Constant care should be adopted for the treatment of patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). It is necessary to cover the proper oral hygiene habit given to the interrelationship between oral and systemic diseases, in the development of nosocomial pneumonia. Considering these deficiencies and elucidated problematizations, the present study aimed to evaluate the oral hygiene protocols in patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. National and international protocols and studies, published between 2000 and 2017, were analyzed regarding the hygiene process, the proposed method and the benefits obtained. The incorporation of the dentist surgeon into the ICU team is extremely necessary for the promotion of health and quality of life of critically ill patients. The regularization of a protocol of oral hygiene in patients of the intensive care unit, becomes relevant for the reduction of the incidence of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation, reduction of hospitalization time and consequently, for the promotion of oral comfort and quality of life.