Many patients seek dental offices for a beautiful, harmonious smile to boost their self-esteem. At present, there is a great search for oral aesthetics, where the harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, position, and color of teeth but also by the gingival tissue. The present study aimed to establish the etiology and diagnosis of the gingival smile, with the alternative of correcting it with very safe surgical techniques such as gingivectomy. The procedure consists in the elimination of gingival deformities resulting in a better gingival contour. Usually, surgical removal of 1 to 2 millimeters of gingival tissue solves most cases of the gingival smile. The surgical technique has the possibility to perform the incision with a conventional scalpel, electrosurgery (electric scalpel) and there are also the high-frequency lasers, being a choice obtained during the treatment plan and in patient-professional harmony, for each case. The literature review was carried out through the selection of articles related to etiology and diagnosis of gingival smile and periodontal surgery, focused on gingivectomy. With this, it is concluded that, based on technical and scientific knowledge, gingivectomy promotes essential visibility and access to a complete removal of superficial irritant deposits and perfect root straightening.