Table 1: Potential drug classes for therapy in PIH/placental dysfunction.

Variables NG group n = 58 CR group n = 60 EH group n = 50 CH group n = 54 p-value
Age (years) 53.2 ± 10 54.1 ± 9.5 50.6 ± 12.1 54.6 ± 7.9 0.181
Sex (male), n(%) 31 (%53.4) 33 (%55) 24 (%48) 24 (%44.4) 0.658
Smoking, n (%) 17 (%29.3) 19 (%31.7) 21 (%42.6) 22 (%40) 0.404
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 ± 2.3 27.1 ± 2.3 26.8 ± 2.1 27.1 ± 2.4 0.560
DBP (mmHg) 83.6 ± 8.5a 86.1 ± 10.5aa 90.0 ± 9.1 91.4 ± 9.8 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 142.3 ± 9.6b 147.2 ± 14.0bb 154.0 ± 11.3 157.5 ± 16.4 < 0.001
EF (%) 60.8 ± 4.8c 61.1 ± 3.9cc 58.5 ± 5.2 57.9 ± 4.6 < 0.001
LVEDD (cm) 4.6 ± 0.3d 4.4 ± 0.3dd 5.1 ± 0.3ddd 4.8 ± 0.2 < 0.001
LVESD (cm) 3.1 ± 0.2e 3.0 ± 0.2ee 3.3 ± 0.3 3.2 ± 0.3 < 0.001
IVS (cm) 1.00 ± 0.10f 1.11 ± 0.12ff 1.17 ± 0.7fff 1.23 ± 0.13 < 0.001
PW (cm) 0.90 ± 0.10f 1.04 ± 0.11g 1.05 ± 0.50ddd 1.17 ± 0.14 < 0.001
LAD (cm) 3.3 ± 0.3h 3.4 ± 0.3hh 3.7 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.4 < 0.001
RWT (g/m2) 0.38 ± 0.02i 0.47 ± 0.05hh 0.40 ± 0.02ddd 0.49 ± 0.06 < 0.001
LV mass (g) 152.8 ± 38.1b 166.8 ± 34.8k 225.5 ± 32.5 223.2 ± 43.3 < 0.001
LVMI (g/m2) 79.9 ± 18.2b 85.9 ± 16.1k 121.5 ± 17.1 126.7 ± 29.7 < 0.001
E/A 1.1 ± 0.5m 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 04 0.002
E/Em 8.0 ± 2.1n 8.6 ± 3.0 9.2 ± 2.2 10.3 ± 3.9 0.001

ap = 0.004 between NG and EH groups, p < 0.001 between NG and CH groups; aap = 0.020 between CR and CH groups; bp < 0.001 between NG, EH and CH groups; bbp = 0.030 between CR and EH groups, p = 0.003 between CR and EH groups; cp = 0.007 between NG and CH groups; ccp = 0.019 between CR and EH groups, p = 0.002 between CR and CH groups; dp = 0.002 between NG and CR groups, p < 0.001 between NG and EH groups, p = 0.021 between NG and CH groups; ddp = 0.002 between NG and CR groups, p < 0.001 between CR, EH and CH groups;

dddp < 0.001 between EH and CH groups; ep = 0.012 between NG and EH groups; eep < 0.001 between CR and EH goups, p = 0.005 between CR and CH groups; fp < 0.001 between NG, CR, EH and CH groups; ffp = 0.009 between CR and EH groups, p < 0.001 between CR and CH goups; fffp = 0.068 between EH and CH groups; gp < 0.001 between CR and CH groups; hp < 0.001 between NG and EH groups, p = 0.014 between NG and CH groups; hhp < 0.001 between CR and EH groups; ip < 0.001 between NG, CR and CH groups, p = 0.004 between NG and EH goups; kp < 0.001 between CR, EH and CH groups; mp = 0.003 between NG and CR groups, p = 0.008 between NG and CH groups; np = 0.044 between NG and EH groups, p = 0.002 between NG and CH groups.

NG: Normal Geometry; CR: Concentric Remodelling; EH: Eccentric Hypertrophy; CH: Concentric Hypertrophy; BMI: Body Mass ─░ndex; DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure; SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure; EF: Ejection Fraction; LVEDD: Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Dimension; LVESD: Left Ventricular End-Systolic Dimension ; IVS: ─░nterventricular Septal Thickness; PW: Posterior Wall Thickness; LAD: Left Atrial Diameter; RWT: Relative Wall Thickness; LV: Left Ventricular; LVMI: Left Ventricular Mass ─░ndex; E/A: Peak Velocity of Early Diastolic Flow/Peak Velocity of Late Diastolic Flow; E/Em: Peak Velocity Of Early Diastolic Flow Across Mitral Valve/Myocardial Peak Velocity of Early Diastole.