A Risk Factor Analysis for MRSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia to Guide Empiric Therapy in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients as a means to better identify patients at risk who would benefit from MRSA coverag...
Self Manipulated Cervical Spine Leads to Posterior Disc Herniation and Spinal Stenosis
Wyatt McGilvery, BS, Marc Eastin, MD, Anish Sen, MD and Maciej Witkos, MS, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 05, 2019
The authors report a case in which a 38-year-old male who presented himself to the emergency department with a chief complaint of cervical neck pain and paresthesia radiating from the right pectoral region down his distal right arm following self manipulation of the patient's own cervical vertebrae. Initial emergency department imaging via cervical X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without contrast revealed no cervical fractures; however, there was evidence of an acute cervical disc herniation (C3-C7) with severe herniation and spinal stenosis located at C5-C6. Immediate discectomy at...
Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions Related to Orthodontics
Sitki Sarper Temel and Burcak Kaya
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 05, 2019
The purpose of this review article is to examine the etiology, incidence and classification of white spot lesions in association with their prevention and treatment methods. White spot lesions are opacities that occur by demineralization of enamel under the surface and cause esthetic problems. Orthodontic treatment increases the risk of white spot lesion occurrence by creating areas difficult to clean and prone to plaque accumulation around orthodontic attachments. Therefore, application of suitable methods for prevention of these lesions during orthodontic treatment and performing appropriate...
Spinal Anesthesia for Emergent Testicular Torsion Surgery in a Pediatric Patient with Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type-II
Hande Gurbuz Aytuluk and Hulya Topcu
Article Type: Case report | First Published: April 05, 2019
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common inherited diseases in children. The clinical symptoms of this neuromuscular disease vary widely from muscle weakness to death according to the onset of symptoms. There is no specific treatment for the disease. There are many risks for anesthesia, as these patients usually have skeletal deformities, increased sensitivity to opioids and neuromuscular blockers, and pulmonary disease secondary to respiratory muscle dysfunction. There is no evidence-based advice or guideline for the management of anesthesia in SMA patients and that most of the...
HR-MRI of the Breast at Intervals of Maximum 24 Months: Influence on Tumor Stage at the Time of Diagnosis
Uwe Fischer, M Hollstein, S Luftner-Nagel, F Baum and S Wienbeck
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 04, 2019
Tumor size, the histology and immunhistochemical parameters as well as the lymph node status at the time of diagnosis have a relevant influence on the prognosis and the long time-survival of breast cancer. In this context, invasive carcinomas under 10 mm in size, which most often exhibit a N0-lymph node status, have an excellent 10-year-tumor-free survival rate of 98%. With respect to intraductal breast tumors, this rate increases to 100% if adequate therapy is performed. Self-examination and medical clinical examination of the breast do not improve lifetime prognosis, because the average size...
Plasmodium falciparum Infection among Febrile Patients Attending a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Central Nigeria: Prevalence, Hematologic and Sociodemographic Factors
Yohanna Jemimah, Oti Victor, Amuta Elizabeth, Philip Akpu and Anizoba Lynda
Article Type: Research article | First Published: April 04, 2019
Plasmodium falciparum infection remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, causing about 3,000 daily deaths. This study intended to document the prevalence, and the associated factors of P. falciparum infection among febrile patients attending Federal the Medical Centre Keffi, Nigeria. After ethical clearance, 400 whole blood samples were collected from patients who gave informed consent and completed a self-structured questionnaire from July 2015 through January 2016. The blood samples were examined for the parasitic infection and hematological parameters, using standard labor...
Evaluation of Structural Alterations in Eyes Exposed to Blunt Trauma by Anterior Segment and Macula Optic Coherence Tomography
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: April 04, 2019
Approximately nineteen million humans are confronted with monocular blindness and low visual acuity as a result of blunt eye trauma all over the world. Even minor eye injuries may cause considerable morbidity and loss of work. Ayşe, et al. viewed all of ocular trauma presenting to the Emergency Department for two years and 100 of 203 patients (48%) showed blunt eye trauma in a prospective study. Blunt trauma can lead to many pathologies such as corneal abrasion, subconjunctival hemorrhage, traumatic angle recession, traumatic iris defects, commotio retina, traumatic hyphema, retinal and choro...
MEK1/2 as a Therapeutic Target in Sickle Cell Disease
Article Type: Short review | First Published: April 04, 2019
Identification of novel therapeutic targets has improved diagnostics and treatment of many diseases. Many innovative treatment strategies have been developed based on the newly identified biomarkers and key molecules. Most of the research focused on ways to manipulate signaling pathways by activating or suppressing them, validate new therapeutic targets for treatment, and epigenetic treatment of diseases. With the identification of aberrations in multiple growth pathways, the focus then shifted to the small molecules involved in these pathways for targeted therapy. In this communication/short ...
An Assessment of Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy Level, and Stages of Behaviour Change among Adolescents in Turkey
Mucahide Oner and Hasret Yalcinoz Baysal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 04, 2019
This research was conducted as descriptive. The study population consisted of 529 students attending at a high school. No sample selection method was used. The whole of the population was tried to be reached and the study was carried out with 500 students. The data for the study were collected using a personal information questionnaire, the Exercise Self-efficacy Scale Questionnaire, and the Exercise Stages of Change Short Form. The study found that 37.6% of the adolescents were physically active at a moderate level and 36.4% were in the pre-contemplation stage. The mean exercise self-efficacy...