Use of Statins in an Australian Elderly Population
Svetla Gadzhanova, Elizabeth Roughead and Jenni Ilomaki
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 28, 2014
Background: Statins are the fist drug choice for lowering high cholesterol and are one of the most widely used classes of medicines in Australia. Although well tolerated, some adverse effects are dose and potency dependent to which older people are particularly susceptible. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the use of statins in elderly Australians, and how usage had changed over time with respect to dose and potency of statin prescribed....
Necrotizing Pancreatitis Causing Acute Focal Pericarditis
William F McIntyre, Andres Enriquez, Kevin Michael and Adrian Baranchuk
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 15, 2014
We describe the case of a 39-year old man with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A twelve-lead electrocardiogram (A) showed signs of pericarditis and a computed tomography of the abdomen showed focal pericardial effusion, confirming the diagnosis....
A Case Report of Immediate Extubation Post Primary PCI in STEMI
Sharan Rufus Ponniah, Pradeepto Ghosh, Nagapradeep Nagajothi, Srinivasa Satti, Kavitha Nidamanuri and Baskar Rajala
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 16, 2014
We report a case of immediate extubation following primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The optimal timing of extubation following revascularization in STEMI is unclear. Early extubation in this scenario, if feasible has a mortality benefit. Duration of mechanical ventilation following STEMI is a strong predictor of mortality. In this case, we report a scenario of immediate extubation following revascularization, which we believe contributed to the patient's mortality benefit. We present this case to emphasize the importance of early withdrawa...
Cockroach Allergy, Respiratory Allergic Diseases and Its Immunotherapy
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Cockroach allergen-derived proteases play a direct role on airway epithelial as well as dendritic cells thru activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Cockroach-derived proteases lead to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen thru disturbing airway epithelial integrity, which can activate innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells) via binding to Toll-like receptor or C-type lectin receptors. The activated dendritic cells promote the adaptive immune system cells to a Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization....
Polarization of Human THP-1 Macrophages: Link between Adenosine Receptors, Inflammation and Lipid Accumulation
Michael J. Littlefild, Isaac Teboul, Iryna Voloshyna and Allison B. Reiss
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 08, 2014
Rationale: Macrophages are key players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. They express surface receptors of different subtypes for the endogenous autocoid adenosine. Macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions attain two clear-cut functional phenotypes M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (immunosuppressive). This study examines the relative expression of adenosine receptors and proteins involved in cholesterol transport in THP-1 human macrophages upon differentiation into M1 and M2 subtypes....
Recurrent Ischemic Strokes as the First Manifestation of A Pancreatic Cancer
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2015
A 56-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital with acute headache and a speech disorder characterized by mild aphasia and dysarthria. She had a history of arterial hypertension and nicotism for several years. Neurological evaluation at admission revealed mild motor aphasia and dysarthria (NIHSS: 2). Brain computed tomography (CT) showed two hypodense lesions, in the lef temporal and the right frontal lobes respectively. Results of laboratory tests revealed elevated values of serum lactate dehydrogenase (753 UI/l), gammaglutamyltransferase (195UI/l), alanin...
Monitoring of the Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve during Mediastinoscopy is Feasible and Safe
Wolfram Karenovics, Sebastien Guigard, Besa Zenelaj, Marc Licker and Frederic Triponez
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Objective: Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) palsy is a well known complication of cervical mediastinoscopy and is not infrequent if specifically looked for. Electro-physiological monitoring of the RLN is common practice in thyroid surgery and has greatly improved outcomes. We applied the same technique during cervical video-mediastinoscopy. Patients and methods: Between October 2012 and October 2013 patients undergoing mediastinoscopy were enrolled prospectively for intra-operative monitoring of the left RLN. A standardized protocol for the use of the neuromonitor was followed....
Relationship of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups with Complex Diseases
Carlos G Urzua-Traslavina, Maria G Moreno-Trevino, Denisse A Martinez-Trevino, Hugo A Barrera-Saldana and Rafael BR Leon-Cachon
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2014
Mitochondria are responsible for energy production in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Apart from their major role in metabolism, mitochondria are involved in many other cellular processes. A new paradigm is needed to understand aging, aging-related illnesses, and complex diseases. Because of the long co-evolution of mitochondria with the cells, subtle variations in the function of these organelles could influence many organ systems. Understanding the extent of this influence will shed light on the pathophysiology of some of these diseases. This review will examine the history of mito...
Oxidative Stress and the Epigenome in Human Disease
Adriana Arita and Max Costa
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2014
Epigenetics refers to the study of the changes in gene expression that occur without changes in the DNA sequence. There is growing evidence that epigenetic modifications such as changes in the levels of DNA methylation or post-translational histone modifications are involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. Oxidative stress as a result of metabolic or environmental factors leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS plays a role in many human diseases including cancer and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases by promoting DNA damage and/or al...
Discordant Disease Course in a Monozygotic Twin Pair with Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
Silvia Bresolin, Paola De Filippi, Claudia Cagioni, Simone Cesaro, Annamaria Di Meglio, Anna Leszl, Fiorenza Aprili, Chiara Cugno, Chiara Frasson, Marco Zecca, Cesare Danesino and Geertruyte Kronnie
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2014
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare neoplastic disorder occurring in early childhood often showing an aggressive progression. We report a case of a twin pair with concordant JMML but an extremely different disease course. Both twins presented with somatic aberrations of chromosome 7 and mutations in PTPN11. Analysis of sorted BM and PB cell populations revealed the clonal nature of the disease and indicated that genomic aberrations arise from common hematopoietic precursor cells. PTPN11 mutations in oral swab specimens of both patients during the active phase of the disease were attribu...