite the Use of Tests That Optimize the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Brazil

Galileu Barbosa Costa, Raquel Gois Bastos, Ney Cristian Amaral Boa Sorte, Antônio Conceição da Purificação, Beneli Miranda dos Santos, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Sara Nunez Vaz, Lauro Juliano Marin and Sandra Rocha Gadelha

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 05, 2020

Vertically transmitted infections are caused by a diversity of pathogenic microorganisms, and pregnant women are routinely screened to evaluate the risks and reduce the burden of general disorders in their unborn. We assessed the seroprevalence of syphilis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B and C, HIV and Human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) in pregnant women using public healthcare services in two main cities in South region of Bahia State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected using filter paper cards fr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510062

Risky Behaviors among HIV Serodiscordant and Seroconcordant Couples in Yaounde-Cameroon

Constantin Tchakounte, Thibau Flaurant Tchouangueu, Marie Nicole Ngoufack, Leaticia Grace Yatchou, Salomon Tchuandom Bonsi, Jean Olivier Ngono Djang, Etienne Philemon Atabonkeng, Jules-Rogers Kuiate, Alexis Ndjolo and Céline Nkenfou Nguefeu2

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 20, 2020

Serodiscordant HIV couples are an important source of HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. To limit the transmission of HIV within couples, UNAIDS has defined many strategies, including unconditional treatment of the infected partner, systematic condom use, assisted reproduction, regular screening of the negative partner. In Cameroon, there is little information on the follow up of HIV serodiscordant and seroconcordant couples. The purpose of this work was to describe risky behaviors within serodis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510060

Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen in Children in a Tertiary Health Facility in the Poorest Region of Nigeria, 2000-2015

Isaac Warnow Elon, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Ajani Ayomikun, Abubakar Joshua Difa, Oyeniyi C and Danlami Halilu

Article Type: original research | First Published: April 10, 2020

Hepatitis B infection is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission predominantly occurs in infants and children by perinatal and horizontal routes. The risk of chronic infection peaks when infection is acquired early. Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen results in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Hepatitis B surface antigen is high among adolescent males. Infants and young children have the highest carriage rate ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510061

Modified Non-Invasive Computational Methods of HIV Drug Combinations for Treatment of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)

Tamer Ezzat Youssef and Youssef Tamer Moustafa

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 11, 2020

As of 18 March 2020, more than 191127 cases of confirmed COVID-19 have been documented globally with over 7807 deaths. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with HIV have common presentations like non-HIV patients include fever, dry cough, difficulty of breath. Parallel evidence indicates that the risk of disease increases with critically more than 66 years age, including chronic lung disease. It is very difficult to use drugs on the market. We apply drug design computer techniques to find the expe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510059

Molecular Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 among Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia Patients in Khartoum State, Sudan

Hala H Ahmed, Aya A Almtry, Isra M Aidrous, Sara M Ali, Mohamed H Arbab and Ali M Badri

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2020

Many factors like exposure to UV radiation, climatic conditions, genetic predisposition, immunological state and, more recently, the presence of HPV have been implicated in the genesis of some lesions of the conjunctiva, especially the carcinoma. The study was carried out to detect Human Papilloma Viruses HPV type 16 in conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia patient in Khartoum state, Sudan during the period from March to July 2019. A total of 50 Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded Samples were co...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510058

Prevalence of Malaria and Some Opportunistic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Patients with CD4 Below 200 in Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Dawet A and Onaiyekan OE

Article Type: Research article | First Published: January 27, 2020

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) resulting to a progressive decline in the immune system of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) making them susceptible to a variety of opportunistic infections which eventually leads to death. This study aimed at determining the prevalence malaria and some opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients with CD4 count below 200 attending Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State. The testing for oppo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510057

Pre-analytical Errors in the HIV Anti Retro Viral Therapy (ART) Laboratory of Teaching Referral Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abay Sisay Misganaw, Mulugeta Worku, Chala Bashea, Mamaru Nigus, Yisak Yoseph, and Habtamu Molla

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: October 18, 2019

To assess the magnitude and associated factor of pre-analytical error in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy (ART) laboratory of a teaching referral hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used from May 1, 2018 to Jun 30, 2018 by using both quantitative and quantitative data collection approach. Data was entered, cleaned using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 21 for Microsoft Windows. Among the 427 spec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510056

Complete Manuscript Title: Viral Hepatitis B Vaccination Status of a Medical Laboratory Staff in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, West Africa

Agathe Dotia-Kone, Timothee Ouassa, Roseline Affi-Aboli, Arlette Emieme, Mathieu Kablan and Andre Inwoley

Article Type: Brie f Report | First Published: September 30, 2019

Health care professionals working in laboratories located in Africa are supposed to deal with many potentially infectious fluids in a context of high prevalence for infectious diseases and particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV). The goal of this study was to evaluate the seroprotect ion against HBV and possible contact with the virus before vaccination in the staff of a laboratory specialized in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Fifty out of 59 professionals were included in the study. Anti-HB...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510055

HIV and Hepatitis Coinfection among HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Republic of the Congo

NIAMA Roch Fabien, MOUNDOSSO Thierry Stephane, PEMBE ISSAMOU MAYENGUE, BAYONNEKOMBO Edith Sophie, OSSIBI IBARA Roland Bienvenu, DIAFOUKA Merlin, MAHAMBOU NSONDE Dominique, LOUZOLO Igor, LOUKABOU Bongolo Nadia Claricelle, DZABATOU-BABEAUX Angelie Serge Patrick, MALOUMBI Marie Genevieve and PARRA Henri-Joseph

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2019

HIV and Hepatitis co-infection is common and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of this co-infection in patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy in Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and July 2014 to collect demographic data and perform blood sampling from consenting patients who came for routine visits in sites that provide...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510054

Two Cases with Kawasaki Diseases and Adenoviral Infection: An Etiology or Association?

Tuba Giray, MD, Suat Biçer, MD, Ahmet Saç, Yiğit Moğol, Öznur Küçük, Defne Çöl, Zerrin Yalvaç and Yeşim Gürol, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 27, 2019

Although etiology of Kawasaki disease has not been precisely determined, it has been speculated that there was an association with a variety of bacterial and viral agents because of the seasonality of this disease. Some viruses including human adenovirus have been isolated from patients with Kawasaki Disease. Adenoviral infection may mimic Kawasaki disease clinically but it may also be detected in patients with Kawasaki disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510053

Occult HBV Infection in Pregnant Women in Northern Benin

Massimo De Paschale, Cristina Ceriani, Teresa Cerulli, Debora Cagnin, Serena Cavallari, Joseph Ndayake, Dieudonne Zaongo, Kouma Diombo, Gianbattista Priuli, Paolo Vigano and Pierangelo Clerici

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 18, 2019

Occult infections (OBIs) due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) are identified by the presence of HBV DNA without surface antigen (HBsAg). The population prevalence of HBsAg is high in Benin, but there are no data concerning the presence of OBIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of OBIs using samples taken from 220 pregnant Beninese women for the purposes of a previous study of the prevalence of HBV markers. Twenty-four women were HBsAg positive (group I); of the 196 HBsAg negative wom...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510052

Multi-Center Study on the Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

Olayemi MATTHEW, Teclaire NDOMB, Joseph ONAKEWHOR, Bitrus MATAWAL, Esosa OSAGIE, Alashle ABIMIKU and Man CHARURAT

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 30, 2019

Substantial proportions of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection hence the magnitude of infection in the population suggests the expected course of HIV epidemic. We determined prevalence of genital herpes as a result of HSV-2 and its associated factors among pregnant women in Nigeria. A total of 2,362 sera of pregnant women aged 18-49 years attending two different antenatal clinics in two communities in Nigeria were analysed us...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510051

Silent Transmission of HTLV-2 in an Endemic Area of Northeastern Brazil: Report of 10 Cases and Review Literature

Graca Maria de Castro Viana, Helaine Dias Guimaraes, Saphyra Medeiros Salem, Augusto Viana Arouche Santos and Jamilly Gonçalves Zani

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 21, 2019

HTLV 2 is endemic among Amerindians and has been reported in intravenous drug abusers in the USA, Europe, and Asia. The most important indigenous communities in Brazil are distributed in the states of Amapá, Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia and Maranhão. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV-2 in the state of Maranhão. Ten patients attended at a referral hospital who presented confirmatory Western blot serology for HTLV-2 were analyzed. All seropositives were asymptomatic and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510050

Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis Infections among Patients in a Psychiatric Hospital in Ghana

Benedict Osei-Tawiah, Theophilus B Kwofie, Mohamed Mutocheluh, Richard Ephaim, and Emmanuel Awusah Blay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 18, 2019

In developing countries like Ghana, people with serious psychiatric disorders do not have equal access to health care as normal non-mentally challenged people do. Moreover, mental health care generally focuses on physical health screening, health education, and improving access to treatment in primary and secondary care to the detriment of sexual health needs including prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Studies have shown the risk of blood-borne virus infections such as HIV, hepatiti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510049

The First Human Immunotherapy Trial with a Viral Oncolysate Vaccine Induced a Large Number of Granular Lymphocytes Later Recognized as 'Natural Killer Cells'

Joseph G Sinkovics

Article Type: SHORT COMMUNICATION | First Published: March 16, 2019

The first visualization (and photographic records) of what has become known much later as human "natural killer cells" (NK) was initiated in 1969 at the Section of Clinical Tumor Virology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston TX. A clinical hematopathologist suggested that those cells were monocyte-like (M); another viewed them as 'unusual lymphoblasts'. The cells in question were much larger than the already known cytotoxic T lymphocytes...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510048

Prevalence of Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Co-Infection among HIV Infected Adult Patients on HAART in Ogun State, Nigeria

Enitan Seyi Samson, Adekunbi Oluyemisi Ajike, Ihonge John Cletus and Olumide Abiodun

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 13, 2019

Respiratory tract infections with more than one organisms are common in immunosuppressed patients, especially those who are Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important and dangerous pulmonary bacterial pathogens with global impact. This present study assessed the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection and associated risk factors among HIV infected Adult Patients on Highly A...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510046

Understanding the Facts and Minding the Gap of (HIV-1/HIV-2) Primate Research and Infectious Disease Laboratories in Africa

Chika Ejikeugwu, Peter Eze, Ifeanyichukwu Iroha, Charles Esimone, Michael Adikwu and Hirofumi AKARI

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2018

With over 2 million annual new infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, and more than 30 million HIV-1 infected people around the globe, the HIV-1 pandemic has continued to remain a front burner in the medical research community and an important public health debate. Till date, there is still no cure or vaccine for HIV-1 infection. Though current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is potent enough to reduce viral load of the infection to below detectable limits (< 50 copies/ml), antiretrovi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510045

Time to Major Adverse Reactions of Anti-Retroviral Drugs and its Predictors among Cohort of Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Hosanna Hospital, Hosanna, Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort Study

Likawunt Samuel Asfaw and Fikre Enquselassie

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 08, 2018

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral reproduction and stop progression of the disease process. Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions negatively influence antiretroviral treatment outcome. Incidence, type and time antiretroviral drug adverse reactions occur is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate time to major antiretroviral drugs adverse reactions and its predictors among patients receiving ART in Hosanna, Ethiopia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510044

Infectious Characteristics of Ebola Virus

Manu Mitra

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: November 07, 2018

One of the main feature of Ebola virus is that Ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays more significant part instead Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) similarly as its hereditary material. When RNA is mirrored, many more mistakes are made than when DNA is mimicked. This activates viruses like the Ebola viruses a predominantly high mutation rate when distinguished to DNA based viruses like smallpox or chickenpox. In the study of Ebola outbreak, experts found that the virus evolves much faster than it used to be i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510043

90-90-90, Epidemic Control and Ending AIDS: Global Situation and Recommendations

Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta and Brian Williams

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 17, 2018

Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) first came to our attention thirty-seven years ago, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) which it causes is, without treatment, 100% fatal with devastating consequences for millions of people...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510042

Microhomology of Viral/Host DNAs and Macrostructure of Herpesviral Genome

Felix Filatov and Alexandr Shargunov

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2018

In 2015, we described short continuous fragments of human herpesvirus DNA, identical to the cellular ones, which we called microhomology (hits) because of their small size (≥ 20 nt). We noticed that generally the increase in the density (D) of these hits in human herpesviruses is inversely proportional to a decrease in the pathogenicity of these viruses. In this small work, we are considering the question of the existence of more objective features of HHV DNA (which can accompany the dynamics ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510041

Modeling the HIV Epidemic: Why the 95-95-95 Target and ART Effectiveness Parameters Matter

Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta, Matt Wollmers, Mike Ruffner and Brian Williams

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 20, 2018

HIV remains a major global public health threat with one million HIV-related deaths, two million new infections and over 1 million HIV-associated TB cases each year. However, population-based studies suggest marked declines in incidence, prevalence and deaths in the countries in East and Southern Africa that have expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the fastest rate in the world....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510040

Viral Infections after Kidney Transplantation: An Updated Review

Ethem Unal and Ahmet Topcu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 01, 2018

Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Careful pretransplant screening, immunization, and posttransplant prophylactic antimicrobials may all reduce the risk for posttransplant infections. Chronic immunosuppression, required to maintain allograft function post-organ transplant, predisposes transplant patients to a variety of viral infections....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510039

Prevalence of Haematological and Serum Biochemical Abnormalities in HIV Infected Patients in Ghana, Before and after Antiretroviral Therapy

Samuel Kwadwo Afari and Emmanuel Awusah Blay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2018

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients. However, the long-term use of HAART has the potential to cause haematological and biochemical abnormalities such as cytopenia, liver damage and renal injuries, which may be life threatening....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510038

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among Adult Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Ethiopia

Hailu Chare Koyra

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510038

Unlike other chronic diseases, people receiving anti-retroviral treatment should have very high levels of adherence (≥ 95%) to achieve durable suppression of viral load; avoid the emergence of drug resistance and clinical failure. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess level of adherence and predictors of poor adherence among adult ART patients at Dubbo St. Marry Hospital, Southern Ethiopia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510037

Differential Risky Behaviors among HIV Positive and HIV Negative People

Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Josiane Gouekem, Antoine Socpa, Blandine Nkenfou Kampa, Elvis Ndukong Ndzi, Alexandre Nkoum and Alexis Njolo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 28, 2017

HIV positive and HIV negative people were recruited in the capital city of Cameroon. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, pretested and validated, before and after the knowledge of HIV status. The information collected include: Age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, usage of condoms and frequency of sexual intercourses....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510036

p53 Expression Activation of HIV-1 Latency in U1 Cells

Xue Wang , Jiangqin Zhao, Christelle Mbondji and Indira Hewlett

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2017

Latent infection is a major barrier for cure of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 is capable of establishing latency when its host cells undergo apoptosis and initiate replication in response to this effect. HIV infection results in increased p53 expression that enhances replication in primary infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510035

Concurrent HIV and Zika Virus Infection, A Problem to be Address in HIV Medicine

Beuy Joob and Viroj Wiwanitkit

Article Type: Letter | First Published: October 25, 2017

The concurrences between HIV infection and Zika virus infection are already reported [1-3]. The first case report was from Brazil. There is no significant important clinical observation on the concurrence. The problem in the HIV pregnant woman is also already reported....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510034

Dual Cytomegalovirus and Aspergillus Pneumonia Following Influenza B Infection in a Patient with Polyarteritis Nodosa

Chiu-Yin Yeh, Hsi-Hsing Yang and Wen-Liang Yu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 20, 2017

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that might require immunosuppressive therapy. We report on a 72-year-old woman of PAN with influenza B infection, who developed dual cytomegalovirus and Aspergillus pneumonia in the later course....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510033

Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Dual Dengue Fever and Influenza B Infection

Wen Chi Hsu and Wen Liang Yu

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: September 08, 2017

Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition and the common cause of death is due to obstruction of main pulmonary vessels by the embolus, resulting in pulmonary hypertension followed by right-sided heart failure....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510032

Etiologic Viral Characterization of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in the Western Amazon-Brazil

Santos AO, Botelho-Souza LF, Lopes DS, Rodrigues GT, Queiroz JAS, Matos NB, Salcedo JMV and Vieira DS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2017

Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are classified according to the compromised anatomical site. The etiology can be associated with viruses, bacteria and fungi. The etiological agents that are responsible for the highest incidence in children, around 50 to 90% of occurrences, are viruses....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510031

Hepatitis B Induced Kaposi Sarcoma Flare

Ezgi Ozkur , Mehmet Salih Gurel, Sevil Savas, Ayse Esra Koku Aksu and Sumeyre Seda Ertekin

Article Type: LETTER TO EDITOR | First Published: August 19, 2017

Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is a malignant disease that originates from the vascular endothelium and has a very variable clinical course. KS is a vascular endothelial malignancy and the neoplastic cells are closely related to lymphatic endothelial cells. Although HHV-8 is found in the vast majority of all types of KS, there is no agreement on the exact mechanism of HHV-8 in KS....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510030

Sensitive, Subtype Independent HIV-1 PCR Assays for Assessment of Residual Viremia and Total HIV-1 DNA

Tomas Mellberg, Jon Krabbe, Maria J Buzon, Ulrika Noborg, Magnus Lindh, Staffan Nilsson, Bo Svennerholm and Magnus Gisslen

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 01, 2017

Correct measurements of residual viremia and reservoir size are crucial in HIV-1 eradication trials and there is a need for sensitive and automated assays. The increasing worldwide diversity of HIV-1 subtypes stresses the importance of subtype independent assays....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510029

Virologic Response and Survival Analysis of 281 HbsAg Treatment Naive Patients on Lamivudine Monotherapy in Sierra Leone

Jia B Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh and Peter Bai James

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2017

More than 350 million people are infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) globally. The main aim of any chronic hepatitis B therapy is to prevent liver cirrhosis and its sequelae, including Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510028

Successful Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C using Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in a Patient with Sheehan's Syndrome

Rong Xu, Yong-hong Zhang and Xu Yang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2016

A 50-year-old female with Sheehan's syndrome was treated for chronic hepatitis C using pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin. The patient's HCV-RNA status was negative by the fourth week and remained undetectable until the completion of treatment without signs that Sheehan's syndrome had been exaggerated. This case demonstrates that pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin does not necessarily exacerbate Sheehan's syndrome....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510027

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the Middle East and North Africa: Prevalence, Risk, Prevention and Challenges

Ahmed A Abd-Rabou

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 27, 2016

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has few recorded outputs regarding the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infections associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). When we went through the HIV/AIDS in MENA, we found a hole in the scientific publications. Attention towards this issue progressed recently though, with few pre-clinical studies conducted. In the current review, we collected comprehensive data of HIV epidemiology in MENA and discussed the main ch...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510026

Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Democratic Republic of Congo: Implementation of 'Test &Treat' Approach at Primary Health Centers

Mulamba Diese, Susie Villeneuve, Emile Numbi, Freddy Salumu, Guy Clarysse, Hilo Ilunga, Franck Fwamba, Theodore Assani and Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 30, 2016

The 'Test & Treat' approach, also called option B+, using combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has been very effective in controlled clinical trials in resource-limited settings. We report on our experiences with implementing this approach at primary healthcare settings in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The objective of this study was to evaluate 'Test & Treat' approach for PMTCT interventions implemented betwee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510025

The Monitoring of Lymphocyte Populations may be Optional in Patients with Suppressed Viremia: A Two Years Observational Study

Carlos Tornero, Marina Llopis, Julian Diaz and Mariangeles Martinez

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 25, 2016

The determination of lymphocyte populations (LPs) traditionally has been included in the routine follow-up of HIV-infected patients as an indicator of the degree of immune suppression and of the need to start treatment, select the type of therapy, or prescribe preventive measures against opportunistic infections. However, the variability of the technique produces variations in patients with undetectable viremias that have no clinical consequences but which nevertheless generate uncertainty among...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510024

HIV Exposed Uninfected Children at School Age: Developing Country Context

Gwendoline Q Kandawasvika, Felicity Z Gumbo and Patience Kuona

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 14, 2016

With the success of chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), an increasing number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children will have in utero and post-partum exposure to antiretroviral drugs and survive beyond infancy. The long term effect of antiretroviral drug exposure is however not fully understood. A few studies from developing countries have reported on growth, morbidity, mortality, nutrition, immunological profiles, neuro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510023

Determinants of Survival in HIV Patients: A Retrospective Study of Dilla University Hospital HIV Cohort

Solomon Hailemariam, Girma Tenkolu, Henok Tadese and Prabhanjan Kumar Vata

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2016

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients though it is not sufficient alone to achieve better HIV related clinical outcomes. There are many other modifiable factors that might have an impact on survival of HIV-infected patients. So far, few studies with small sample size have tried to assess the survival experience of HIV positive patients who are on treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the determinants ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510022

Survival among Dually Infected HIV Patients Compared to HIV-1 Mono-Infected Patients Receiving ART in Senegal: A Twelve-Year Cohort Study

Assane Diouf, Amandine Cournil, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay and Louise Fortes-Deguenonvo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2016

A total of 403 HIV infected patients (10 HIV-D infected and 393 HIV-1s infected) who initiated ART in Senegal between 1998 and 2002 were included in a prospective cohort and followed until June 2010. Initial ART regimens combined two nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus either one non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or one protease inhibitor (PI). Clinical and biological assessments were performed at ART initiation and every semester thereafter....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510021

Comprehensive Programme to Prevent Cervical Cancer - the Case of Hungary

Dobrossy L, Oroszi B, Kovacs A and Budai A

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2016

The overall purpose of a comprehensive cervical cancer prevention programme is to coordinate HPV vaccination (primary prevention) and cervical screening (secondary prevention). Harmonization of the HPV vaccination and population screening is expected to reduce the burden of cervical cancer by reducing human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and detecting cervical pre-cancer lesions and invasive cancer earlier, providing timely treatment. In 2015, 80% of 7th class schoolgirls between 12-13 years o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510020

PrEP Works, But Only When You [Have Access to] Take it: Improving PrEP Access for Young People in Chicago and Philadelphia

S Caitlin Conyngham, Cassie R Warren and Helen C Koenig

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 31, 2016

The 2012 United States Food and Drug Administration approval of Tenofovir/Emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has added a highly effective, safe biomedical option to the HIV prevention toolbox. In the United States, young black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV risk over the course of their lifetime. Nearly 1 in 10 black MSM under age 25 is infected with HIV every year, and there are more new HIV infections a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510019

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Bone Fractures in Patients with HIV

Pollo-Flores P, BicudoA, Cruz-FilhoR and Soares DV

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Human immunodeficiency virus infection has posed a challenge for mankind and now this disease is more of a challenge for quality of life than for virus related mortality. This review aims to study two prevalent diseases that may affect this population by decreasing their quality of life. Bone fractures are much more common in the HIV-positive population and have many etiopathogenesis implicated. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is also common in HIV-positive patients and may even lead to cirrho...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510018

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) Associated Macrocytosis

Wesley D. Kufel, Cory M. Hale, Eric F. Sidman, Cesar E. Orellana and Christopher D. Miller

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Macrocytosis has been associated with several disease states, vitamin deficiencies, and medications, with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) being a less commonly identified cause. NRTIs are frequently utilized as the two-drug backbone for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Amongst the NRTI drug class, zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) are the most widely reported cause of macrocytosis. Fortunately, AZT and d4T have become less commonly used therapies, as ne...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510017

The AIDS Myth at 30

Erhard Geissler

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 03, 2016

In 1985 the KGB and East Berlin's professor of Biology started the AIDS disinformation campaign by accusing the United States of America of having constructed and spread the AIDS agent in the course of biological weapons research. Now, 30 years later, a German authority, The Federal Commissioner for the Records of former East Germany's State Security Service, the "Stasi", is spreading disinformation regarding the alleged substantial involvement of Stasi officers in the campaign....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510015

Organotropic Kinetics in Acute Sublethal Transient Cytomegalovirus Infection in Mice

Daniel Benharroch, Ory Rouvio, Aharon Palmon and Bracha Rager

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 03, 2016

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) shows many similarities with the human virus (HCMV). This is a ubiquitous DNA virus from the betaherpesvirus group. A self-limiting acute phase of viral infection and a persistent latent phase normally characterize the pathogenesis of MCMV infection in the immunocompetent host. The MCMV widespread distribution occurs via the blood and its mononuclear cells. In the more common congenital viral infection, the HCMV causes birth defects, including mal-development of the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510014

Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses Propagated by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells or Embryonated Eggs

Ewan P Plant, Laura Couzens, Samuel Mindaye, Elizabeth M Coyle, Surender Khurana, Hang Xie, Hana Golding, Maryna C Eichelberger and Zhiping Ye

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2015

The hemagglutination assay is a commonly used method to titer influenza virus. It relies on the interaction between virus particles and red blood cells being sufficient to prevent the settling of the blood cells. During additional assessment of human influenza virus stocks titrated by the hemagglutination assay we noted that virus grown in cell culture had a greater number of virus particles than analogous virus grown in eggs. Virus grown in both egg and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are used ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510013

Salviae and Cinnamomi Herbal Medicines have Antiviral Activity against a Broad Range of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Fu-Shi Quan, Young Jae Lee, Richard W Compans and Sang-Moo Kang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 23, 2015

Development of broadly effective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 compounds is a high priority since the number of individuals having HIV infections continues to grow worldwide and vaccines are not available yet. From herbal extracts commonly used in humans, Salviae miltiorrhiza (Salviae), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Cinnamomi), Astragali Radix (Astragali), Asari Radix et Rhizome (Asari), Panax Ginseng (Korean red ginseng), we screened candidate herbal medicines and investigated their antiviral ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510012

Impact of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV I/II) Diagnosis on the Frequency of Mood Disorders in a Non-Endemic Area

Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Rafaela Miravalhes, Thiago Mestre, Francisco Jaime Barbosa, Marise Zonta, Gabriel Santos Schafer, Indaiara Felisbino, Suzana Carstensen, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Indianara Rotta, Mirian Pelegrino Beltrame, Sonia Mara Raboni and Luine Rosele Vidal

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2015

Chronic diseases cause different impact to different people. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) diagnosis on the frequency of mood disorders. Of six HTLV I/II infected patients, including one asymptomatic, four reported depression at the moment of HTLV diagnosis. The findings reveal that it is crucial to inform patients of the HTLV diagnosis only after conducting confirmatory tests, as indicated by majority of diagnosis protocols. Usually cou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510011

Exposure to HIV-1 Altered CCR7-Mediated Migration of Monocytes: Regulation by PGE2

Sandra C Cote, Stamatoula Pasvanis and Nancy Dumais

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 04, 2015

Transmission and pathogenesis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) are interconnected during all stages of the disease with cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocytes are constantly exposed or are targets of HIV-1 and their migratory behaviors are implicated in the dissemination of the infection throughout the host. Monocytes arising from quiescent and infected cells of the myeloid precursor lineage in bone marrow have been demonstrated as a source of residual HIV DNA....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510010

Codon Usage as a Possible Source of Sofosbuvir Genetic Resistance Bias in HCV Patients Infected with Different Genotypes

Carlos Campayo, Antonio Mas and Rosario Sabariegos

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 28, 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for liver chronic infections that in a high percentage of cases lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, treatment consisted on a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. However, since 2012 a new wave in treatment options appears with the new family of drugs targeting viral components, the so-called direct-acting antivirals. Now we have a battery of drugs directed against viral protease (NS3/4A), polymerase (NS5B), and viral ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510009

Oral Health Care to HIV-Infected Children

Gerardo Rivera Silva and Hector R Martinez Menchaca

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 25, 2015

The prevalence of oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in developed countries is equivalent to 72%, meanwhile in developing countries it equates to 60%. For this reason health professionals should identify and treat the numerous oral manifestations in HIV-infected children. There are several oral lesions that could be present in HIV-infected children....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510008

Liver Fibrosis in HIV and HCV Co-Infection: Independent Mechanisms versus Collective Efforts

Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen and Andre Boonstra

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 27, 2015

Liver disease is the leading cause of death not related to AIDS in patients infected with human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience a more rapid progression liver to fibrosis and develop hepatocellular carcinoma at a younger age than those infected with either virus alone. The mechanisms promoting this accelerated progression to fibrosis are not totally understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether both viruses exert fibrosis progressi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510007

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Cats are Productively Infected and Maintain CD8+ T Cell Stimulatory Capacity

Hood SF, Thompson EM, Akaronu NO, Miller MM and Fogle JE

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 03, 2015

Dendritic cells (DCs) have been utilized to enhance CD8+ T cell responses to pathogen-associated peptides for enhancement of vaccine efficacy. CD8+ T cells play a central role in the elimination of viruses during acute viral infection and control of viremia during chronic viral infection. For lentiviral infections such as HIV and FIV, dendritic cell vaccines may be useful for augmenting CD8+ T cell function....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510006

International Journal of Virology and AIDS is Committed to Publishing High Quality Papers in Current Virology and AIDS Research

Christopher J. Menzie and Shu-Feng Zhou

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 30, 2015

Understanding how viruses work and interact with the host is of the upmost importance. For example, the Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510005

T-reg are the Predominant CD4+ T-Cell Subset Productively Infected with HIV-1 at Sites of Dual HIV/TB Infection

Christina S Hirsch, Shigou Liu, Joy Baseke, John Lusiba Kafuluma, Mary Nserko, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza and Zahra Toossi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 10, 2015

Background: Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) are expanded during active tuberculosis (TB) regardless of HIV-1-infection, particularly at sites of M. tuberculosis infection. In HIV-1 disease, T-reg are targeted by HIV-1 infection. However, whether they contribute to promotion of HIV-1 infection at sites of HIV/TB is unknown. Methods: Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) from HIV/TB patients with pleural TB were characterized by immunostaining and FACS analysis for surface markers CD4, CD127, CCR5, CX...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510004

Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors

Antonio Diaz-Sanchez, Pilar Miralles, Ana Matilla, Teresa Aldamiz-Echevarria, OscarNunez Ana Carrero, Beatriz Merino, Cristina Diez, Rafael Banares, Gerardo Clemente and Juan Berenguer

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 26, 2014

We analyzed 53 HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed at our institution from 1998 to 2012. All patients were coinfected with hepatitis virus (77% HCV; 12% HBV; 11% HCV+HBV), and 95% had liver cirrhosis. HCC was diagnosed under surveillance in 41% of patients. Potentially curative therapy was given to 32% of patients and palliative therapy to 30% patients. Median survival was 2 months in those diagnosed from 1998 to 2005, and 11 months in those diagnosed from 2006 to...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510003

Modification of Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Patients Attending an Urban Teaching Hospital in Kenya

AO Owuor, GN Lule, CF Otieno, EO Omonge, MC Maritim and P Memiah

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2014

Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with ART modification among HIV patients on 1st line therapy attending a large Teaching Hospital in Kenya. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional clinical record review. All patients who commenced ART from January 2005 to June 2011 and had at least 1 follow-up visit were evaluated. Baseline data, including socio demographic and clinical variables was collected using a standard chart abstraction tool. Results: Out of 1,022 patien...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510002

Prognostic Value of Some Acute Phase Reactants in the Management of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease

Akpotuzor Josephine O, Ekarika Evelyn A and Akwiwu Euphoria C

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014

This study was conducted to assess the relevance of serum C- reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), relative plasma viscosity (RPV) and fibrinogen level in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) disease. One hundred (100) PTB patients attending the TB clinic of Dr Lawrence Henshaw Memorial Specialist Hospital Calabar, and 70 age and sex-matched apparently healthy subjects between 15-65 years of age were selected and enrolled. Standard techniques were used for the a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510001

Therapeutic Targeting of Structural RNA Motifs in Viral RNA Genomes

Joanna Sztuba-Solinska

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 19, 2014

Viral RNA genomes have evolved functional motifs, which act at different stages of their life cycle. These unique structural domains, their interactions and association with host proteins and ligands, together orchestrate the multifunctionality of viral RNA genomes. Often, long-range RNA-RNA interactions bring regulatory elements into proximity, changing our view of a functional viral RNA genome from a linear molecule to one whose three-dimensional structure is an important contributor during th...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55