Table 1: Summary of the 4 major studies evaluating the risk factors and outcomes of AKI development in patients with H1N1 Influenza A infection.

 

 

Bagshaw et al. [18]

Martin-Loeches et al. [20]

Jung et al. [21]

Nin et al. [23]

Country

Canada

Spain

South Korea

Argentina, Uruguay and Chile

Study

Prospective multicenter

Prospective multicenter

Retrospective

multicenter

Retrospective

Total # pts

562

661

221

84

%Pts with AKI

60.9%

17.7%

29%

51%

# of pts with AKI

342

118

50

43

Characteristics of AKI patients

Age

49.1 (15.1)

44.9 (15.2)

66 (53-73)

46 (13)

Male (%)

165 (48.2)

77 (65.3)

26 (52)

30(72)

Body mass index(kg/m)

% BMI>30

 

-

118(34.5)

 

-

52 (44.4)

 

22.6(4.3)

-

33(2)

-

Diabetes (%)

107(31.3)

19 (16.2)

16(32)

-

COPD (%)

56(16.4)

19 (16.2)

10(20)

-

CKD (%)

44(12.9)

Excluded

3(6)

-

APACHE II Score

Mean( SD)

Median (IQR )

 

23.0(9.6)

 

19.1 (8.4)

 

25.1 7

 

20(7)

SOFA Score

Mean ( SD)

 

12.0(3.8)

 

8.7(4.2)

 

10.6 3

 

-

ICU stay

Mean ( SD)

Median (IQR)

 

-

12(7-24)

 

19.4(16.5)

13 (7-30)

 

19.9 11.4

-

 

-

11(5-16)

Hospital stay

Mean ( SD)

Median (IQR)

 

-

20(12-40)

 

30.3(19.9)

26.5(13.7-44.2)

 

26 36.4

-

 

-

18(11-34)

Inotropic support (%)

222(64.9)

89(75.4)

42(84)

-

Renal replacement therapy (%)

85(24.9)

50(42.3)

19(38)

19(44)

AKI Criteria

RIFLE

AKIN

RIFLE

RIFLE

Mortality (%)

85(25.8)

(Hospital)

52(44.1)

(ICU)

38(76)

(Hospital)

31(72)

(ICU)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*AKI: Acute Kidney Injury, COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease, CKD: Chronic Kidney Disease, APACHEII: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ICU: intensive care unit, Categorical data are presented as n(%) and continuous data as mean(SD) or median(Q1-Q3)