Table 4: Unadjusted, age- and multivariate adjusted associations of kyphosis measures with PSQI sleep components by sex; results of linear and logistic regression analysis

 

Flexicurve

 

Women (n = 255)

Men (n = 213)

Sleep measures

βb (95% CI)

βb (95% CI)

Sleep duration (hours)

 

 

Unadjusted

-0.16 (-0.28, -0.04)

0.11 (-0.02, 0.25)

Age-adjusted

-0.18 (-0.31, -0.06)

0.09 (-0.04, 0.23)

Multivariate adjusted a

-0.18 (-0.31, -0.06)

0.09 (-0.04, 0.24)

Sleep efficiency (%)

 

 

Unadjusted

0.91 (0.69, 1.21)

1.17 (0.86, 1.60)

Age-adjusted

0.98 (0.73, 1.30)

1.19 (0.87, 1.63)

Multivariate adjusted a

0.92 (0.69, 1.24)

1.19 (0.86, 1.65)

Sleep onset latency (minutes)

 

 

Unadjusted

1.33 (1.00, 1.77)

-0.04 (-0.02, 0.01)

Age-adjusted

1.25 (0.94, 1.66)

-0.05 (-0.02, 0.01)

Multivariate adjusted a

1.26 (0.95, 1.68)

-0.06 (-0.03, 0.01)

 

OR (95% CI)

OR (95% CI)

Sleep duration (≤ 7 hours) c

 

 

Unadjusted

1.10 (1.02, 1.19)

0.93 (0.84, 1.04)

Age-adjusted

1.11 (1.02, 1.20)

0.94 (0.85, 1.05)

Multivariate adjusted a

1.11 (1.02, 1.22)

0.94 (0.84, 1.06)

Sleep efficiency (≤ 85%) c

 

 

Unadjusted

0.95 (0.87, 1.03)

1.04 (0.93, 1.17)

Age-adjusted

0.97 (0.89, 1.05)

1.05 (0.94, 1.18)

Multivariate adjusted a

0.96 (0.88, 1.05)

1.06 (0.94, 1.19)

Sleep onset latency (> 30 minutes) c

 

 

Unadjusted

1.08 (0.96, 1.20)

0.94 (0.79, 1.12)

Age-adjusted

1.04 (0.93, 1.17)

0.94 (0.79, 1.12)

Multivariate adjusted a

1.06 (0.93, 1.20)

0.89 (0.74, 1.08)

Self-reported sleep quality (poor) c

 

 

Unadjusted

1.11 (0.98, 1.25)

0.86 (0.70, 1.05)

Age-adjusted

1.11 (0.98, 1.26)

0.86 (0.69, 1.05)

Multivariate adjusted a

1.09 (0.95, 1.24)

0.87 (0.70, 1.07)

Sleep disturbance (frequent) c

 

 

Unadjusted

0.97 (0.89, 1.06)

1.04 (0.90, 1.21)

Age-adjusted

0.98 (0.89, 1.07)

1.04 (0.90, 1.21)

Multivariate adjusted a

0.95 (0.86, 1.05)

1.03 (0.88, 1.21)

Sleep medications (frequent) c

 

 

Unadjusted

1.12 (1.03, 1.23)

0.96 (0.85, 1.09)

Age-adjusted

1.11 (1.01, 1.22)

0.96 (0.85, 1.09)

Multivariate adjusted a

1.14 (1.03, 1.25)

0.95 (0.82, 1.09)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations: PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Good sleep quality (PSQI ≤ 5) and Poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) are based on the PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-18)

p <0.05

a Multivariate adjusted: age, marital status, height, general health, calcium supplement use, exercise, arthritis, depression and estrogen (for women)

b Standardized β-coefficient

c Recommended sleep duration (> 7 hours); good sleep efficiency (> 85%); good sleep onset latency (≤ 30 minutes);

Frequent sleep disturbance (more than once a week); frequent sleep medication use (more than once a week)