International Journal of

Respiratory and Pulmonary MedicineISSN: 2378-3516

Current Issue

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410137

A 53-Year-Old Woman with a Rapidly Progressive Lung Mass

Richard H Zou, MD and Christopher N Faber, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 17, 2020

A 53-year-old Caucasian nurse with a history of emphysema presented with 6 months of recurrent fever, generalized fatigue, exertional dyspnea, and non-productive cough. She reported a 15 pack-year smoking history but quit 3 months prior to evaluation. She previously worked with patients with chronic tracheostomies in a long-term acute care facility. She denied hemoptysis, sputum production, chest pain, pleurisy, abdominal pain, or unintentional weight loss. She reported no recent travel, inhalat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410136

Effect of Intervention on Metered Dose Inhaler Use Technique and Determinants among Adult Asthmatic Patients Attending in Outpatient Clinic, Ethiopia: Interventional Study

Bezie Kebede Zelalem, Gima Mamo and Dessalegn Feiysa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 18, 2020

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is an affecting 1-18% of the population in different countries. It can be treated mainly with inhaled medications in several forms, including the pressurized Metered-Dose Inhaler (MDI). MDI use can, unfortunately, be difficult for patients to use and even with repeated demonstration and some patients will still find co-ordination of the whole technique challenging, failing to master it despite repeated de...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410135

Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations of Late Revelation

Adil ZEGMOUT, Abdelhalim BOUCAID, Youness AMCHICH, Yassir BENBABA, Hicham SOUHI, Hanane EL OUAZZANI, Ismail Abderrahmane RHORFI and Ahmed ABID

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2020

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are scarce and hard to diagnose. We report a case of a very late discovery at an advanced age. Recent vascular imaging techniques (Three-dimensional Computed Tomographic Angiography) have largely contributed to their diagnosis. The patient is treated with arterial embolization which is effective and carries a low complication rate in skilled hands. This case illustrates the clinical circumstances of diagnosis, the diagnostic algorithm, and the differential d...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410134

Effusions Everywhere

Robert Maximos and Lisa N Glass

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 26, 2020

The use of immunotherapy agents is expanding in oncology patients. These medications, known as checkpoint inhibitors, promote patient T-cell based immune responses against malignancy. The currently available classes include PD-1 inhibitors, PDL-1 inhibitors and CTLA4 inhibitors. As the use of the immunotherapy agents is increased, more knowledge of adverse reactions is gained. Immune related adverse events in multiple organ systems may occur. The most common toxicities associated with checkpoint...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410133

Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Lung Function in Taxi Drivers: A Cross Sectional Study

Loubna Tayara, Fida Charif, Ali Hajj Diab and Ali Toufaily

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 03, 2020

We conducted a cross sectional analytic study that included 120 employees and 200 taxi drivers recruited from the 4 main taxi stations in the Greater Beirut area. Fifty taxi drivers were recruited randomly from each taxi station as well as 30 employees working in stores near every station. We assessed their respiratory symptoms by using a modified version of a standardized questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were performed using an ambulatory validated spirometer (COPD6, Vitalograph)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410131

Classification Models of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients

Mohammed Alqawba, Luis R Rodriguez, Norou Diawara, Rebecca T Beuschel, Maryann Kaler, Amisha V Barochia, Stewart J Levine, Steven D Nathan and Geraldine Grant

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2020

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal interstitial lung disease with no current cure. Progression of IPF is difficult to predict as the clinical course can be highly variable and range from a rapidly deteriorating state to a relatively stable state, or may be characterized by a slow progressive decline. Therefore, the need for an accurate diagnosis and improved tools for monitoring and managing IPF is of paramount importance, all for understanding the mitochondrial structure...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410130

Bacterial Contamination from Intraoperative Endotracheal Suctioning in Songklanagarind Hospital

Kwanruthai Narunart, MD, Wirat Wasinwong, MD, Sirikarn Siripruekpong, MD, Amphan Chantarokorn, BNS and Riam Kosem, BNS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 17, 2020

This prospective randomized controlled trial in 276 patients of age more than 18-years-old who had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-III and scheduled for elective surgery and had no risk of aspiration were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups. The patients with general anesthesia with oroendotracheal intubation were included. Endotracheal suctioning was performed by the decision of anesthesiologists or anesthetic nurses with sterile or clean technique regarding the g...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410129

Vaping Associated Lung Illness: A Case Series

Joanna Sesti, MD, Safiyya Quintiliani, MD, Christine Minerowicz, MD, Delyse Garg, MD, Shabiah Martin, MD1, Karim Akl, MD, Claudio Guerrieri, MD, Sabiha Hussain, MD, Christina Migliore, MD, Pratik Patel, MD, Marc Linder, MD, Thiruvengadam Anandarangam, MD and Subroto Paul, MD, MPH

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 25, 2020

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, also known as vaping, has gained popularity among young adults. It has been promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarette smoking. Recent reports, however, have linked e-cigarette use to lung dysfunction. We report a series of four patients who were recently treated within our hospital system for vaping associated lung illness (VALI). All four were young, healthy individuals with no significant past medical histories. Lung biopsies were perform...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410128

Giraffe Patterns in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Adem Dirican, MD, Pinar Yildiz Gulhan, MD, Duygu Zorlu, MD, Hulya Bayiz, MD, Yagmur Saritas, Medical Student, Tugce Uzar, Medical Student, Sevket Ozkaya, MD and Nurhan Koksal, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2020

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by severe fibrosis and poor prognosis. We aimed to reveal to different radiological findings of IPF and to describe a different perspective on the complexity of diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF between January 2015 and April 2019 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, VM Medical park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. Totally 51 patients were included in this study; 35 (68.6%) wer...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410126

Paediatric Empyema Thoracis: Roles and Outcomes of Surgical Intervention in Advanced Disease

YL Ho, M Fauzi, Sothee K, A Salleh, AY Khamis and Basheer A Kareem

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 03, 2020

Empyema thoracis has become increasingly common in paediatric population. Antibiotics and thoracostomy have been the cornerstones in managing stage 1 empyema, where as management of stage 2-3 empyema remains controversial. Surgical intervention is perceived to be associated with high morbidity and protracted recovery. This paper reviews the roles and outcomes of surgical decortication, and to provide data for comparison with other treatment modalities. Thirty children (median age 5.2 years, rang...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410125

Association between Cigarette Smoking and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Level

Dongcheol Lee, Hyun Wuk Kang and Yu Il Kim

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: Lee D, Kang HW, Il Kim Y (2019) Association betwee

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme mainly produced from the cells of the hepatobiliary tract. And, it has been introduced as a biomarker for oxidative stress mainly by alcohol consumption and current smoking. This study was performed to evaluate the association between smoking status and serum GGT concentration. The effect of cigarette smoking on serum activities of the enzyme, GGT was investigated using the data of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (5th KN...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410124

Age and Incidence of Pharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy

Victor Omiwole, Sardar Ali and Junaid Ali

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 09, 2019

Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection that often spreads to the skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, and vagina. It is caused by the build-up of yeast called Candida. There are multiple types of Candida that can be infective agents, with C. albicans being the most prevalent. When it spreads to the mouth and throat, it is called thrush or otherwise known as Oropharyngeal Candidiasis. In this retrospective study, the frequency of candidiasis in the throat (pharyngeal), was examined exclusively in 1...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410123

Steroid Induced Psychosis in a Rare Case of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

Bryn Dhir and Rachit Kumar

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2019

We report a case of an 84-year-old female with altered mental status and known Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia suspected from high dose steroid who presented for medical management of acute psychosis. This case centers on the inpatient management of older patients in the setting of steroid use with consideration given to dosing, supportive care and therapy during management. Iatrogenic psychiatric conditions due to therapeutic medical management of pulmonary diseases can be complic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410122

A Rare Cause of Respiratory Distress in Infants: Double Aortic Arch

Tolga Bacak, Sebnem Ozdogan, Seda Geylani Gulec and Evrim Ozmen

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 21, 2019

Vascular ring, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress in infants, results in respiratory and gastrointestinal findings due to tracheal and/or esophageal compression, but the diagnosis may be delayed because of the nonspecific symptoms. Double aortic arch is the most common vascular ring anomaly. A case of double aortic arch presented with respiratory distress, stridor, and feeding intolerance during infancy is discussed. Vascular ring is seen with an incidence of 1% in all congenital card...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410121

Treatment Adherence and Factors Affecting among Adult Asthmatic Patients at Soddo Christian General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study

Hailu Chare Koyra and Tamirat Chinasho

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

Evidences reveal that bellow half of asthma patients are adherent to their medications. Striving for improved adherence and asthma control is of vital concern in today’s asthma management. In a recent document, the world health organization recognized lack of adherence as a major problem in management of chronic disease and concluded that improving adherence would have more beneficial impact on health outcome than improving specific treatment. But, study findings addressing its magnitude and a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410100

Emergency Removal of Sludged Blood from Main Bronchus with Cryotherapy through Bronchoscope in Rescuing an Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Massive Blood Clot Obstruction

Enqing Fu and Yan Wang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2018

Massive hemoptysis (over 200 ml at one go or over 500 ml in twenty-four hours) is considered as a serious case. If the blood cannot be expectorated out from bronchus, sludged blood will form and obstruct the bronchus in a matter of a few minutes. Then an acute respiratory failure would be the immediate result, which might lead to a critical state or death of the patient. The most effective method to rescue patient is to suction off the sludged blood with a bronchoscope. But bronchoscopy normally...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410099

Heart-Lung Acting Together

Robert S Fitzgerald

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 12, 2018

Most frequently medical education treats the pulmonary system and the cardiovascular system separately. And this is, indeed, quite understandable because each system's pathologies and their treatments differ in so many ways. However, from another perspective, the physiologist's, both systems are the evolutionary product for capturing oxygen from the external environment and delivering it to the mitochondria in the body's cells for the generation of the energy needed for life's operations. Bound ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410098

A Comparison between Two Pathophysiologically Different yet Microbiologically Similar Lung Diseases: Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Daniel E Fenker, Cameron T McDaniel, Warunya Panmanee, Ralph J Panos, Eric J Sorscher, Carleen Sabusap, John P Clancy and Daniel J Hassett

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 29, 2018

Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic pulmonary diseases that affect ~70,000 and 251 million individuals worldwide, respectively. Although these two diseases have distinctly different pathophysiologies, both cause chronic respiratory insufficiency that erodes quality of life and causes significant morbidity and eventually death. In both CF and COPD, the respiratory microbiome plays a major contributing role in disease progression and morbidity. Pulmona...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410097

Correlation between Pentraxin-3 and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jie-Ru Li, Xiu-Hua Gao, Ju-Qiang Han, Wen-Yan Luo and En-Sheng Ji

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 23, 2018

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of independent dangerous factors for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Recent studies demonstrated that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) are early signs for development of heart failure. The objective of our study was to estimate the relation between OSA severity and LVDD and PTX-3. Sixty-six OSA patients and 25 healthy people who underwent polysomnography to diagnose OSA were enrolled. Ninety-one participant...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410096

The Importance of Posture and Gravity in the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Murat Kayabekir

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018

The objective of drafting this case report is to delineate the relationship between elephantiasis disease rarely encountered in clinical practice and sleep disordered breathing, to try to understand how this specific condition influences the quality of sleep, to review the mechanisms for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome which is the most common sleep disordered breathing seen and to underline its importance once again. Lymphedema is a chronic condition stemming from the insufficient drainage of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410095

Analysis of Clinical Data and Identification of Variables Associated with the Success of Decannulation in Neurocritic Traqueostomized Patients

Escalier N, Papazian AC, Grimaldi S, Gambetta MX, Spath MB, Lebus J and Salvador Diaz Lobato

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2018

Tracheostomy is a common procedure in long-term ventilated patients and frequent in those with severe stroke. Decannulation not only involves removal of the tracheostomy cannula, but also evaluation of upper airway protection. The predictors of success provide an objective guide to minimize the time of permanence of the same. Currently there are no studies on predictors of decannulation success in neurocritical patients. To analyze clinical and demographic data in a cohort of tracheostomized neu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410094

A Rare Case of Pulmonary Embolism Due to Endovascular Coil Embolization and Review of Literature

Francisco X Leon, Beatriz Alba, Alvaro Arribas, Raquel Garcia, Isabel Garcia and Carlos A Quezada

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2018

Coil embolization is an effective and safe treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome. Cases of coil pulmonary migration have been reported after pelvic embolization. However, most cases are usually asymptomatic and do not require specific treatment. We present the first case of pulmonary coil migration after pelvic embolization and concomitant acute pulmonary embolism in a symptomatic patient. The patient was treated with standard anticoagulation and conservative measures without incidences after ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410093

Leukopenia Induced by Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

Belloumi N, Ben Bdira B, Bachouche I, Kacem M, Chermiti Ben Abdallah F and Fenniche S

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 25, 2018

Poor compliance to anti-tuberculosis treatment is sometimes related to its adverse effects. By reporting any unusual or severe treatment related accident, we try to enlarge our background in order to manage better any similar case. By writing this paper, up further evidence is provided for a better knowledge and management of ATT adverse events. Here we report a case of leukopenia induced by an anti-tuberculosis oral treatment. Our 43-years-old patient was diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis. B...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410092

Identification and Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterial Isolates in Kayseri/Turkey

Murat KARAUZ, A Nedret KOC and Altay ATALAY

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2018

Early diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients are the most effective ways to protect society from this disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains by repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) using the DiversiLab System method at Kayseri in Turkey. A total of fifteen clinically sample isolated Mycobacterial strains were identified as M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by the rep-PCR method (bi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410091

Pulmonary Functions in Volleyball and Basketball Players of Kolkata, India

Sohini Basu, Rishna Dalui, Anindita Singha Roy and Amit Bandyopadhyay

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 13, 2018

Assessment of lung function is an indispensable tool for determination of the health status in case of the athletes. Present study focused on evaluating the lung function parameters for the state-level male basketball players and male volleyball players of West Bengal, India apart from comparing the data with their age-matched healthy, sedentary male counterparts. Fitness of an individual may be adjudged by employing a battery of physiological test manoeuvres, and lung function test is one such ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410090

Well-Controlled Narcolepsy Patient Sleepy Again

Dmitriy Kogan and Kavita Ratarasarn

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018

Narcolepsy is associated with high prevalence of comorbid sleep disorders. Overlap in symptoms of different disorders may confound management. Sleep Medicine practitioners need to be vigilant for presence or new development of comorbid conditions to provide effective and comprehensive care. We present a patient with Narcolepsy Type 2 who developed worsening hypersomnolence due to new onset Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement of hypersomnolence without requirin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410089

Lipid Profile Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Association with Disease Severity

Sneh Arora, Rashi Jain, Anant Mohan, Pawan Tiwari and Randeep Guleria

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

Dyslipidemia is considered as the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may contribute to the higher mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence and consequences of dyslipidemia in COPD is still unclear. We studied comprehensive lipid profile panel including serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in COPD patients to study the r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410088

Occupational Rhinitis and Asthma in the Textile Sector of the Central Region of Tunisia

Maoua M, Gaddour A, Rouis H, Kacem I, Guedri S, Aissa S, Ghammem M, Boughattas W, Brahem A, Kalboussi H, El Maalel O, Chatti S and Mrizak N

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

The association between occupational asthma (OA) and occupational allergic rhinitis (OAR) is often described in the literature supporting the concept of "United airways disease" based on a parallel significant reaction of the nose and lungs after challenges with occupational agents and involving several occupational, host-related and environmental factors and thus exacerbating the medical and socio-economic impact of the OR. In Tunisia, only limited studies were carried out to explore associatio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410087

Supine Sleep during Polysomnography and the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Dandan A, Dettenmeier P, Chang J and Espiritu JRD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

Since the supine position worsens obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by promoting upper airway collapse, patients may avoid supine sleep in order to mitigate its effects. However, the avoidance of supine sleep during polysomnography (PSG) may result in a missed diagnosis of OSA. This study aims to examine the association between the presence/absence of supine sleep and the diagnosis of OSA during PSG....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410086

An Incidental Case of Pulmonary Amyloidosis

Fatih Uzer and Hulya Dirol

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018

Amyloidosis is characterized by extra-cellular deposition of an insoluble fibrillary protein, amyloid in organs and tissues. It is classified as either primary or secondary based on the presence of concomitant diseases, ranging from chronic infection or inflammation to malignancy and as limited or systemic based on the extent of organ invasion. The clinical and radiological manifestations of amyloidosis are varrious and often nonspecific, making amyloidosis a diagnostic challenge....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410085

The Effect of Atorvastatin on Right Ventricular Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Hoorak Poorzand, Fariba Rezaeetalab, Masoud Sadeghipour Marvy, Aida Javanbakht, Monavar Afzalaghaei and Majid Jalalyazdi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 17, 2018

Inflammation has an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and statins are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction. This study aimed to assess the effect of statin on the function of the right ventricle and inflammatory markers in COPD patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410084

Visual HRCT Score to Determine Severity and Prognosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Ricardo Peris Sanchez, Estrella Fernandez-Fabrellas, Gustavo Juan Samper, Maria Luisa Domingo Montanana and Lidia Navarro Vilar

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 16, 2018

High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but it is not routinely used to evaluate severity. A semi-quantitative HRCT score was developed to determine its relation with physiologic variables, to assess severity and fibrosis progression, and to establish prognostic factors....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410083

A Case of Primary Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma

Chiyo Yano, Masaki Tominaga, Keisuke Miwa, Yoshiko Naito, Yuki Sakazaki, Takuma Koga, Masaki Okamoto, Tomotaka Kawayama, Tomoaki Hoshino, Reiji Muto, Koichi Ohshima and Masanori Hisaoka

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 26, 2018

A 28-year-old Japanese woman complained of right chest pain, fever, and cough. Chest radiography revealed consolidation in her right lower lobe with a pleural effusion. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics, but her condition did not improve. She was referred to our hospital for evaluation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large saddle filling defect extending into the right pulmonary artery as well as the proximal lower lobe pulmonary artery bran...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410082

An Asymptomatic Haemorrhagic Pleural Effusion Mimicking Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Young Woman with Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Case Report

Vipula R Bataduwaarachchi, Jayani Jayawardhana, Champa Weerasinghe, Aflah Sadikeen, Roshana Constantine and Kirthi Gunasekara

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 14, 2018

A young woman presented with an asymptomatic recurrent right sided pleural effusion. Pleural fluid full report showed neutrophilic and haemorrhagic effusion. Adenosine deaminase level in the pleural fluid was elevated and the Mantoux test was positive. Microbiological diagnosis was negative, and she was started on anti-tuberculous therapy on clinical grounds for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnostic Thoracoscopy revealed characteristic appearance suggestive of thoracic endometriosis which was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410081

Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Private Independent Laboratories in Kampala- Uganda Implications for TB Control in the City

D Lukoye, D Okello, S Namatovu, A SSebagereka, K Mutesasira, Mabumba Eldad, M Nandala and P Suarez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2018

Tuberculosis remains the greatest killer globally. Uganda, one of the highest TB burden countries has a rapidly growing private medical sector. Although a large proportion of patients first seek care from the private sector, there is very little if any literature about participation of private independent laboratories in diagnosis of TB. We aimed at assessing this and the extent to which diagnosed TB patients are linked to care....

Volume 5
Issue 2