A 53-Year-Old Woman with a Rapidly Progressive Lung Mass
Richard H Zou, MD and Christopher N Faber, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 17, 2020
A 53-year-old Caucasian nurse with a history of emphysema presented with 6 months of recurrent fever, generalized fatigue, exertional dyspnea, and non-productive cough. She reported a 15 pack-year smoking history but quit 3 months prior to evaluation. She previously worked with patients with chronic tracheostomies in a long-term acute care facility. She denied hemoptysis, sputum production, chest pain, pleurisy, abdominal pain, or unintentional weight loss. She reported no recent travel, inhalat...
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations of Late Revelation
Adil ZEGMOUT, Abdelhalim BOUCAID, Youness AMCHICH, Yassir BENBABA, Hicham SOUHI, Hanane EL OUAZZANI, Ismail Abderrahmane RHORFI and Ahmed ABID
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2020
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are scarce and hard to diagnose. We report a case of a very late discovery at an advanced age. Recent vascular imaging techniques (Three-dimensional Computed Tomographic Angiography) have largely contributed to their diagnosis. The patient is treated with arterial embolization which is effective and carries a low complication rate in skilled hands. This case illustrates the clinical circumstances of diagnosis, the diagnostic algorithm, and the differential d...
Robert Maximos and Lisa N Glass
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 26, 2020
The use of immunotherapy agents is expanding in oncology patients. These medications, known as checkpoint inhibitors, promote patient T-cell based immune responses against malignancy. The currently available classes include PD-1 inhibitors, PDL-1 inhibitors and CTLA4 inhibitors. As the use of the immunotherapy agents is increased, more knowledge of adverse reactions is gained. Immune related adverse events in multiple organ systems may occur. The most common toxicities associated with checkpoint...
Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Lung Function in Taxi Drivers: A Cross Sectional Study
Loubna Tayara, Fida Charif, Ali Hajj Diab and Ali Toufaily
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 03, 2020
We conducted a cross sectional analytic study that included 120 employees and 200 taxi drivers recruited from the 4 main taxi stations in the Greater Beirut area. Fifty taxi drivers were recruited randomly from each taxi station as well as 30 employees working in stores near every station. We assessed their respiratory symptoms by using a modified version of a standardized questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were performed using an ambulatory validated spirometer (COPD6, Vitalograph)....
Classification Models of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients
Mohammed Alqawba, Luis R Rodriguez, Norou Diawara, Rebecca T Beuschel, Maryann Kaler, Amisha V Barochia, Stewart J Levine, Steven D Nathan and Geraldine Grant
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2020
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal interstitial lung disease with no current cure. Progression of IPF is difficult to predict as the clinical course can be highly variable and range from a rapidly deteriorating state to a relatively stable state, or may be characterized by a slow progressive decline. Therefore, the need for an accurate diagnosis and improved tools for monitoring and managing IPF is of paramount importance, all for understanding the mitochondrial structure...
Bacterial Contamination from Intraoperative Endotracheal Suctioning in Songklanagarind Hospital
Kwanruthai Narunart, MD, Wirat Wasinwong, MD, Sirikarn Siripruekpong, MD, Amphan Chantarokorn, BNS and Riam Kosem, BNS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 17, 2020
This prospective randomized controlled trial in 276 patients of age more than 18-years-old who had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-III and scheduled for elective surgery and had no risk of aspiration were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups. The patients with general anesthesia with oroendotracheal intubation were included. Endotracheal suctioning was performed by the decision of anesthesiologists or anesthetic nurses with sterile or clean technique regarding the g...
Vaping Associated Lung Illness: A Case Series
Joanna Sesti, MD, Safiyya Quintiliani, MD, Christine Minerowicz, MD, Delyse Garg, MD, Shabiah Martin, MD1, Karim Akl, MD, Claudio Guerrieri, MD, Sabiha Hussain, MD, Christina Migliore, MD, Pratik Patel, MD, Marc Linder, MD, Thiruvengadam Anandarangam, MD and Subroto Paul, MD, MPH
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 25, 2020
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, also known as vaping, has gained popularity among young adults. It has been promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarette smoking. Recent reports, however, have linked e-cigarette use to lung dysfunction. We report a series of four patients who were recently treated within our hospital system for vaping associated lung illness (VALI). All four were young, healthy individuals with no significant past medical histories. Lung biopsies were perform...
Giraffe Patterns in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Adem Dirican, MD, Pinar Yildiz Gulhan, MD, Duygu Zorlu, MD, Hulya Bayiz, MD, Yagmur Saritas, Medical Student, Tugce Uzar, Medical Student, Sevket Ozkaya, MD and Nurhan Koksal, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2020
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by severe fibrosis and poor prognosis. We aimed to reveal to different radiological findings of IPF and to describe a different perspective on the complexity of diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF between January 2015 and April 2019 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, VM Medical park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. Totally 51 patients were included in this study; 35 (68.6%) wer...
Paediatric Empyema Thoracis: Roles and Outcomes of Surgical Intervention in Advanced Disease
YL Ho, M Fauzi, Sothee K, A Salleh, AY Khamis and Basheer A Kareem
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 03, 2020
Empyema thoracis has become increasingly common in paediatric population. Antibiotics and thoracostomy have been the cornerstones in managing stage 1 empyema, where as management of stage 2-3 empyema remains controversial. Surgical intervention is perceived to be associated with high morbidity and protracted recovery. This paper reviews the roles and outcomes of surgical decortication, and to provide data for comparison with other treatment modalities. Thirty children (median age 5.2 years, rang...
Association between Cigarette Smoking and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Level
Dongcheol Lee, Hyun Wuk Kang and Yu Il Kim
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: Lee D, Kang HW, Il Kim Y (2019) Association betwee
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme mainly produced from the cells of the hepatobiliary tract. And, it has been introduced as a biomarker for oxidative stress mainly by alcohol consumption and current smoking. This study was performed to evaluate the association between smoking status and serum GGT concentration. The effect of cigarette smoking on serum activities of the enzyme, GGT was investigated using the data of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (5th KN...
Age and Incidence of Pharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy
Victor Omiwole, Sardar Ali and Junaid Ali
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 09, 2019
Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection that often spreads to the skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, and vagina. It is caused by the build-up of yeast called Candida. There are multiple types of Candida that can be infective agents, with C. albicans being the most prevalent. When it spreads to the mouth and throat, it is called thrush or otherwise known as Oropharyngeal Candidiasis. In this retrospective study, the frequency of candidiasis in the throat (pharyngeal), was examined exclusively in 1...
Steroid Induced Psychosis in a Rare Case of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
Bryn Dhir and Rachit Kumar
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2019
We report a case of an 84-year-old female with altered mental status and known Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia suspected from high dose steroid who presented for medical management of acute psychosis. This case centers on the inpatient management of older patients in the setting of steroid use with consideration given to dosing, supportive care and therapy during management. Iatrogenic psychiatric conditions due to therapeutic medical management of pulmonary diseases can be complic...
A Rare Cause of Respiratory Distress in Infants: Double Aortic Arch
Tolga Bacak, Sebnem Ozdogan, Seda Geylani Gulec and Evrim Ozmen
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 21, 2019
Vascular ring, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress in infants, results in respiratory and gastrointestinal findings due to tracheal and/or esophageal compression, but the diagnosis may be delayed because of the nonspecific symptoms. Double aortic arch is the most common vascular ring anomaly. A case of double aortic arch presented with respiratory distress, stridor, and feeding intolerance during infancy is discussed. Vascular ring is seen with an incidence of 1% in all congenital card...
Heart-Lung Acting Together
Robert S Fitzgerald
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 12, 2018
Most frequently medical education treats the pulmonary system and the cardiovascular system separately. And this is, indeed, quite understandable because each system's pathologies and their treatments differ in so many ways. However, from another perspective, the physiologist's, both systems are the evolutionary product for capturing oxygen from the external environment and delivering it to the mitochondria in the body's cells for the generation of the energy needed for life's operations. Bound ...
A Comparison between Two Pathophysiologically Different yet Microbiologically Similar Lung Diseases: Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Daniel E Fenker, Cameron T McDaniel, Warunya Panmanee, Ralph J Panos, Eric J Sorscher, Carleen Sabusap, John P Clancy and Daniel J Hassett
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 29, 2018
Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic pulmonary diseases that affect ~70,000 and 251 million individuals worldwide, respectively. Although these two diseases have distinctly different pathophysiologies, both cause chronic respiratory insufficiency that erodes quality of life and causes significant morbidity and eventually death. In both CF and COPD, the respiratory microbiome plays a major contributing role in disease progression and morbidity. Pulmona...
Correlation between Pentraxin-3 and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Jie-Ru Li, Xiu-Hua Gao, Ju-Qiang Han, Wen-Yan Luo and En-Sheng Ji
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 23, 2018
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of independent dangerous factors for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Recent studies demonstrated that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) are early signs for development of heart failure. The objective of our study was to estimate the relation between OSA severity and LVDD and PTX-3. Sixty-six OSA patients and 25 healthy people who underwent polysomnography to diagnose OSA were enrolled. Ninety-one participant...
The Importance of Posture and Gravity in the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018
The objective of drafting this case report is to delineate the relationship between elephantiasis disease rarely encountered in clinical practice and sleep disordered breathing, to try to understand how this specific condition influences the quality of sleep, to review the mechanisms for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome which is the most common sleep disordered breathing seen and to underline its importance once again. Lymphedema is a chronic condition stemming from the insufficient drainage of ...
A Rare Case of Pulmonary Embolism Due to Endovascular Coil Embolization and Review of Literature
Francisco X Leon, Beatriz Alba, Alvaro Arribas, Raquel Garcia, Isabel Garcia and Carlos A Quezada
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2018
Coil embolization is an effective and safe treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome. Cases of coil pulmonary migration have been reported after pelvic embolization. However, most cases are usually asymptomatic and do not require specific treatment. We present the first case of pulmonary coil migration after pelvic embolization and concomitant acute pulmonary embolism in a symptomatic patient. The patient was treated with standard anticoagulation and conservative measures without incidences after ...
Leukopenia Induced by Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment
Belloumi N, Ben Bdira B, Bachouche I, Kacem M, Chermiti Ben Abdallah F and Fenniche S
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 25, 2018
Poor compliance to anti-tuberculosis treatment is sometimes related to its adverse effects. By reporting any unusual or severe treatment related accident, we try to enlarge our background in order to manage better any similar case. By writing this paper, up further evidence is provided for a better knowledge and management of ATT adverse events. Here we report a case of leukopenia induced by an anti-tuberculosis oral treatment. Our 43-years-old patient was diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis. B...
Identification and Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterial Isolates in Kayseri/Turkey
Murat KARAUZ, A Nedret KOC and Altay ATALAY
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2018
Early diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients are the most effective ways to protect society from this disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains by repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) using the DiversiLab System method at Kayseri in Turkey. A total of fifteen clinically sample isolated Mycobacterial strains were identified as M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by the rep-PCR method (bi...
Pulmonary Functions in Volleyball and Basketball Players of Kolkata, India
Sohini Basu, Rishna Dalui, Anindita Singha Roy and Amit Bandyopadhyay
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 13, 2018
Assessment of lung function is an indispensable tool for determination of the health status in case of the athletes. Present study focused on evaluating the lung function parameters for the state-level male basketball players and male volleyball players of West Bengal, India apart from comparing the data with their age-matched healthy, sedentary male counterparts. Fitness of an individual may be adjudged by employing a battery of physiological test manoeuvres, and lung function test is one such ...
Well-Controlled Narcolepsy Patient Sleepy Again
Dmitriy Kogan and Kavita Ratarasarn
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018
Narcolepsy is associated with high prevalence of comorbid sleep disorders. Overlap in symptoms of different disorders may confound management. Sleep Medicine practitioners need to be vigilant for presence or new development of comorbid conditions to provide effective and comprehensive care. We present a patient with Narcolepsy Type 2 who developed worsening hypersomnolence due to new onset Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement of hypersomnolence without requirin...
Lipid Profile Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Association with Disease Severity
Sneh Arora, Rashi Jain, Anant Mohan, Pawan Tiwari and Randeep Guleria
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
Dyslipidemia is considered as the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may contribute to the higher mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence and consequences of dyslipidemia in COPD is still unclear. We studied comprehensive lipid profile panel including serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in COPD patients to study the r...
Occupational Rhinitis and Asthma in the Textile Sector of the Central Region of Tunisia
Maoua M, Gaddour A, Rouis H, Kacem I, Guedri S, Aissa S, Ghammem M, Boughattas W, Brahem A, Kalboussi H, El Maalel O, Chatti S and Mrizak N
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The association between occupational asthma (OA) and occupational allergic rhinitis (OAR) is often described in the literature supporting the concept of "United airways disease" based on a parallel significant reaction of the nose and lungs after challenges with occupational agents and involving several occupational, host-related and environmental factors and thus exacerbating the medical and socio-economic impact of the OR. In Tunisia, only limited studies were carried out to explore associatio...
Supine Sleep during Polysomnography and the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Dandan A, Dettenmeier P, Chang J and Espiritu JRD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 23, 2018
Since the supine position worsens obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by promoting upper airway collapse, patients may avoid supine sleep in order to mitigate its effects. However, the avoidance of supine sleep during polysomnography (PSG) may result in a missed diagnosis of OSA. This study aims to examine the association between the presence/absence of supine sleep and the diagnosis of OSA during PSG....
An Incidental Case of Pulmonary Amyloidosis
Fatih Uzer and Hulya Dirol
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018
Amyloidosis is characterized by extra-cellular deposition of an insoluble fibrillary protein, amyloid in organs and tissues. It is classified as either primary or secondary based on the presence of concomitant diseases, ranging from chronic infection or inflammation to malignancy and as limited or systemic based on the extent of organ invasion. The clinical and radiological manifestations of amyloidosis are varrious and often nonspecific, making amyloidosis a diagnostic challenge....
Visual HRCT Score to Determine Severity and Prognosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Ricardo Peris Sanchez, Estrella Fernandez-Fabrellas, Gustavo Juan Samper, Maria Luisa Domingo Montanana and Lidia Navarro Vilar
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 16, 2018
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but it is not routinely used to evaluate severity. A semi-quantitative HRCT score was developed to determine its relation with physiologic variables, to assess severity and fibrosis progression, and to establish prognostic factors....
A Case of Primary Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma
Chiyo Yano, Masaki Tominaga, Keisuke Miwa, Yoshiko Naito, Yuki Sakazaki, Takuma Koga, Masaki Okamoto, Tomotaka Kawayama, Tomoaki Hoshino, Reiji Muto, Koichi Ohshima and Masanori Hisaoka
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 26, 2018
A 28-year-old Japanese woman complained of right chest pain, fever, and cough. Chest radiography revealed consolidation in her right lower lobe with a pleural effusion. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics, but her condition did not improve. She was referred to our hospital for evaluation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large saddle filling defect extending into the right pulmonary artery as well as the proximal lower lobe pulmonary artery bran...
Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Private Independent Laboratories in Kampala- Uganda Implications for TB Control in the City
D Lukoye, D Okello, S Namatovu, A SSebagereka, K Mutesasira, Mabumba Eldad, M Nandala and P Suarez
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2018
Tuberculosis remains the greatest killer globally. Uganda, one of the highest TB burden countries has a rapidly growing private medical sector. Although a large proportion of patients first seek care from the private sector, there is very little if any literature about participation of private independent laboratories in diagnosis of TB. We aimed at assessing this and the extent to which diagnosed TB patients are linked to care....