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 Case Report 


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Published Date
June 03, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 6

The Biliary Sinus: A Rare Late-Stage Complication of Cholecystectomy

Ihsan Yildiz, Yavuz Savas Koca and Ibrahim Barut

Corresponding author: Ihsan Yildiz, Department of General Surgery, Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Suleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, 32100 Isparta, Turkey

A 53-year-old female patient who had undergone open cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis 6 years earlier was admitted to hepatobiliary surgery unit with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant and fever. Ultrasonography showed that a 3-cm fluid-filled mass in the right upper quadrant subcutaneously, in computed tomography a fluid-filled tubular lesion extending from the right lobe of liver to right upper quadrant, and percutaneous cholangiography showed that a radio-opaque density communicating with the liver. The biliary sinus tract was totally excised. The patient was uneventfully discharged on day 6 after the surgery. Histopathological examination of the lesion was reported as a bile sinus.

Citation: Yildiz I, Koca YS, Barut I (2016) The Biliary Sinus: A Rare Late-Stage Complication of Cholecystectomy. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:109.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
May 31, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 5

Left Atrial Appendage Occluder with Recurrent Thrombus Formation Visualized by Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography

Sebastian Greiner and Hugo A Katus

Corresponding author: Sebastian Greiner, MD, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

A 78-year-old Caucasian female with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation was put on anticoagulation with phenprocoumon. Two months later she developed an intracranial hemorrhage localized in the brainstem. Neurological findings were paresis and paraesthesia of the left body side. The treatment was conservative and symptoms resolved within three months.

Citation: Greiner S, Katus HA (2016) Left Atrial Appendage Occluder with Recurrent Thrombus Formation Visualized by Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:108.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
May 30, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 5

Chemotherapeutic Agents for Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report with Eribulin Mesylate and Review of the Literature

Alejandra C Fuentes, Reordan O De Jesus and David N Reisman

Corresponding author: David N Reisman M.D, PhD, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0278, USA

Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cases of brain metastases, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality. Surgery and radiation are the current standard of care for the treatment of brain metastases. However, when brain metastases recur despite these treatments, the management options are limited, especially when recurrent metastatic events occur. The role of systemic chemotherapy for brain metastases remains undefined, with advances in drug delivery and ongoing studies using targeted agents showing promising results.

Citation: Fuentes AC, Jesus ROD, Reisman DN (2016) Chemotherapeutic Agents for Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report with Eribulin Mesylate and Review of the Literature. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:107.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
May 16, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 5

The Use of the Gallbladder Wall for Reconstruction of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts in a Case of Agenesis of the Common Bile Duct: A Case Report

Maher N Ghabriel

Corresponding author: Dr. Maher N Ghabriel, Consultant Surgeon, Department of Surgery, St. Peter's Hospital, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

Unexpected anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary ducts were found intraoperatively during open cholecystectomy in a 49-year-old male, with calcular obstructive jaundice. The patient had congenital absence of the common bile duct that appears to have been replaced by the cystic duct, which opened directly into the duodenum. The right and left hepatic ducts drained into the posterior wall of the gallbladder by a short common hepatic duct. Intraoperatively the gallbladder wall (with uncompromised nerve and blood supply) was used as a vital flap to reconstruct a tubular bridge across the defect in the biliary ducts, while retaining a functional sphincter of Oddi at the end of the original cystic duct.

Citation: Ghabriel MN (2016) The Use of the Gallbladder Wall for Reconstruction of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts in a Case of Agenesis of the Common Bile Duct: A Case Report. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:106.



 Review Article 


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Published Date
May 12, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 5

The Spread of Melanoma to the Adrenal Glands: Historical Cases

Wilson I B Onuigbo

Wilson I B Onuigbo, Department of Pathology, Medical Foundation and Clinic, 8 Nsukka Lane, Enugu 400001, Nigeria

Personal interest in cancer metastasis to the adrenal glands began in 1957 and matured in a Doctorate Thesis in 1961. Part of its eminence lay in cases in which it was the only soil selected for attack. What of the melanoma? The available historical account did not contain this answer. Therefore, this paper aims to determine the situation in the classical Transactions of the Pathological Society of London, which began to publish during the 1846 - 1848 period.

Citation: Onuigbo WIB (2016) The Spread of Melanoma to the Adrenal Glands: Historical Cases. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:105.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
May 11, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 5

Neurobiology of KB220Z-Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex [GDOC] as a Liquid Nano: Clinical Activation of Brain in a Highly Functional Clinician Improving Focus, Motivation and Overall Sensory Input Following Chronic Intake

Lucien L Duquette, Frank Mattiace, Kenneth Blum, Roger L Waite, Teresa Boland,Thomas McLaughlin1, Kristina Dushaj, Marcelo Febo and Rajendra D Badgaiyan

Corresponding author: Kenneth Blum, PhD, Department of Psychiatry & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Box 100183, Gainesville, FL 32610-0183, USA

With neurogenetic and epigenetic tools utilized in research and neuroimaging, we are unraveling the mysteries of brain function, especially as it relates to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We encourage the development of pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals that promote a reduction in dopamine resistance and balance brain neurochemistry, leading to dopamine homeostasis. We disclose self-assessment of a highly functional professional under work-related stress following KB220Z use, a liquid (aqua) nano glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex (GDOC).

Citation: Duquette LL, Mattiace F, Blum K, Waite RL, Bolan T, et al. (2016) Neurobiology of KB220Z-Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex [GDOC] as a Liquid Nano: Clinical Activation of Brain in a Highly Functional Clinician Improving Focus, Motivation and Overall Sensory Input Following Chronic Intake. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 3:104.



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