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 Case Report 


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Published Date
October 11, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 4

The Heart Remembers: Anterior T wave inversions in a Patient with Intermittent Left Bundle Branch Block

Janaki Rami Reddy Manne

Corresponding author: Janaki R Manne, MD, Department of Hospital Medicine, Marshfield Clinic, 1000 N. Oak Ave, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA

Even though the new onset of T wave inversions on the electrocardiogram is always an alarming finding, but they are not always pathognomonic of myocardial ischemia. Many cardiac and non-cardiac conditions have been described in association with T wave inversions on the electrocardiogram.

Citation: Manne JRR (2017) The Heart Remembers: Anterior T wave inversions in a Patient with Intermittent Left Bundle Branch Block. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:105. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410105



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Published Date
October 09, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 4

Giant Right Atrium or Ebstein Anomaly?

Hacer Kamalı, Abdullah Erdem, Cengiz Erol and Atıf Akçevin

Corresponding author: Abdullah Erdem, Associate Professor of pediatric cardiology, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey

Many acquired and congenital pathologies could cause enlargement of Right Atrium (RA). In rare pathologies we couldn't find an obvious reason for enlargement of RA. Sometimes it leads to misdiagnosis if we try to explain an unknown pathology with well known pathology.

Citation: Kamalı H, Erdem A, Erol C, Akçevin A (2017) Giant Right Atrium or Ebstein Anomaly? Int J Clin Cardiol 4:104. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410104



 Review Article 


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Published Date
September 27, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 3

Endothelial Function for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management

Minako Yamaoka-Tojo

Corresponding author: Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, MD, PhD, FAHA, FACP, FJCC, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, 252-0373, Japan

Endothelium is a layer of the endothelial cells lining to the lumen of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, the heart and other organs. Vascular endothelium is considered to be the largest endocrine organ in human body. Its total weight is about 1.5 kg, and it is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the living body by exerting various functions.

Citation: Yamaoka-Tojo M (2017) Endothelial Function for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:103. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410103



 Research Article 


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Published Date
September 25, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 3

A Feasibility Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of NavX Guided Detection of Pulmonary Vein Electrograms during Atrial Fibrillation Ablation [NavX Guided Detection of Pulmonary Vein Electrograms]

Yaariv Khaykin, Pouria Alipour, Meysam Pirbaglou, Paul Ritvo, Zahra Azizi, Zaev Wulffhart, Bonnie Whaley, David Giewercer, Kellie Winger and Atul Verma

Corresponding author: Yaariv Khaykin, MD, FRCPC, FACC, FHRS, Southlake Regional Heart Centre, 206-581 Davis Drive, Newmarket, Ontario, L3Y-2P6, Canada

Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation (PVAI) targeting PV triggers is an established treatment for paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Ablation lesions are typically delivered around the entire circumference of each individual PV. This study tested a strategy where electrical inputs to the PVs were mapped using the NavX system and selectively targeted before ablation.

Citation: Khaykin Y, Alipour P, Pirbaglou M, Ritvo P, Azizi Z, et al. (2017) A Feasibility Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of NavX Guided Detection of Pulmonary Vein Electrograms during Atrial Fibrillation Ablation [NavX Guided Detection of Pulmonary Vein Electrograms]. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:102. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410102



 Research Article 


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Published Date
August 03, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 3

Value of a New QT Interval Correction Formula in Adjusting for Increases in Heart Rate

Simon W Rabkin

Corresponding author: Dr. Simon W Rabkin, MD, FRCPC, FACC, FESC, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Level 9 2775 Laurel St, Vancouver, V5Z 1M9, BC, Canada

QT interval correction for heart rate (QTc) is essential for clinical usage. A new QTc formula has been developed based on a data agnostic mathematical approach in a large population ECG data base. The formula requires testing on a within individual basis under conditions of intervention to increase heart rate.

Citation: Rabkin SW (2017) Value of a New QT Interval Correction Formula in Adjusting for Increases in Heart Rate. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:101. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410101



 Research Article 


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Published Date
June 24, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 2

Long Term High-Fat Diet-Induced Modification of Vascular Wall and Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Mediated Oxidative Stress: Consequences for Endothelium-Independent Vascular Function in Rats

Caroline Sanchez, Vincent Achard, Michel Grino and Stephane Tanguy

Corresponding author: Stephane Tanguy, Phd, Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, TIMC-IMAG Laboratory UMR 5525, Batiment J. Roget, 4eme etage, 38706, La Tronche, France

Visceral obesity, a feature of the metabolic syndrome, is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to study the influence of increased fat intake, a major determinant of central obesity, on Smooth Muscle Cells (SMC) reactivity and its interaction with Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), which plays an important role in the local regulation of vascular function, with a special emphasis on oxidative stress.

Citation: Sanchez C, Achard V, Grino M, Tanguy S (2017) Long Term High-Fat Diet-Induced Modification of Vascular Wall and Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Mediated Oxidative Stress: Consequences for Endothelium-Independent Vascular Function in Rats. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:097. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410097



 Case Report 


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Published Date
June 08, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 2

Pulmonary Artery Agenesis in Young Adult - Two Case Reports

Walter Serra Francesco Tafuni, Nicola Sverzellati, Maria Alberta Cattabiani and Angelo Placci

Corresponding author: Walter Serra, Cardiology Division, University Hospital of Parma, Italy

A 21-year-old woman presented for a history of exertional dyspnoea and atypical chest pain. No history of allergies or tuberculosis. A chest X-ray showed asymmetry of the chest walls from a reduced expansion of the right lung caused by parenchymal loss and right deviation of the mediastinum and ipsilateral elevation of the diaphragm.

Citation: Serra W, Tafuni F, Sverzellati N, Cattabiani MA, Placci A (2017) Pulmonary Artery Agenesis in Young Adult - Two Case Report. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:096. doi.org/10.23937/2378-2951/1410096



 Case Report 


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Published Date
April 01, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 2

Intravenous Immunoglobulins in the Management of Parvovirus B19 Induced Fulminant Myocarditis: Case Report

Maysa Saleh and Samir Sajwany

Corresponding author: Maysa Saleh, Pediatric department, Latifa hospital, Dubai Health authority, United Arab Emirates

One-year-old boy was admitted to a hospital suffering from acute myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. He was experiencing vomiting for 2 days, breathing difficulty and poor oral intake. In view of deterioration of his condition that has required ventilator support, inotropes, anti-failure medications and antibiotics, hence, he was transferred to our hospital.

Citation: Saleh M, Sajwany S (2017) Intravenous Immunoglobulins in the Management of Parvovirus B19 Induced Fulminant Myocarditis: Case Report. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:094.



 Original Article 


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Published Date
March 06, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Early Therapy with Beta Blockers Plus Ivabradine Versus Beta Blockers Alone in Patients Hospitalised with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction (ETHIC-AHF Study): Results at One-Year Follow-Up

Francisco J Hidalgo, Francisco Carrasco, Juan C Castillo, Sara Rodriguez, Laura Pardo, Enrique Duran, Carlos Ferreiro, Jose Sanchez, Monica Delgado, Dolores Mesa, Martin Ruiz and Manuel Anguita

Corresponding author: Dr. Francisco J Hidalgo Lesmes, Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda, Menendez Pidal 1, 14004, Cordoba, Spain

Heart rate (Hr) has prognostic value in patients with heart failure, depressed ejection fraction (HFrEF) and sinus rhythm.
Objective: Is to analyze the effect of the early co-administration of ivabradine added to beta-blockers (intervention group) versus only beta blockers (control group) in patients hospitalized with HFrEF on Hr and clinical and functional outcomes at long term.

Citation: Hidalgo FJ, Carrasco F, Castillo JC, Rodrguez S, Pardo L, et al. (2017) Early Therapy with Beta Blockers Plus Ivabradine Versus Beta Blockers Alone in Patients Hospitalised with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction (ETHIC-AHF Study): Results at One-Year Follow-Up. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:093. 10.23937/2378-2951/1410093



 Original Article 


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Published Date
February 25, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Pattern of Gender Variations in Acute Coronary Syndrome for Patients in Kuwait (Pagacks Study)

Jadan Alsaddah, Mohammad Almutairi, Wael Aboshokka, Saad Alkandari, PRS Remya and Hany Younan

Corresponding author: Jadan AlSaddah, MSc, MD, Department of Cardiology, Chest Diseases Hospital, Kuwait

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The world has started laying emphasis on risk stratification based on gender differences. Hence, there seemed to be a void to be filled regarding ACS which aimed to identify patient characteristics (especially gender) and clinical management, as well as angiographic, PCI, and hospital outcomes in Kuwait.

Citation: Alsaddah J, Almutairi M, Aboshokka W, Alkandari S, Remya PRS, et al. (2017) Pattern of Gender Variations in Acute Coronary Syndrome for Patients in Kuwait (Pagacks Study). Int J Clin Cardiol 4:092. 10.23937/2378-2951/1410092



 Perspective 


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Published Date
February 23, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia: West and North Zone in Manaus-Amazonas

Marco A Trujillo, Haydee M Carmona and Jorge T Mendoza

Corresponding author: Marco A Trujillo, Internal Medicine, SEMSA, DISA (Distrito Saude-OESTE), Amazonas, Brazil

In the city Manaus, Amazonas, with the Dutch Lipid Register Network. Were analyzed 1294 lipid profiles, of the North and West zone of city, neither with DMII, between June 2014 and March 2015, from people aged range 18 to 77 years old. Whose clinical history of familial cardiovascular disease (CVD) was wondered.

Citation: Trujillo MA, Carmona HM, Mendoza JT (2017) Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia: West and North Zone in Manaus-Amazonas. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:091. 10.23937/2378-2951/1410091



 Original Article 


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Published Date
February 21, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Gender Effects on Coronary Artery Flow and Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Acute Anterior ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) after Primary Coronary Angioplasty

Dawod Sharif, Saeed Khaleeliah, Amal Sharif-Rasslan and Uri Rosenschein

Corresponding author: Dawod Sharif, MD, Department of Cardiology, Bnai Zion Medical Center, 47 Golomb St, Haifa, Israel

Coronary disease is the most frequent disease and cause of mortality in women. The aim of this study was to examine gender effects in acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) on coronary artery and myocardial perfusion and left ventricular systolic function.

Citation: Sharif D, Khaleeliah S, Sharif-Rasslan A, Rosenschein U (2017) Gender Effects on Coronary Artery Flow and Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Acute Anterior ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) after Primary Coronary Angioplasty. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:090. 10.23937/2378-2951/1410090



 Case Report 


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Published Date
January 21, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Type A Aortic Dissection in an Asymptomatic 28-Week Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome

Mario Gioia, Reehan Shahzad and Jordan Safirstein

Corresponding author: Mario Gioia, Department of Internal Medicine, Gagnon Cardiovascular Institute, Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, 2207 The Buckley Way, Morris Plains NJ 07950, USA

Acute aortic dissection during pregnancy is a rare and potentially fatal disease. Connective tissues disorders, including Marfan syndrome, in combination with the physiological stress of pregnancy and delivery substantially increase the risk of aortic dissection. It is vital to recognize symptoms early, if present, in order to undergo medical and surgical management to increase the chance of survival.

Citation: Gioia M, Shahzad R, Safirstein J (2017) Type A Aortic Dissection in an Asymptomatic 28-Week Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome. Int J Clin Cardiol 4:089.



 Original Article 


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Published Date
January 20, 2017

Vol. 4, Issue 1

Timing of Catheterization Post Cabg Surgery: (Tic-Postcabg)

Nasser Hayat, Jadan Al Saddah, Mohammad Al Mutairi, Mariam Abdulla Almelahi and PRS Remya

Corresponding author: Prof. Nasser Hayat, MD, PhD, Chest Diseases Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait

Post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients were arbitrarily divided into 2 groups at the time of cardiac catheterization. Catheterization was performed because of ischemic manifestations. Group A had their surgery less than 5 years. Group B had their surgery more than 5 years.

Citation: Hayat N, Al Saddah J, Al Mutairi M, Almelahi MA, Remya PRS (2017) Timing of Catheterization Post Cabg Surgery: (Tic-Postcabg). Int J Clin Cardiol 4:088.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
September 20, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Validation and Simplification of a Scoring Model Derived for Prediction of Poor Coronary Collateral Circulation in Acute Non-St Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Mehmet İleri, Koray Gursel, Funda Basyigit, Pınar Turker Bayır, Deniz Sahin, Umit Guray, Ozgul Ucar, Burak Acer and Yahya Buyukasık

Corresponding author: Mehmet İleri, Department of Cardiology, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Determinants of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in human heart are still incompletely identified. In acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), abrupt vessel occlusion results in myocardial necrosis in the jeopardized area. Angiographic collaterals to myocardial tissue distal to an acutely occluded coronary vessel can reduce infarct size and risk for post-infarct complications as well as infarct related mortality. These prognostic implications of collateral function, makes it necessary to have a better understanding of the factors promoting collateral development in acute setting of myocardial infarction.

Citation: İleri M, Gursel K, Başyigit F, Bayır PT, Şahin D, et al. (2016) Validation and Simplification of a Scoring Model Derived for Prediction of Poor Coronary Collateral Circulation in Acute Non-St Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:087.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
August 12, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Coronary-Cameral Fistula Presenting as Worsening Refractory Heart Failure

Dhruti Mankodi, Ashish Sharma, Fulvia Banu, Sameer Shaharyar, Pedro Martinez-Clark and Ali Bazzi

Corresponding Author: Dhruti Mankodi, Ashish Sharma, Fulvia Banu, Sameer Shaharyar, Pedro Martinez-Clark and Ali Bazzi

Coronary-cameral fistula (CCF) is a rare condition most commonly caused by an embryologic developmental anomaly. Fifty-five percent of CCFs originate from the right coronary artery, 35% from the left coronary artery, and 5% from both. More than 90% of them drain into the venous system and low pressure sites such as the right ventricle (41%), right atrium (26%), pulmonary artery (17%) and only 3% drain into the left ventricle or atrium.

Citation: Mankodi D, Sharma A, Banu F, Shaharyar S, Martinez-Clark P, et al. (2016) Coronary-Cameral Fistula Presenting as Worsening Refractory Heart Failure. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:086.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
August 11, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Progress in an Adult Male Suffering from Coronary Artery Ectasia as Assessed with Exercise Stress Testing: A Nine-Year Case Report

Charles Micallef

Corresponding author: Charles Micallef, B. Pharm (Hons), M.Sc (PAPH), Sport Malta, Cottoner Avenue, Cospicua BML 9020, Malta

A nine-year history of a young to middle-aged male who was diagnosed with coronary artery ectasia after presenting with impaired vision in one of his eyes is presented. Throughout this period, four exercise stress tests were carried out and improvements were noted: from a positive stress test indicative of myocardial ischemia, the outcome gradually progressed to negative. A distinct feature of this case is that the patient was only on moderate statin and dual antiplatelet therapy and his cholesterol levels remained significantly elevated.

Citation: Micallef C (2016) Progress in an Adult Male Suffering from Coronary Artery Ectasia as Assessed with Exercise Stress Testing: A Nine-Year Case Report. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:085.



 Case Series 


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Published Date
August 06, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Dilated Cardiomyopathy due to Vitamin D Deficiency

Nalan Karabayir, Kelesoglu E, Helen Bornau, Kazim Oztarhan, Aktas D and Erdem A

Corresponding author: Nalan Karabayir, MD, Pediatrics Department, Istanbul Medipol University, Kartaltepe mah. Aksoy sok 6/11, Bakirkoy, Istanbul, Turkey

Dilated cardiomyopathy, which mostly has an idiopathic etiology or is caused by genetic inheritance or infection, may cause irreversible congestive heart failure. Hypocalcemia is a rare etiology of reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiogenic shock related to hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy is a rare event. Here we report two cases with congestive heart failure who was diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to hypocalcemia.

Citation: Karabayir N, Kelesoglu E, Bornau H, Oztarhan K, Aktas D, et al. (2016) Dilated Cardiomyopathy due to Vitamin D Deficiency. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:084.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
July 30, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Successful Surgical Embolectomy for Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnant Woman

Nobuhiko Hiraiwa, Kohei Abe, Kunihiko Yoshino, Manabu Yamasaki and Hiroyasu Misumi

Corresponding author: Nobuhiko Hiraiwa, MD, Department of cardiovascular surgery, St. Luke's International Hospital, 9-1 Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

A 28-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with tonic seizure and dyspnea, and was diagnosed with acute massive pulmonary embolism. An emergency surgical embolectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Several fragments of the thrombi were carefully removed from the right and the main pulmonary arteries, and sufficient back-flow from the pulmonary artery was established. The postoperative course was uneventful. After the embolectomy, the ratio of pulmonary to systemic arterial pressure (Pp/Ps) was decreased from 0.5 to 0.25. There were no complications including maternal or fetal loss and major bleeding complications.

Citation: Hiraiwa N, Abe K, Yoshino K, Yamasaki M, Misumi H (2016) Successful Surgical Embolectomy for Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnant Woman. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:083.



 Research Article 


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Published Date
July 30, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Circulating Endothelial Cells, Flow Mediated Dilatation % as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Paroxysmal Lone Atrial Fibrillation

Rania Gaber, Wessam Salah Ibrahim and Manal Hamesa

Corresponding author: Rania Gaber, Department of Cardiology, Clinical pathology and Radiology Tanta University, Egypt

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the commonest arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and is increasingly considered as an emerging health epidemic. Despite rapidly evolving treatment strategies, AF presents a complex management challenge to the physician and is now attracting substantial clinical and academic interest because of a strong association with substantial mortality and morbidity.

Citation: Gaber R, Ibrahim WS, Hamesa M (2016) Circulating Endothelial Cells, Flow Mediated Dilatation % as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Paroxysmal Lone Atrial Fibrillation. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:082.



 Original Article 


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Published Date
July 18, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 2

Evaluation of Left Ventricular Systolic Function Immediately after Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

Hisao Matsuda, Tomoo Harada, Yui Nakayama, Marika Yamada, Yasushi Takagi, Makoto Takano, Ikutarou Nakajima, Emi Nakano, Yukako Takimura, Satoru Nishio, Toshiyuki Furukawa, Hidekazu Miyazaki and Yoshihiro J Akashi

Corresponding author: Hisao Matsuda, Division of Cardiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, Asahi-ku, Yasashi-cho, 1197-1, Yokohama, Japan

Background:The effect of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) on left ventricular (LV) function after restoration of sinus rhythm remains unclear in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF). This study aimed to evaluate LV systolic function in the early phase after PVI using speckle tracking echocardiography.
Methods:Twelve patients with CAF could be restored to sinus rhythm by PVI and maintained sinus rhythm after PVI. Echocardiography was performed before, immediately after and 3 months after PVI. Measurements from conventional echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging were analyzed. Radial strain (RS) was calculated for each of the 6 standard segmental LV regions on left midventricular short-axis images.

Citation: Matsuda H, Harada T, Nakayama Y, Yamada M, Takagi Y, et al. (2016) Evaluation of Left Ventricular Systolic Function Immediately after Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:081.



 Case Report 


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Published Date
June 23, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Transcatheter Closure of Large Bilateral Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae using Amplatzer Vascular Plugs

Akika Ando, Adnan Bhopalwala and Christian Spies

Corresponding author: Akika Ando, MD, Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 1356 Lusitana Street, Honolulu, HI 96813-2427, USA

A coronary arteriovenous (AV) fistula is defined as a connection between one or more coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel, bypassing the myocardial capillary bed. For symptomatic patients, surgical intervention is the standard treatment plan. Recently, the use of transcatheter vascular plugs for the percutaneous closure of coronary AV fistulae has been reported in a few selected cases. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with diffusely ectatic right and left coronary AV fistulae that drained into the main pulmonary artery.

Citation: Ando A, Bhopalwala A , Spies C (2016) Transcatheter Closure of Large Bilateral Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae using Amplatzer Vascular Plugs. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:080.



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Published Date
May 28, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Myocardial Infarction in Young versus Older Adults: An Analysis of Differences in Proportion, Risk Factors, Clinical Demographics, Angiographic Findings and in-Hospital Outcomes

Nadim Shah, Christopher Wang, Vanessa Lee, Nicholas Cox, Chiew Wong, Anne-Maree Kelly and Kean Soon

Corresponding author: Nadim Shah, Centre for Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Western Health Footscray, 3011, Victoria, Australia

Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major cause of death worldwide. This study looked at the proportions, demographics, risk profile, angiographic data and in-hospital outcomes of young versus older myocardial infarction (MI) patients presenting to a community teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients presenting prospectively, with acute MI between August 2013 and July 2014, who demonstrated coronary stenosis ≥ 50% on invasive coronary angiography in at least one epicardial coronary artery. Patients were divided into two groups by age; those who were aged 55 years or younger and those who were older.

Citation: Shah N, Wang C, Lee V, Cox N, Wong C, et al. (2016) Myocardial Infarction in Young versus Older Adults: An Analysis of Differences in Proportion, Risk Factors, Clinical Demographics, Angiographic Findings and in-Hospital Outcomes. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:079.



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Published Date
May 27, 2016

Vol. 3, Issue 1

Clinical Characterization of Pharmacologically Induced Takotsubo Syndrome: Implications for Treatment and Mechanisms

Robert W Murdock and David K Murdock

Corresponding author: Robert Murdock, Legacy Health department of internal medicine residency program, Portland Oregon, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA

Takotsubo Syndrome (TS) is characterized by sudden localized left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and clinical features suggesting an acute coronary syndrome. It occurs more in women and is frequently associated with emotional or physical stress. Pharmacologically induced TS (PITS) has been reported but a comprehensive characterization has not been performed. Such a characterization could provide insight into mechanisms and treatment of spontaneous TS.

Citation: Murdock RW, Murdock DK (2016) Clinical Characterization of Pharmacologically Induced Takotsubo Syndrome: Implications for Treatment and Mechanisms. Int J Clin Cardiol 3:078.



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