Table 3: A table summarising the details of participants, methods and results used in each study.

Study N of subjects Triathlete level Mean Age Initial time ran Time cycled Time ran in transition run Outcome measures Results
Rendos, et al. [9] 28 Moderately Trained 24.6 +/- 5.8 4 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes Change in sagittal plane running kinematics after cycling. Running kinematic changes in the spine, pelvis and hip for 14 minutes after cycling.
Chapman, et al. [10] 16 Elite triathletes 30.2 +/- 3.2 10 minutes 20 minutes 30 minutes Influence of cycling on running kinematics and muscle recruitment. No changes in running kinematics. 5 triathletes experienced change in TA muscle activity.
Walsh, et al. [11] 6 Elite Triathletes 24.8 +/- 7.6 10 minutes 20 minutes 30 minutes To examine changes in EMG patterns when running after cycling. EMG patterns are not affected by prior cycling.
Chapman, et al. [12] 34 Elite triathletes 29.1 +/- 3.6 10 minutes 20 minutes 30 minutes Influence of cycling on neuromuscular control. Comparison between those with exercise related leg pain (ERLP) and those without. Triathletes with ERLP are more likely to experience changes in muscle recruitment. There were no changes in knee and ankle joint kinematics in all triathletes.
Bonacci, et al. [6] 7 Elite Triathletes Not Specified Not Specified 20 minutes and 50 minutes 30 minutes Changes in neuromuscular control. Comparison between a low and high intensity cycle. No changes in neuromuscular control in both cycle protocols.
Connick, et al. [5] 8 Moderately Trained 41.9 +/- 6 22 minutes 180 minutes 10 minutes Changes in TA activation and lower limb range of motion (ROM) after cycling No changes in ROM or TA activation. Decreased stride length in the transition run.
Bonacci, et al. [13] 15 Moderately trained Not Specified Not Specified 15 minutes 30 minutes Change in neuromuscular control when running after cycling. 5 triathletes experienced changes in joint position. 1 triathlete experienced changes in muscle recruitment.
Gottschall, et al. [14] 10 Moderately Trained Not Specified 5 Km 30 minutes 5 Km Changes in step length and step frequency after cycling. Smaller step length and greater step frequency. This gradually returned to normal as running time increased.
Bonacci, et al. [15] 17 Moderately Trained Not Specified 4 minutes 45 minutes 4 minutes Change in limb movement and muscle recruitment after cycling. Running kinematics and muscle recruitment were altered in 46% of triathletes.