The Association between Dietary Protein Intake Frequency, Amount, and State of Energy Balance on Body Composition in a Women's Collegiate Soccer Team
Ashley Delk-Licata, Christian E Behrens, Dan Benardot, Brenda M Bertrand, Paula C Chandler-Laney, Jose R Fernandez and Eric P Plaisance
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2019
Although protein consumption has been documented to influence body composition in humans, the effect on fat-free mass and fat mass, as influenced by the timing, frequency, and state of energy balance during the day when protein is consumed has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether the amount and frequency of dietary protein intake, and the state of energy balance when consumed, are associated with body composition of collegiate women's socce...
Characterization of Exercise-Induced Cytokine Release, the Impacts on the Body, the Mechanisms and Modulations
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 28, 2019
The objective of this review is to introduce significant research findings mainly on cytokine responses to exercise. First, some basic background information on cytokines is provided. Then, some of our data according to exercise modes and key experimental research on the factors affecting cytokine responses to exercise are explained. Furthermore, the mechanisms and modulations of the cytokine responses are described to understand stress and inflammatory reactions and their prevention/recovery......