While there is a recent surge in the publications describing the beneficial effects of cannabis in chronic pain control and anti-seizure effects there is a dearth of reporting on the potential side effects of marijuana particularly in the oral cavity. Since the oral cavity is the main port of entry of cannabis, the aim of this review paper is to inform and educate importance to the dental professionals and public about the negative effects of chronic cannabis use in the oral cavity.
Studies published in the English language on PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Library and Springer reported from 1978to 2018 including human studies, animal studies, and case reports.
The continuous use of cannabis was associated with adverse effects on oral tissues such as increased xerostomia and caries incidence, periodontal and gingival problems, oral cancer and candidiasis. The compound 9-tetrahydrocannabinol was implicated with most of these adverse effects.
The literature review has identified a wide range of detrimental effects in the oral cavity when cannabis is used chronically.