Immunepositive type one diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of diabetes in children worldwide. Seronegative cases are said to be more common among black Africans. In a previous study in Sudan 46% of cases were found to have positive GAD antibodies.
The aim of this study was to find out the prdevalence of pancreatic autoantibodies among multiethnic group of newly diagnosed Sudanese children by testing for multiple antibodies and to see how common are seronegative cases as reported in black Africans.
Eighty newly diagnosed children aged (1-18 years) of multiethnic groups with clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus were tested for 3 islet cell antibodies Glutamic Acid Decarboxylose (GADA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and Zinc Transporter (ZNT8A) using ELISA (ZNT8M GADA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IAA.
Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the records-clinical presentations of the....seronegative cases was compared with the seropositive cases.
A positive result for one or more antibodies was found in 73 (91.2%) and negative in 7 (8.8%) of the cases- No ethnic variation was demonstrated. There was no difference in the clinical presentation of the two group. IAA was positive in 29 (36.3%), GADA in 62 (77.5%) and ZNT8A in 13 (16.3%). On testing for two antibodies, the best yield was on combining GADA and IAA 61 (76.3%).
Unlike the previous study from Sudan most (91.2%) of Sudanese children with Type 1 diabetes have got one or more pancreatic antibodies at onset. However 8.2% are seronegative. Further studies to find the causes in this seronegative group is needed.