Canine and Human Leishmaniasis: Disease Progression to Brazilian Urbanized Areas
Danilo C Miguel and Danilo C Guarnier, DVM
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 17, 2019
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease considered one of the most neglected tropical diseases of the world. The importance and role of domestic dogs and wild canids as a source of leishmaniasis infection is well recognized. The present mini-review discusses a series of epidemiological studies that reinforce the need to understand the role of reservoirs and vectors in the expansion of leishmaniasis to Brazilian urbanized areas, as Brazil is a country of continental dimensions and endemic for leishmaniasis. Emphasis isgiven on the diagnostic tools and treatment options that must be recognized as cru...
Complex Maxillofacial Trauma with Wide-Spread Soft-Tissue Defects
Nguyen Hong Loi, MD, PhD, Tran Xuan Phu, MD, Hoang Le Trong Chau, MD and Nguyen Huu Son, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 29, 2019
The management of soft tissue injury after complex facial trаumа poses unique chаllenges to the plаstic surgeon, given the speciаlized nаture of fаciаl tissue аnd the аesthetic importаnce of the fаce. We report 8 cаses with wide-spreаd soft-tissue defects due to complex fаciаl trаumа who presented аt Odonto-stomаtology center - Hue centrаl hospitаl during the yeаr 2018. Of these cаses were surgicаlly mаnаged by fixаtion аnd fаciаl reconstruction аt Odonto-stomаtology center - Hue centrаl hospitаl; аnd they were very well recovery in function аnd аesthetics...
Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block as a Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool for Treatment of Chronic Post Herniorrhaphy Pain: A Case Report
Valentini Pogiatzi, Dimosthenis Petsas, Evripidis Efthymiou, Maria Drogouti, Athanasios Ntonas, and Georgios Ntonas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 27, 2019
The dual nature of CPSP -both nociceptive and neuropathic- can cause confusion regarding comparisons of pain in the literature. Treating this condition can be complicated and difficult. There is a variety of modalities, ranging from medication in pain clinic, revision surgery or invasive procedures (neurolysis, nerve blocks). A feasible and reproducible solution seems to be ultrasound guided nerve block. Nerve blocks might work in multiple ways. First of all providing a temporary break of the vicious cycle of chronic pain development pathophysiology (sensitization, hyperalgesia and allodynia)....
Role of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Following Intratracheal Instillation in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
Siva K Nalabotu, Nandini DPK Manne, Madhukar B Kolli, Geeta Nandyala, Radha K Para, Kevin M Rice, Cynthia B Jones and Eric R Blough
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019
Inhaled cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been shown to be capable of translocation to the liver where they can cause dose dependent toxic effects. Herein, we investigate if the deposition of cerium in the liver is linked to increased oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. Specific pathogen free male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with either vehicle (saline) or CeO2 nanoparticles (7.0 mg/kg) and euthanized 1, 3, 14, 28, 56, or 90 days post exposure. Liver samples were evaluated for evidence of ceria deposition, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectro...
OR-MRS Cannot be used for Morbidity in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
Evrim Kucur Tulubas
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 15, 2019
A reliable method to predict postoperative risks may improve surgical risks and ensure preventive precautions to reduce complication risks. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) is a common method to determine surgical risk, but at first glance it appears to be insufficient to determine the risk of morbid obesity surgery. The greatest advantage of Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score (OS-MRS) is the use of five easily obtained clinical variables. A possible disadvantage is that it may only show mortality. It was reported that OS-MRS can be used for morbidity. However, there are inconsist...
Implementation of Same-Day Sputum Smears Microscopy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Programmatic Qualitative Study
Boja Dufera Taddese, KumeraTerfa Kitila, Abay Sisay Misganaw, Daniel Melese Desalegn, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu and MeronSeifu Tebeje
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2019
In countries that have ensured effective External Quality Assessment (EQA) sputum smear microscopy, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the implementation of same-day smear sputum microcopy. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the status of the same-day sputum smear microcopy implementation was not yet assessed. In-depth interview of Health Care Providers (HCPs) at Outpatient Departments (OPDs), clinical laboratories and Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centres was conducted to assess the status of same-day sputum smear microscopy policy uptake, implementation and practices in...
Older Persons with HIV in Canada
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2019
Thanks to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the number of older patients living with HIV, usually defined as individuals over 50 years of age, has markedly increased everywhere in the world. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology and special needs of older persons with HIV in Canada now and in the near future. It is estimated that, by 2025 in Canada, one in six of all HIV-infected adults will be over 50 years of age. Most will reside in Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia and will require a number of specialized health services. These three provinces need to trai...
In silico Characterization of Rad51a Interactions with Cancer-Related Proteins
Kleber Santiago Freitas e Silva
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 28, 2019
RAD51a is a highly conserved protein and its major role is the repair of DNA double strand breaks. Endogenous species are generated during normal cell metabolic activities and can cause damage to DNA, as well as several environmental factors. The interactions RAD51a perform with other proteins help the maintenance of oncogenetic metabolism within cells. RAD51a interacts with PCNA, FANCD2 and ABL1, among many other cancer-related proteins. PCNA acts as a DNA clamp and is related to the replication process, FANCD2 arrests DNA replication fork progression in response to DNA damage and ABL1 is a p...
Paraquat Poisoning: Survival after Oral Ingestion
Sarah Allen, MD, Mario Gomez, MD, Alice M. Boylan, MD, Kristin B. Highland, MD, Anthony Germinario, MD, Michelle McCauley, MD and Michael Malone, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2019
A 52-year-old caucasian male farmer from Walterboro, South Carolina presented to the Medical University of South Carolina Health-University Medical Center in August, one hour after ingestion of 20 oz of a 50/50 water/paraquat preparation, with suicidal intent, complaining of nausea and emesis of blue colored fluid. His vital signs were normal on admission other than an increased blood pressure of 159/92 mmHg. Upon presentation, physical examination was within normal limits. Plasma levels of paraquat were obtained and the patient underwent gastrointestinal evacuation via nasogastric tube and wa...