Table 1: Oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with vaginitis.




100 female patients with nonspecific vaginitis

↑mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis; ↑MDA; ↑H2O2; ↑DNA damage of mucosa epithelial cells; ↑caspase 3 expression; ↓Bcl2; ↑Bax; ↑cytochrome C in mucosa epithelial cells; ↓CAT activity; ↑SOD





257 patients with vaginitis

↑MDA; ↑H2O2; ↓CAT activity; ↓vitamin C levels





35 women with bacterial vaginosis

↑Number of epithelial cells; ↑caspase-3; ↑apoptosis; p-↑IκBα; ↑c-Fos





45 women with vaginitis

↑Serum disulphide level; ↑serum disulphide/native

thiol ratio; ↓native /total thiol; ↑oxidative stress; ↑inflammation


24 women with vulvovaginal candidiasis and cytolytic vaginosis


↑Oxidative stress; ↑inflammation; ↑apoptosis


Co-cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages with T. Vaginalis


↑TNF-α, ↑IL-1β, ↑IL-6; ↑nitric oxide; ↑iNOS


Incubation of human neutrophils with T. Vaginalis


↑ROS; ↑caspase-3 activation; ↑apoptosis


Plasma and tissue samples of diabetic rats

↓MDA; ↓glutathione; ↓ascorbic acid