Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment is a global, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety articles on all the aspects of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people and the environment and assessing the risk involved. JTRA provides forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions globally. It acts as a platform for the authors to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community on toxicity assessment and prevention. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment provides research updates on Basic Toxicology, Public Health Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, Computational Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology, Toxicology of Natural Products, Chemotherapy, Hepatoxic, Nephrotoxic and Neurotoxic Agents, Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Toxicogenomics, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Aquatic Toxicology, Automatism (Toxicology), Ecotoxicology, Entomotoxicology, Enzyme Inhibition, Forensic Toxicology, In vitro Toxicology, Indicative Limit Value, Medical Toxicology, Modes of Toxic Action, Overdose, Pollution, Toxicity, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, Toxinology, etc. All formats of articles viz., original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment

ISSN: 2572-4061

Editor-in-chief: Lu Cai

NLM title abbreviation: J Toxicol Risk Assess

ISO abbreviation: J Toxicol Risk Assess

Other titles: IJTRA

Category: Biological Science

DOI: 10.23937/2572-4061

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI

 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510022

Evaluation of Lung Cell Toxicity of Surfactants for Inhalation Route

Lindenberg F, Sichel F, Lechevrel M , Respaud R and Saint-Lorant G

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: May 15, 2019

Few data are available for excipients administered by inhalation route. This study evaluated the in vitro potential toxicity of three surfactants (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and Poloxamer 188) by using an original air-liquid interface (ALI) method of exposure compared to liquid/liquid (L/L) model. Two cell toxicity tests were conducted on BEAS-2B cells, a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines; measurement of Lactate Dehydrogenase activity and XTT cell proliferation assay. We fou...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510021

Public and Environmental Health Effects of Plastic Wastes Disposal: A Review

Okunola A Alabi, Kehinde I Ologbonjaye, Oluwaseun Awosolu and Olufiropo E Alalade

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 12, 2019

Since 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced worldwide, 9% and 12% of which have been recycled and incinerated, respectively. Human population increase and consistent demand for plastics and plastic products are responsible for continuous increase in the production of plastics, generation of plastic waste and its accompanied environmental pollution. We have reviewed in this paper, the most relevant literatures on the different types of plastics in production, the h...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510020

Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity of Di-Isononyl Phthalate in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

Yanping Xue, Ning Chen, Tao Jiang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019

The systemic toxic effects of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were evaluated in a 4-wk study in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered DINP intravenously at dosages of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg every other day for 4 wk. The control and the positive control group were administered vehicle (egg yolk phosphatides plus glycerol solutions) and 500 mg/kg di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), respectively. Clinical signs were observed immediate...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510019

Risk Assessment and Communication in Pharmaceuticals: Recognizing the Differences in Occupational Health and Medication Safety

Vivian SW Chan Fung

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 06, 2019

Pharmaceuticals are the most common medical intervention. Ensuring workers and members of the public get the most benefits from advances in modern medicine is a critical component of improving the health care system. Pharmaceuticals bring healing to patients but increased risk of illness have been reported among workers manufacturing, handling and administering pharmaceutical products with inadequate attention to personal safety. Their potential for both helping and harming human health can be p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510018

Heavy Metals Contents and Risk Assessment of Farmland on the Edge of Sichuan Basin

Mengling Yang, Dan Zhang, Lu Xu, Shamshad Khan, Fan Chen and Hao Jiang

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 04, 2019

This study features a survey of the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, Se) in surface soils (0-30 cm), carried out in edge of Sichuan Basin (Pingdi, Puan, Xingwen, Gulin). The contamination of heavy metals in soil was assessed with single-factor pollution index method and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method. The results showed that Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co were main risk factors of soil heavy metal pollution. In Gulin,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510017

Plastic Additive Bisphenol A: Toxicity in Surface- and Groundwater Crustaceans

Gerhardt A

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019

Bisphenol A (BPA) is being considered by the European Union as a substance of very high concern, occurring worldwide due to its wide application in many plastic products, building materials, coatings and epoxy resins. The toxicity of BPA in groundwater invertebrates is insufficiently understood. Both acute (24 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity was compared in Daphnia magna and ecologically important crustaceans in surface water (Gammarus fossarum, E...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510016

A New QSAR Model for Acute Fish Toxicity based on Mined Structural Alerts

Giuseppina Gini, Thomas Ferrari, Anna Lombardo, Antonio Cassano and Emilio Benfenati

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2019

In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting the fish toxicity property of chemical compounds, and show how this can be approached using a computational intelligence method. There are two views on assessing toxicities: One says that such properties can be derived from the whole molecular structure, the other that some specific functional substructures, called Structural Alerts (SA), are able to explain the toxicity. In this work, a new Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) approach is prop...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510015

Incessant Risk Alarms Associated with Farming and Consuming Crops Cultivated in Host Communities of Gold Mining Operations in Ghana: Truth, Exaggeration, Ignorance or Mischief

Kenneth Bedu-Addo, Martha Ofori-Kuragu and Kwaku Boaky Apau

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 31, 2018

Heavy metals and metalloids, some of which are extremely beneficial for the survival of humans, flora and fauna can have devastating effects on same and the environment. Bioaccumulation and bio-magnification two methods via which metals and metalloids are assimilated into food chains as well as dermal and ingestion exposure to heavy metals and metalloids are believed by many residents in the Obuasi Municipality as leading public health threats to peasant farmers, their spouses and children. Risk...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510014

Exposure and Risk Assessment of Selected Chemical Hazards in Cabbage and Lettuce

Isaac W Ofosu, Samuel Akomea-Frempong, Emmanuel De-Graft J Owusu-Ansah and Godfred Darko

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 26, 2018

Many health-conscious consumers are increasingly making deliberate choices for plant-based diets because probably they think they were safer. Majority of these consumers who dwell in cities therefore demand leafy vegetables for their daily consumption. The demand has created the opportunity for many urban dwellers to join the business of vegetable cultivation using every space available. Urbanization is associated with industrialization, and with it comes the attendant anthropogenic hazards. Sub...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510013

A Review of Environmental Contamination by Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Egypt

Farag M Malhat, Naglaa M Loutfy, Sara M Greish and Mohamed Tawfic Ahmed

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 26, 2018

All pesticides are potentially toxic to all sorts of life and some are even classified as probable human carcinogens, neutrotoxics and endocrine system disruptors. The toxicity level of a pesticide depends on the lethal dose (LD) of the chemical, the length of exposure, and the route of entry or absorption by the body. There are many different pesticides in use today with very different modes of action and levels of toxicity. To protect the public, WHO has developed a hazard classification syste...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510012

Enhancing the Raman Scattering for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors using Cadmium Oxide (Cdo) Nanoparticles

Alireza Heidari

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2018

In the current paper, the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect induced by Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is used to observe Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. The diagnosis and treatment of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors in sample is investigated through Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET) process from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors to the surface of nanoparticles, and Surface Enhance...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510011

Demonstrated Spatial Irrelevance of Gray Fox at Contaminated Sites: Are Ecological Risk Assessments for Mammals Necessary?

Lawrence V Tannenbaum, David M Bullis, Nicholas R Deuel, L Mike Conner, Michael J Chamberlain and Karl V Miller

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2018

Ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for contaminated terrestrial sites regularly include mammals as receptors-of-concern whose home ranges dwarf the sites by tens of times. As a consequence, opportunities to sustain chemical exposures of concern are greatly limited. In having notably miniscule densities as well, wide-ranging mammals are poorly selected species to evaluate because true populations are effectively non-existent at sites. Collectively...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510010

Recent Advances in Mercury Detection; Towards Enabling a Sensitive and Rapid Point-of-Check Measurement

Nurfatini Busairi and Amir Syahir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2018

Heavy metals emission, in particular, mercury is ever increasing due to global urbanization and industrialization. Due to increasing number of health problems related to heavy metals contamination, monitoring it becomes a crucial task for authorities and environmentalists. Therefore, the development of a nanobiosensing technique that can detect mercury ions as low as 1 ppb for its limit of quantification is necessary to provide sufficient informa...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510009

Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide (Zno) Nanoparticles Using Human Cell Lines

A Rama Narsimha Reddy and L Srividya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2018

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles against human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells). The toxic effects of nanoparticles were analyzed after 24 hours of incubation with different cell lines using trypan blue dye exclusion method....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510008

Assessment of Environmental Contamination by Wastewater from a Cocoa Processing Industry Using Genetic and Reproductive Biomarkers

Alabi A Okunola, Esan E Babatunde, Olorunfunmi J Temitope and Oludare O Evelyn

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2017

Food industries are among the major contributors to industrial wastes. Their wastewaters can pose a threat if untreated and indiscriminately disposed into the environment. In this study, we investigated the potential genetic and reproductive toxicity of Cocoa processing industry wastewater, by using the mouse Micronucleus (MN) and sperm morphology assays....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510007

Accuracy of Admission Glasgow Coma Scale to Predict Aspiration Pneumonia in Poisoned Patients

Sebastien Champion and Vincent Spagnoli

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: August 01, 2017

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assesses the need and guides tracheal intubation in trauma patients. GCS provides a practical method for assessment of impairment of conscious level in response to defined stimuli. GCS is the sum of 3 sub-scores for eye opening (1 to 4), verbal (1 to 5), and best motor (1 to 6) response to stimulations....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510006

Is There any Relationship between Worldwide Pesticide Standard Values in Residential Soil, Drinking Water, and Agricultural Commodity Exposures?

Zijian Li and Aaron A Jennings

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 24, 2017

Human could exposure to pesticides via various exposure pathways. Worldwide jurisdictions are making efforts to manage human health risk by regulating pesticide standards in residential soil, drinking water, and agricultural commodity....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510005

Suppression of Calpain-2 by Small Interfering RNA Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells AR42J

Bettina Hiemer, Alisa Bernert, Frederic LP Gabriel, Michael Wakileh and Heike Weber

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2017

Apoptosis is defined as controlled programmed cell death that occurs as physiological process in the development and morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms, but is also implicated in various diseases, including acute pancreatitis. Apoptosis can be induced by a wide range of stimuli....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510004

Drug-facilitated Crime: A Diagnosis to Remember in the Emergency Department

Rocca F D, Pignatiello F, Casacanditella G, Tucci M and Favretto D

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2016

We report on a case of a young man arrived to the emergency department (ED) of the local hospital in a sleepy, confused state, and exhibiting anterograde amnesia. He reported to have been robbed. Toxicological analysis performed in his blood sample with a general unknown screening procedure including mass spectrometry detection revealed the presence of zolpidem....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510003

Long-Term Effects on Renal Function in Children and Adolescents Due to Environmental Exposure to Lead-Results from an 11-Year Prospective Cohort Study

Recio-Vega R, Gurrola-Mendez A, Valdez-Abrego C and Rivera-Guillen Mario

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2015

Lead is a widespread toxicant with well-established detrimental health effects. Environmental exposure to lead occurs through different means such as industrial and combustion sources, lead paint, folk remedies, glazed pottery, and sometimes by drinking water. Some groups are disproportionately exposed to lead, including those who live close to industrial facilities or with low socio economic status and workers in small or mobile workplaces such ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510002

Hydroxypyrene Excretion as Indicator of Cancer Risk in Street Sweepers and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) Exposure

Mazzotta M, Mazzotta AD, d'Ettorre G, Cazzato RG, Simone C and Fernandez M

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2015

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with possible carcinogenicity, according to European directives. Studies helped to clarify the contributions to the total dose resulting from environmental and occupational exposure, by tobacco smoke, by diet and skin absorption. Recently, it was shown that levels of 1-Hydroxypyrene U (1-OHPu) may be predictive of individual dose, environmental and employment exposure, proportionat...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510001

Micronuclei Induction and Neurotoxic Effect in C6 Glioma Cells Exposed to Low Concentrations of Diazinon, an Organophosphorus Compound

Carla Falugi, Chiara Gambardella, Tommaso Bonfiglio, Zoltan Rakonczay, Federico Biggi, Sara Novelli and Mariangela Masini

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 26, 2015

Even though the adverse effects on environment and organism health have been long and thoroughly studied, the problem represented by the continuous use of neurotoxic pesticides, in particular organophosphates (OPs, organic salts of the pyro phosphoric acid), is still open. These are considered as emerging pollutants, as their massive employment is relatively recent, dating after the ban of persistent organic pesticides. OPs are not persistent for...

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