Table 1: Sleep Disturbances - Classifications, Sub-Types, Characteristics.

Classification Sub-Types Characteristics





-Difficulty initiating & maintaining sleep

-Chronic: exists > 3 months & > 3 times/week

-Comorbid: associated with affective disorders, stimulants, alcohol use

Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD)

-OSA (chronic vs. short term)

-Central sleep apnea syndromes -Sleep-related hypoventilation

-Sleep related hypoxemia

-Snoring, labored/breathing

-Daytime consequences: Sleep deprivation


Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence


-Kleine-Levin syndrome -Hypersomnia due to medical or psychiatric disorder


-Excessive daytime sleepiness disorders which are
not included in other categories

Circadian Rhythm Sleep-wake Disorders

-Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD)

-Night Eating Syndrome (NES)

-Internal (endogenous) abnormalities of the body’s circadian rhythm (sleep/wake cycle)

-Entrained to 24 hours by external factors, specifically light

-Short-term circadian rhythm disturbance includes jet lag

-Chronic circadian rhythm disturbance exhibited in night-shift workers


Non-Rapid Eye Movement Types (NREM) Rapid Eye

Movement Types (REM)


-Confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder (SRED)

REM: REM sleep behavior disorder and nightmare disorder

Other parasomnias include: sleep enuresis, exploding head syndrome, sleep-related hallucinations

-Disorders associate with sleep stages and partial arousal

Sleep Related Movement Disorders

-Restless leg syndrome

-Periodic movement disorder -Myoclonus, bruxism, and sleep-related movements due to medical condition or medicine

-Simple, repetitive movements during sleep

-Associated with dysesthesias or cramps