Table 1: The socio-economic implication in term of Zoonotic diseases, family happiness, risk zone, management cost and quality of cattle products of trypanosomosis in Tanzania.


Measuring implication




Potential for zoonotic infection to man

- Showed the human infective parasite species such as T. brucei

- Host : Domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, pig and goats, tsetse flies, wildlife such as wildebeest (Connochaetes), chimpanzees

- Studies from Tanzania mainland were considered

- The studies focused on those areas where there is human/wildlife/livestock interface

[1,6, 7, 12,22, 27, 30-36]


Reduce family happiness due to the hindrance of social provision caused by trypanosomosis

- Fear of losing diseased animal and human

- Much time spent to search for the solution of the diseased animals and sometimes disconnect the family

- More financial resources used for treatment instead of other social activities like food, shelter, health, and education.

- The pastoralists have a generally negative attitude towards trypanosomosis due to loss caused to livestock

[15, 29,31,34,37-39]


Pushes the herders with their cattle in proximity to dangerous (predators) Wildlife, more risk zone as they practice diseases avoidance

- In avoiding areas with Trypanosomosis and other diseases the herder move crosser to protect which are riskier.

- The risk areas having high interaction of wildlife-livestock

- The risk areas have more vectors and prone to other diseases infection

- The risk area has a high chance of predation to livestock

- Increase of Human/livestock/wildlife conflicts



Reduced quality and productivity

- Low Milk production

- Death of livestock

- Reduced meat off take

- Increase calving rate,

- Increase in calf mortality

- Reduced quality for meat, milk, hide, draught power

- Reduced income to pastoralists



Increased management cost

- Treatment diseased animal

- Controlling such as Spraying

- Diagnosis cost


Note: The literatures focused more findings for the studies done in Tanzania particularly those areas proximal to protected areas except for few cases. The areas was considered proximal if it is located around protected areas such as National park, game reserves and receives wildlife from protected areas.