Table 1: Approved screening tools.

Procedure Radiation Time Cost
Barium Esophagram Yes Moderate Moderate
Air Contrast Esophagram Yes Moderate Moderate
Manometry No Time-consuming Inexpensive
Manofluorography Yes Time-consuming Expensive
FEESST No Time-consuming Expensive
Bolus Scintigraphy Yes Moderate Moderate
Ultrasonography No Moderate Expensive
VESS No Time-consuming Inexpensive
VFSS Yes Time-consuming Expensive
Surface EMG No Time-saving Inexpensive

Note: Goes in two stages, the examination is videotaped and then again analyzed; in addition to radiologist, speech pathologists must be present. Adapted from Vaiman M, et al. [22].