This experimental study evaluated the release of fluoride and several minerals related to remineralization from a novel functional cement, apatite ionomer cement (AIC), and its anti-bacterial properties compared with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing composite resin (giomer).
Conventional GIC (Fuji III, GC Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used as the control and fundamental materials. In the AIC powder, 28% wt of GIC powder was replaced with spherical-shaped hydroxyapatite powder. The giomer, BeautiSealant (Shofu Co., Kyoto, Japan), was used as a positive control. Each specimen was immersed in deionized water and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (for Al, Si, P, Ca and Sr) and a fluoride-selective electrode. Antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the adenosine-5'- triphosphate luminescence method.
Concentrations of released ions from AIC specimens were significantly higher than those from GIC and giomer specimens, except for Sr. Regarding antibacterial activity, luminescence intensity of the AIC group (27.2 ± 12.6 RLU) was significantly lower than that of the giomer group (787.4 ± 176.1 RLU).
It was concluded that AIC could be a most suitable material for pit and fissure sealant for enamel remineralization and anti-cariogenic and -bacterial activity.