Table 1: Literature review of documented giant cell angiofibromas in the head and neck with pathologic description.

Authors Head and Neck Site No. Cases Age Range Gender Distribution Histopathologic Features Immunohistochemical Staining
Arifin, et al. [2] Scalp 1 39 Female Oval and round- to spindle-shaped cells intermixed with floret-like giant with
hypocellular areas. Giant cells lined the pseudovascular space. Presence of bony erosion.
Positive: CD34 and Vimentin Negative: not mentioned
Shu, et al. [3] Vocal cord 2 40-45 All Male Patternless spindle cells with rich blood vessels and vascularity,
with presence of multinucleated cells lining pseudovascular spaces. Positive training: CD34,
Vimentin, CD99. Negative staining.
Positive: CD34, vimentin, CD99 Negative: MSA, desmin, s100, aAT, aACT, CDC9, cytokeratin
Gonzalez-Perez, et al. [4] Paraphyaryngeal Space 1 29 Female Fibrous pseudocapsule of spindle cells, round to oval bland
nuclei and pseudoinclusions. Numerous floret like multinucleated giant cells,
angioectoid pseudovascular spaces.
Positive: CD34, BCL2, CD99 Negative: smooth muscle actin, CKAE1/AE3, CK1/5/10/14,
s100, p63, CD31, EMA In-situ hybridization negative to SYT
gene (18q11.2) to rule out synovial sarcoma
Rousseau, et al. [5] Buccal Mucosa 1 61 Male Presence of torturous, pseudovascular spaces, filled with floret type multinucleate
cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei.
Positive: Vimentin, CD34 Negative: CD68, CD31, Factor VIII, Ulex europaeus lectin
De Andrade, et al. [9] Buccal Mucosa 1 44 Male Elongated, spindled, and wavy cells, intermingled with variable amounts
of blood vessels, pseudovascular spaces, and scarce multinucleated giant cells.
Positive: Vimentin, CD34, bcl-2 (weakly) Negative: cytokeratin, smooth muscle
actin, s100, desmin, CD68, CD34
Kintarak, et al. [8] Buccal Mucosa 1 46 Female Nonencapsulated, well circumscribed, with small spindle shaped proliferating
cells. Scattered multinucleated giant cells with peripherally arranged nuclei in
floret like pattern, lining pseudovascular spaces.
Positive: CD34, factor XIIIa Negative: smooth muscle actin, desmin, s100
Mikami, et al. [6] Submandibular Region 1 48 Female Pseudovascular spaces lined by a discontinuous row of multinucleated
cells were seen against a background of spindle-shaped fibroblastic cell proliferation.
Positive: CD34, Vimentin Negative: Factor VIII, desmin, smooth muscle actin,
myoglobin, s100, leuM1, lysozyme, alpha-1-antitrypsin, cytokeratin