Impact of Donor Cytomegalovirus Serology and duration of Prophylaxis on Follow-Up Strategy in Lung Transplant Recipients
Jose M. Borro, Maria Delgado, Teresa Rey and Pablo Rama
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 04, 2015
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent opportunistic infection after lung transplantation. It is reported in between 20% and 50% of cases after discontinuation of prophylaxis, depending on the series. CMV usually remains dormant in the lymphatic system, and its reactivation, due to immunosuppressive therapy, may have considerable adverse consequences in the immunocompromised host. Its many and varied effects include inflammation, increased morbidity, and decreased graft and patient survival....
Screening for the Polyomaviruses BKV, JCV and SV40 in Pediatric Malignancies
Karin Kosulin, Alexander Zimmerhack, Johannes A. Hainfellner, Christine Haberler, Gabriele Amann, Susanna Lang and Thomas Lion
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2015
Different studies suggested an oncogenic potential of the polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40, particularly in brain tumors and neuroblastoma, which belong to the most frequent malignancies in children. However, currently available data are controversial, possibly due to the different regional prevalence of the viruses and the detection techniques used. To elucidate the presence of these polyomaviruses in the indicated tumor entities and in childhood cancer in general, we have investigated a broad spectrum of pediatric malignancies, with particular emphasis on neuroblastoma f...
Use of Dexmedetomidine in the Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients
Julie Kalabalik and Jesse B. Sullivan
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 30, 2015
Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of over 200 diseases and conditions in individuals worldwide, including liver cirrhosis, cancers, traumatic injury, and alcohol dependence. In hospitalized patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD), up to 25% will develop acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). In critically ill patients, presence of AWS is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), more frequent infectious complications and higher mortality....
Understanding the Host Epigenetics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Vinod Yadav, Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Ashwan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2015
It was in 1942 when C.H. Waddington first coined the term epigenetics. According to him there is no direct relationship between a gene and its phenotype. He considered epigenetics as a part of development biology and in his opinion many times genotype and phenotype variations are not associated and phenotype differences do not necessarily involve change in genotype. Since 40s epigenetics became the topic of interest among the scientific community. Now everybody wants to know that what goes on beyond the DNA and majority says that only epigenetics can address this question....
Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: The Importance of Glutamatergic System
Jose Carlos F. Galduroz, Pedro Luis Prior and Anna Carolina Ramos
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 30, 2015
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a complex phenomenon that involves several neurotransmission systems. Its signs and symptoms are related to the adrenergic autonomic hyperstimulation and to the hypofunction of the gabaergic system. Moreover, alcohol is an antagonist of the NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) receptors, which are excitatory, in the central nervous system....
Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cell Size in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Reliability and Potential Diagnostic Significance
Aaron Cotrell, Farzaneh Sayedian, Michelle Huang, Xia Chen, Ming Xie, Marc Smith and James Huang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2015
Evaluation of lymphoma cell size is a key step in the sub classification of B-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma cells can be classified as large, small or (less commonly) medium; but recognition of large B-cells is of particular importance because of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. Lymphomas with increased large cells are often associated with more aggressive clinical course. For instance, neoplastic B-cells of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are predominately large cells....
Protocols for Uncontrolled Donation after Circulatory Death: International & Comprehensive Analysis
Ivan Ortega Deballon
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 18, 2015
Determination of death, the exact moment that a person's death occurs, has been a constant challenge throughout human being history. What we already know is that death usually does not occur abruptly, at a specific time and for all parts of the body simultaneously. Human resistance to degradation by lack of oxygen varies depending on the type of cell and organ. It is possible, for example, for successful cornea transplants from deceased individuals as many as seven days after death. Actually, the absolute absence of any residual vital activity in the body after cessation of circulatory functio...
The Relationship between Diabetes and Retirement from Work: A Ten Year Follow-Up in National Registers
Bryan Cleal and Kjeld Poulsen
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 22, 2015
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between diabetes, mortality and exit from work using various Danish Pension schemes. Methods: We linked the Danish National Diabetes register with socioeconomic and population-based registers and followed prevalent and incident cases of diabetes for ten years, adjusting for gender, age and socio-occupational group. We analysed the proportion of individuals with diagnosed diabetes before and after entering a normal retirement pen-sion, voluntary early retirement pension or disability pension. Risk ratios for entering pensions, emigration and mortali-t...
Review of 2003 to 2015 Guidelines on Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
Wilbert S. Aronow
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2015
Patients with coronary artery disease should have their modifiable coronary risk factors intensively treated. Dietary sodium should be reduced. Hypertension should be treated with beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Long-acting nitrates are effective antianginal and antiischemic drugs. Calcium channel blockers may be added if angina persists despite beta blockers and long-acting nitrates....
A Simple Two-Stage PCR Method for Quality Amplification of Degenerate DNA
Ebili Henry O, Ham-Karim Hersh Abdul and Ilyas Mohammad
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 06, 2015
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue banks are invaluable to cancer genetics and biomarker discovery. However, FFPE tissue-derived DNA is degenerate. As such, any PCR technique which will give adequate amplification of such DNA to enable downstream applications is important to the characterization of genetic biomarkers and to personalized medicine. The aim of this article is to describe a two-stage PCR method which efficiently amplifies degenerate FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Amplicon enriched templates were produced by a fist-stage multiplex PCR which used fie or more primer pairs with...