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 Case Report 


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Published Date
September 29, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Successful Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C using Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in a Patient with Sheehan's Syndrome

Rong Xu, Yong-hong Zhang and Xu Yang

Corresponding author: Xu Yang, MD, Department of Infectious Diseases/Liver Disease Research Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, P.R. China

A 50-year-old female with Sheehan's syndrome was treated for chronic hepatitis C using pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin. The patient's HCV-RNA status was negative by the fourth week and remained undetectable until the completion of treatment without signs that Sheehan's syndrome had been exaggerated. This case demonstrates that pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin does not necessarily exacerbate Sheehan's syndrome.

Citation: Xu R, Yong-hong Z, Yang X (2016) Successful Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C using Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in a Patient with Sheehan's Syndrome. Int J Virol AIDS 3:028.



 Review Article 


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Published Date
September 27, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the Middle East and North Africa: Prevalence, Risk, Prevention and Challenges

Ahmed A Abd-Rabou

Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmed A Abd-Rabou, Ph.D., Hormones Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Center, Giza 12622, Egypt

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has few recorded outputs regarding the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infections associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). When we went through the HIV/AIDS in MENA, we found a hole in the scientific publications. Attention towards this issue progressed recently though, with few pre-clinical studies conducted. In the current review, we collected comprehensive data of HIV epidemiology in MENA and discussed the main challenges facing clinicians in charge with ailments in MENA and recommended some prevention strategies.

Citation: Abd-Rabou AA (2016) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the Middle East and North Africa: Prevalence, Risk, Prevention and Challenges. Int J Virol AIDS 3:027.



 Review Article 


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Published Date
July 30, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Democratic Republic of Congo: Implementation of 'Test &Treat' Approach at Primary Health Centers

Mulamba Diese, Susie Villeneuve, Emile Numbi, Freddy Salumu, Guy Clarysse, Hilo Ilunga, Franck Fwamba, Theodore Assani and Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue

Corresponding author: Mulamba Diese, Center for Applied Research and Development (CRAD), Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

The 'Test & Treat' approach, also called option B+, using combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has been very effective in controlled clinical trials in resource-limited settings. We report on our experiences with implementing this approach at primary healthcare settings in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The objective of this study was to evaluate 'Test & Treat' approach for PMTCT interventions implemented between September 2013 and June 2015 at local health centers (LHC) in the DRC, in order to learn on the challenges for its scale up at national level.

Citation: Diese M, Villeneuve S, Numbi E, Salumu F, Clarysse G, et al. (2016) Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Democratic Republic of Congo: Implementation of 'Test &Treat' Approach at Primary Health Centers. Int J Virol AIDS 3:026.



 Commentary 


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Published Date
July 25, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

The Monitoring of Lymphocyte Populations may be Optional in Patients with Suppressed Viremia: A Two Years Observational Study

Carlos Tornero, Marina Llopis, Julian Diaz and Mariangeles Martinez

Corresponding author: Carlos Tornero, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Francesc Borja, Gandia Valencia, Avenida de la Medicina, Spain

The determination of lymphocyte populations (LPs) traditionally has been included in the routine follow-up of HIV-infected patients as an indicator of the degree of immune suppression and of the need to start treatment, select the type of therapy, or prescribe preventive measures against opportunistic infections. However, the variability of the technique produces variations in patients with undetectable viremias that have no clinical consequences but which nevertheless generate uncertainty among the patients - with the resulting need for additional educational and reassurance measures.

Citation: Tornero C, Llopis M, Diaz J, Martinez M (2016) The Monitoring of Lymphocyte Populations may be Optional in Patients with Suppressed Viremia: A Two Years Observational Study. Int J Virol AIDS 3:025.



 Review Article 


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Published Date
July 14, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

HIV Exposed Uninfected Children at School Age: Developing Country Context

Gwendoline Q Kandawasvika, Felicity Z Gumbo and Patience Kuona

Corresponding author: Gwendoline Q. Kandawasvika, Department of Paediatric and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

With the success of chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), an increasing number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children will have in utero and post-partum exposure to antiretroviral drugs and survive beyond infancy. The long term effect of antiretroviral drug exposure is however not fully understood. A few studies from developing countries have reported on growth, morbidity, mortality, nutrition, immunological profiles, neurodevelopment and behavioral disorders of HEU children.

Citation: Kandawasvika GQ, Gumbo FZ, Kuona P (2016) HIV Exposed Uninfected Children at School Age: Developing Country Context. Int J Virol AIDS 3:024.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
July 01, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Determinants of Survival in HIV Patients: A Retrospective Study of Dilla University Hospital HIV Cohort

Solomon Hailemariam, Girma Tenkolu, Henok Tadese and Prabhanjan Kumar Vata

Corresponding author: Solomon Hailemariam, Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients though it is not sufficient alone to achieve better HIV related clinical outcomes. There are many other modifiable factors that might have an impact on survival of HIV-infected patients. So far, few studies with small sample size have tried to assess the survival experience of HIV positive patients who are on treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the determinants of survival among HIV infected persons.

Citation: Hailemariam S, Tenkolu G, Tadese H, Vata PK (2016) Determinants of Survival in HIV Patients: A Retrospective Study of Dilla University Hospital HIV Cohort. Int J Virol AIDS 3:023.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
June 27, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Survival among Dually Infected HIV Patients Compared to HIV-1 Mono-Infected Patients Receiving ART in Senegal: A Twelve-Year Cohort Study

Assane Diouf, Amandine Cournil, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay and Louise Fortes-Deguenonvo

Corresponding author: Assane Diouf, MD, MPH, PhD candidate, Department of Infectious Diseases/Regional Research and Training Center on HIV and Associated Diseases, Dakar, Senegal

A total of 403 HIV infected patients (10 HIV-D infected and 393 HIV-1s infected) who initiated ART in Senegal between 1998 and 2002 were included in a prospective cohort and followed until June 2010. Initial ART regimens combined two nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus either one non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or one protease inhibitor (PI). Clinical and biological assessments were performed at ART initiation and every semester thereafter.

Citation: Diouf A, Cournil A, Eymard-Duvernay S, Fortes-Deguenonvo L (2016) Survival among Dually Infected HIV Patients Compared to HIV-1 Mono-Infected Patients Receiving ART in Senegal: A Twelve-Year Cohort Study. Int J Virol AIDS 3:022.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
April 30, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Comprehensive Programme to Prevent Cervical Cancer - the Case of Hungary

Dobrossy L, Oroszi B, Kovacs A and Budai A

Corresponding author: Dobrossy L, MD, Office of Chief Medical Officer, Albert Florian, Budapest, H-1097, Hungary

The overall purpose of a comprehensive cervical cancer prevention programme is to coordinate HPV vaccination (primary prevention) and cervical screening (secondary prevention). Harmonization of the HPV vaccination and population screening is expected to reduce the burden of cervical cancer by reducing human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and detecting cervical pre-cancer lesions and invasive cancer earlier, providing timely treatment. In 2015, 80% of 7th class schoolgirls between 12-13 years of age received HPV vaccination in Hungary. Compliance with the offered screening needs to be increased.

Citation: Dobrossy L, Oroszi B, Kovacs A, Budai A (2016) Comprehensive Programme to Prevent Cervical Cancer-the Case of Hungary. Int J Virol AIDS 3:021.



 Commentary 


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Published Date
March 31, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

PrEP Works, But Only When You [Have Access to] Take it: Improving PrEP Access for Young People in Chicago and Philadelphia

S Caitlin Conyngham, Cassie R Warren and Helen C Koenig

Corresponding author: Helen C. Koenig, MD, MPH, Jonathan Lax Treatment Center, Philadelphia FIGHT, 1233 Locust St., Philadelphia PA 19107, USA

The 2012 United States Food and Drug Administration approval of Tenofovir/Emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has added a highly effective, safe biomedical option to the HIV prevention toolbox. In the United States, young black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV risk over the course of their lifetime. Nearly 1 in 10 black MSM under age 25 is infected with HIV every year, and there are more new HIV infections among young MSM of color ages 13 to 30 than in any other age or racial group.

Citation: Conyngham SC, Warren CR, Koenig HC (2016) PrEP Works, But Only When You [Have Access to] Take it: Improving PrEP Access for Young People in Chicago and Philadelphia. Int J Virol AIDS 3:020.



 Short Review 


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Published Date
March 31, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Bone Fractures in Patients with HIV

Pollo-Flores P, BicudoA, Cruz-FilhoR and Soares DV

Corresponding author: Pollo-Flores P, Fluminense Federal University, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Internal Medicine Department, Brazil

Human immunodeficiency virus infection has posed a challenge for mankind and now this disease is more of a challenge for quality of life than for virus related mortality. This review aims to study two prevalent diseases that may affect this population by decreasing their quality of life. Bone fractures are much more common in the HIV-positive population and have many etiopathogenesis implicated. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is also common in HIV-positive patients and may even lead to cirrhosis and related complications. So it is important to search prevention and therapeutical options for these diseases and clarify the association of liver and bone as a multisystem disease and their inter-relations.

Citation: Pollo-Flores P, Bicudo A, Cruz-Filho R, Soares DV (2016) Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Bone Fractures in Patients with HIV. Int J Virol AIDS 3:019.



 Short Review 


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Published Date
March 31, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) Associated Macrocytosis

Wesley D. Kufel, Cory M. Hale, Eric F. Sidman, Cesar E. Orellana and Christopher D. Miller

Corresponding author: Christopher D. Miller, PharmD, BCPS, Associate Director of Clinical Pharmacy Services Upstate University Hospital, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA

Macrocytosis has been associated with several disease states, vitamin deficiencies, and medications, with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) being a less commonly identified cause. NRTIs are frequently utilized as the two-drug backbone for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Amongst the NRTI drug class, zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) are the most widely reported cause of macrocytosis. Fortunately, AZT and d4T have become less commonly used therapies, as newer NRTIs with improved toxicity profiles have emerged.

Citation: Kufel WD, Hale CM, Sidman EF, Orellana CE, Miller CD (2016) Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) Associated Macrocytosis. Int J Virol AIDS 3:018.



 Short Review 


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Published Date
March 03, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

The AIDS Myth at 30

Erhard Geissler

Corresponding author: Erhard Geissler, Paradiesstr. 287, 12526 Berlin, Germany

In 1985 the KGB and East Berlin's professor of Biology started the AIDS disinformation campaign by accusing the United States of America of having constructed and spread the AIDS agent in the course of biological weapons research. Now, 30 years later, a German authority, The Federal Commissioner for the Records of former East Germany's State Security Service, the "Stasi", is spreading disinformation regarding the alleged substantial involvement of Stasi officers in the campaign.

Citation: Geissler E (2016) The AIDS Myth at 30. Int J Virol AIDS 3:017.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
January 03, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Organotropic Kinetics in Acute Sublethal Transient Cytomegalovirus Infection in Mice

Daniel Benharroch, Ory Rouvio, Aharon Palmon and Bracha Rager

Corresponding author: Daniel Benharroch, Department of Pathology, Soroka University Medical Center, P.O.Box 151, 1, Ytzhak Rager Avenue, Beer-Sheva, 84101, Israel

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) shows many similarities with the human virus (HCMV). This is a ubiquitous DNA virus from the betaherpesvirus group. A self-limiting acute phase of viral infection and a persistent latent phase normally characterize the pathogenesis of MCMV infection in the immunocompetent host. The MCMV widespread distribution occurs via the blood and its mononuclear cells. In the more common congenital viral infection, the HCMV causes birth defects, including mal-development of the central nervous system.

Citation: Benharroch D, Rouvio O, Palmon A, Rager B (2016) Organotropic Kinetics in Acute Sublethal Transient Cytomegalovirus Infection in Mice. Int J Virol AIDS 3:015.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
November 22, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 2

Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses Propagated by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells or Embryonated Eggs

Ewan P Plant, Laura Couzens, Samuel Mindaye, Elizabeth M Coyle, Surender Khurana, Hang Xie, Hana Golding, Maryna C Eichelberger and Zhiping Ye

Corresponding author: Ewan Plant, United States Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993, USA

The hemagglutination assay is a commonly used method to titer influenza virus. It relies on the interaction between virus particles and red blood cells being sufficient to prevent the settling of the blood cells. During additional assessment of human influenza virus stocks titrated by the hemagglutination assay we noted that virus grown in cell culture had a greater number of virus particles than analogous virus grown in eggs. Virus grown in both egg and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are used for vaccine strain selection and to study antigenic variants by serological assays so it is important to know about any differences in the viruses used in the assays.

Citation: Plant EP, Couzens L, Mindaye S, Coyle EM, Khurana S, et al. (2015) Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses Propagated by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells or Embryonated Eggs. Int J Virol AIDS 2:014.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
October 23, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 2

Salviae and Cinnamomi Herbal Medicines have Antiviral Activity against a Broad Range of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Fu-Shi Quan, Young Jae Lee, Richard W Compans and Sang-Moo Kang

Corresponding author: Sang-Moo Kang, Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA

Development of broadly effective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 compounds is a high priority since the number of individuals having HIV infections continues to grow worldwide and vaccines are not available yet. From herbal extracts commonly used in humans, Salviae miltiorrhiza (Salviae), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Cinnamomi), Astragali Radix (Astragali), Asari Radix et Rhizome (Asari), Panax Ginseng (Korean red ginseng), we screened candidate herbal medicines and investigated their antiviral activity against a broad range of HIV-1 strains including clades A and C primary isolates that are dominantly found in Africa and India.

Citation: Fu-Shi Q, Lee YJ, Compans RW, Sang-Moo K (2015) Salviae and Cinnamomi Herbal Medicines have Antiviral Activity against a Broad Range of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Int J Virol AIDS 2:013.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
October 22, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 2

Impact of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV I/II) Diagnosis on the Frequency of Mood Disorders in a Non-Endemic Area

Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Rafaela Miravalhes, Thiago Mestre, Francisco Jaime Barbosa, Marise Zonta, Gabriel Santos Schafer, Indaiara Felisbino, Suzana Carstensen, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Indianara Rotta, Mirian Pelegrino Beltrame, Sonia Mara Raboni and Luine Rosele Vidal

Corresponding author: Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, MD, PhD, Hospital de Clinicas - UFPR, Secao de Virologia, Setor Analises Clinicas, Rua Padre Camargo, 280 Curitiba - PR - Brasil

Chronic diseases cause different impact to different people. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) diagnosis on the frequency of mood disorders. Of six HTLV I/II infected patients, including one asymptomatic, four reported depression at the moment of HTLV diagnosis. The findings reveal that it is crucial to inform patients of the HTLV diagnosis only after conducting confirmatory tests, as indicated by majority of diagnosis protocols. Usually countries with limited resources and a high prevalence of HTLV I/II infections do not perform confirmatory tests, including Brazil.

Citation: de Almeida SM, Nogueira MB, Miravalhes R, Mestre T, Barbosa FJ, et al. (2015) Impact of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV I/II) Diagnosis on the Frequency of Mood Disorders in a Non-Endemic Area. Int J Virol AIDS 2:012.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
October 04, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 2

Exposure to HIV-1 Altered CCR7-Mediated Migration of Monocytes: Regulation by PGE2

Sandra C Cote, Stamatoula Pasvanis and Nancy Dumais

Corresponding author: Nancy Dumais, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (QC), J1K 2R1, Canada

Transmission and pathogenesis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) are interconnected during all stages of the disease with cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocytes are constantly exposed or are targets of HIV-1 and their migratory behaviors are implicated in the dissemination of the infection throughout the host. Monocytes arising from quiescent and infected cells of the myeloid precursor lineage in bone marrow have been demonstrated as a source of residual HIV DNA.

Citation: Cote SC, Pasvanis S, Dumais N (2015) Exposure to HIV-1 Altered CCR7-Mediated Migration of Monocytes: Regulation by PGE2. Int J Virol AIDS 2:011.



 Commentary 


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Published Date
September 28, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 2

Codon Usage as a Possible Source of Sofosbuvir Genetic Resistance Bias in HCV Patients Infected with Different Genotypes

Carlos Campayo, Antonio Mas and Rosario Sabariegos

Corresponding author: Rosario Sabariegos, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Biomedicas, C/ Almansa 14, 02008 - Albacete, Spain

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for liver chronic infections that in a high percentage of cases lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, treatment consisted on a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. However, since 2012 a new wave in treatment options appears with the new family of drugs targeting viral components, the so-called direct-acting antivirals. Now we have a battery of drugs directed against viral protease (NS3/4A), polymerase (NS5B), and viral NS5A protein.

Citation: Campayo C, Mas A, Sabariegos R (2015) Codon Usage as a Possible Source of Sofosbuvir Genetic Resistance Bias in HCV Patients Infected with Different Genotypes. Int J Virol AIDS 2:010.



 Commentary 


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Published Date
June 25, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 1

Oral Health Care to HIV-Infected Children

Gerardo Rivera Silva and Hector R Martinez Menchaca

Corresponding author: Gerardo Rivera Silva, Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, University of Monterrey, Av. Ignacio Morones Prieto 4500 Pte, 66238, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico

The prevalence of oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in developed countries is equivalent to 72%, meanwhile in developing countries it equates to 60%. For this reason health professionals should identify and treat the numerous oral manifestations in HIV-infected children. There are several oral lesions that could be present in HIV-infected children.

Citation: Silva GR, Menchaca HRM (2015) Oral Health Care to HIV-Infected Children. Int J Virol AIDS 2:009.



 Review Article 


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Published Date
May 27, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 1

Liver Fibrosis in HIV and HCV Co-Infection: Independent Mechanisms versus Collective Efforts

Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen and Andre Boonstra

Corresponding author: Jose D Debes, MD, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, 420 SE Delaware St, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA

Liver disease is the leading cause of death not related to AIDS in patients infected with human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience a more rapid progression liver to fibrosis and develop hepatocellular carcinoma at a younger age than those infected with either virus alone. The mechanisms promoting this accelerated progression to fibrosis are not totally understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether both viruses exert fibrosis progression via independent paths or acting in synergy.

Citation: Debes JD, Bohjanen PR, Boonstra A (2015) Liver Fibrosis in HIV and HCV Co-Infection: Independent Mechanisms versus Collective Efforts. Int J Virol AIDS 2:008.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
April 03, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 1

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Cats are Productively Infected and Maintain CD8+ T Cell Stimulatory Capacity

Hood SF, Thompson EM, Akaronu NO, Miller MM and Fogle JE

Corresponding author: Jonathan E. Fogle, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA

Dendritic cells (DCs) have been utilized to enhance CD8+ T cell responses to pathogen-associated peptides for enhancement of vaccine efficacy. CD8+ T cells play a central role in the elimination of viruses during acute viral infection and control of viremia during chronic viral infection. For lentiviral infections such as HIV and FIV, dendritic cell vaccines may be useful for augmenting CD8+ T cell function.

Citation: Hood SF, Thompson EM, Akaronu NO, Miller MM, Fogle JE (2015) MonocyteDerived Dendritic Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Cats are Productively Infected and Maintain CD8+ T Cell Stimulatory Capacity. Int J Virol AIDS 2:007.



 Editorial 


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Published Date
March 30, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 1

International Journal of Virology and AIDS is Committed to Publishing High Quality Papers in Current Virology and AIDS Research

Christopher J. Menzie and Shu-Feng Zhou

Corresponding author: Shu-Feng Zhou, MD, PhD, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA

Understanding how viruses work and interact with the host is of the upmost importance. For example, the Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Citation: Menzie CJ, Zhou SF (2015) International Journal of Virology and AIDS is Committed to Publishing High Quality Papers in Current Virology and AIDS Research. Int J Virol AIDS 2:006e.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
February 10, 2015

Vol. 2, Issue 1

T-reg are the Predominant CD4+ T-Cell Subset Productively Infected with HIV-1 at Sites of Dual HIV/TB Infection

Christina S Hirsch, Shigou Liu, Joy Baseke, John Lusiba Kafuluma, Mary Nserko, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza and Zahra Toossi

Corresponding author: Zahra Toossi MD, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, USA

Background: Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) are expanded during active tuberculosis (TB) regardless of HIV-1-infection, particularly at sites of M. tuberculosis infection. In HIV-1 disease, T-reg are targeted by HIV-1 infection. However, whether they contribute to promotion of HIV-1 infection at sites of HIV/TB is unknown. Methods: Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) from HIV/TB patients with pleural TB were characterized by immunostaining and FACS analysis for surface markers CD4, CD127, CCR5, CXCR4 and intracellular expression of Foxp3, HIVp24, IFN-g and Bcl-2.

Citation: Hirsch CS, Liu S, Baseke J, Kafuluma JL, Nserko M, et al. (2015) T-reg are the Predominant CD4+ T-Cell Subset Productively Infected with HIV-1 at Sites of Dual HIV/TB Infection. Int J Virol AIDS 2:005.



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