Disorders of the vulva have characteristically received less attention than disorders of the cervix and other reproductive organs. There are a number of challenges in diagnosing vulvar neoplasia (pre-invasive and invasive vulvar disease) in Cameroon and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This is primarily because the early signs and symptoms of vulvar neoplasia are non-specific and are predominantly characterized by pruritus vulvae, which can easily be mistaken for vulvar candidiasis. This leads to delay in getting appropriate treatment, with associated suffering, increased expenditure, progression of the disease, and poor prognosis.
This paper presents four case studies of women with vulvar neoplasia diagnosed by the Women's Health Program of the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health organization in Cameroon. These case reports demonstrate the challenges in diagnosing vulvar neoplasia in LMICs and highlight the importance of thoroughly evaluating vulvar symptoms and signs, such as pruritus, hypopigmentation, and leukoplakia with histopathology.