The purpose of this review article is to examine the etiology, incidence and classification of white spot lesions in association with their prevention and treatment methods. White spot lesions are opacities that occur by demineralization of enamel under the surface and cause esthetic problems. Orthodontic treatment increases the risk of white spot lesion occurrence by creating areas difficult to clean and prone to plaque accumulation around orthodontic attachments. Therefore, application of suitable methods for prevention of these lesions during orthodontic treatment and performing appropriate therapies after orthodontic treatment is important for obtaining favorable results and patient satisfaction. Oral hygiene motivation, usage of topical fluoride agents, casein phosphopeptide-amorf calcium phosphate agents, antimicrobial agents, tooth bleaching, microabrasion and resin infiltration are current techniques that clinicians can use for prevention and treatment of white enamel lesions.