Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineage Analysis via the Lyon's Hypothesis
Andrea L. George and Gilbert H. Smith
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2016
Implants of mammary glands from a single mammary fat pad in a H253 transgenic female mouse heterozygous for a lacZ-labeled X chromosome were analyzed at various time points following transplantation into the epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads of immune-compromised mice. The results show that the lacZ-marked X chromosome, demonstrated by nuclear-associated X-gal staining, was confined to a single epithelial clone that gave rise to the cap cells of all growing terminal end buds (TEB) in the expanding mammary outgrowths and also the basal cells of the elongated ducts....
Regulation of Normal Somatic Cell and Cancer Cell Reprogramming by p53
Jie Yuan and Qin Yang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 24, 2015
Reprogramming healthy somatic cells into disease-relevant cell types through cellular reprogramming has been intensively investigated. The discovery of reprogramming methods holds the promise of generating desired cells for disease modeling, drug screening studies and treatment of numerous diseases. Recently studies also focus on different disease cell reprogramming, including cancer cell reprogramming. Reprogramming and tumorigenesis share many similarities and the tumor suppressor p53 suppresses both processes....
Neural Stem Cells and their Niches in Neuroregeneration
Jong-Hang Chen, Mei-Shu Chen, Su-Liang Chen and Ing-Ming Chiu
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 21, 2015
Stem cell-based therapies in alleviating symptoms or reversing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injuries have been investigated extensively. In this review, we first summarize our current understanding of the ontogeny of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their mobilization in vivo. We then focus on the cellular reprogramming in generation of iP-NSCs, iNeurons and iNSCs, and applications of NSCs and iNeurons in cell-based therapy, disease modeling and drug discovery. NSCs belong to the adult stem cells, which can self-renew and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligod...
Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1 Versus Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Sjogren's Syndrome-Like NOD/ShiLtJ Mice - A Pilot Study
Justin T Easley, Joel W Nelson, Rachel E Mellas, Salah Sommakia, Chunhua Wu, Bryan Trump, and Olga J Baker
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 17, 2015
Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF- -mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of treatment with AT-RvD1 versus dex...
A Rare Coexistence of Seronegative Enthesopathy and Arthropathy Syndrome with Familial Mediterranean Fever
Hakan Genc, Alper Gumustepe, Fikriye Figen Ayhan and Aynur Karagoz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2015
The juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathies begin at age of 16 years or younger and are associated with the HLA-B27 allele. They are classified as the enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subgroup of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) by the international league of associations for rheumatology (ILAR) . Although the adult form has inflammatory low back pain as the predominant clinical symptom, the juvenile form has peripheral enthesitis and arthritis as its main clinical features. For this reason, Rosenberg and Petty proposed the concept of the seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy (SEA) sy...
Hypercoagulation in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Correlates with Activation of Act1/NF-kb Signaling Pathway
Pingheng Zhang, Jian Liu and Bing Tan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2015
Peripheral blood samples were taken from 30 RA patients and 20 healthy volunteers, as controls. Ex vivo correlates of disease severity, such as C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor, and immunological activation, such as interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and IL-6 were measured biochemically. Factors derived from the coagulation fibrinolytic system were also determined, such as the number of platelets, platelet activating factor, platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase, D-dimer, thrombin time, prothrombin time, partial thrombopla...
Cross-sectional Survey: Public Attitude toward Mental Illness in China
Anson Chui Yan Tang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2015
Public attitude toward mental illness is usually negative in many western and Asian countries. Both qualitative and quantitative studies have reported that Chinese societies possess a lower benevolence toward and impose more social restriction on the mentally ill. People with mental illnesses are being labelled as dangerous and aggressive, and their families are being disapproved of and devalued....
Making IPE Work: Idea to Actualization
Kimberly A. Udlis and Stephanie Stewart
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2015
According to the World Health Organization Interprofessional Care (IPC) is linked with improved outcomes in family health infectious disease humanitarian efforts, responses to epidemics and non-communicable disease. Others improvements with IPC are noted in access to care and coordination of services, appropriate use of specialty care, chronic disease outcomes and safety. Safety indicators include complications and error rates, lengths of stay, conflict among care givers, staff turnover and mortality rates which are improved in collaborative care environments....