1) To assess the role of life satisfaction, happiness, hopefulness, and self-efficacy, on perceived stress and PWB among a sample of female high school 9th graders in Tabriz, Iran; 2) To assess direct and indirect relationships of life satisfaction, happiness, hopefulness, and self-efficacy with PWB in the sample, considering the mediator role of perceived stress under a conceptual model.
This was a cross-sectional study of 289 randomly-selected female 9th-grader high school students in Tabriz, Iran, from 2013-2014. Trained study staff obtained consent and asked the participants to complete a self-administered validated questionnaire.
Among participants, 64.7% reported mental health problems and 74.3% reported high stress levels. In unadjusted analyses, PWB was positively correlated with life satisfaction, happiness, hopefulness and self-efficacy, and it was negatively correlated with self-perceived stress (P < 0.01 for all correlations). In adjusted analyses, higher life satisfaction and lower stress levels were associated with better PWB (P < 0.001 for all associations). Higher levels of happiness and self-efficacy were associated with lower stress levels.
PWB was influenced by a network of interconnected constructs including life satisfaction, happiness, self-efficacy, and stress. Further studies are needed to disentangle the complex relationships within this network.