Table 2: Baseline participant information.

 Characteristic People with dementia Controls Total sample Mann Whitney U or X2 statistic, P value N 10 15 25 - Age mean ± SD 78.78 (8.91) 74.47 (9.79) 76.08 (9.514) U = 50.50, p = 0.310 Gender male n (%): female n (%) 7 (70%): 3 (30%) 3 (20%): 12 (80%) 10 (40%): 15 (60%) X2(1) = 1.00, p = 0.317 MMSE mean ± SD 18.44 (6.84) 28.71 (1.44) 24.70 (6.67) U = 5.00, p ≤ 0.001** VF mean ± SD 9.22 (8.27) 20.93 (5.37) 16.35 (8.72) U = 16.00, p = 0.003** HVLT mean ± SD 7.6 (6.62) 24.14 (6.59) 17.25 (10.54) U = 7.00, p ≤ 0.001** Series mean ± SD 14.25 (10.73) 30.64 (8.81) 23.74 (12.53) U = 10.00, p = 0.005** Odd One Out mean ± SD 24.25 (9.69) 34.91 (8.26) 30.42 (10.18) U = 13.50, p = 0.012** Jigsaw mean ± SD 3.67 (2.34) 9.11 (4.78) 6.93 (4.76) U = 6.50, p = 0.015* Total CCIID mean ± SD 41.25 (22.15) 73.00 (19.38) 59.63 (25.67) U = 8.50, p = 0.003** Physical self-efficacy mean ± SD 32.00 (5.35) 34.62 (8.01) 33.48 (6.96) U = 47.5, p = 0.276 GDS mean ± SD 5.00 (3.64) 3.08 (2.75) 3.90 (3.22) U = 35.5, p = 0.185 Carer Strain mean ± SD - 14.44 (4.77) - - IADL mean ± SD 16.25 (3.45) 26.00 (0.00) 21.41 (5.51) U = 0.00, p ≤ 0.01**

*Indicates a significant result (p ≤ 0.05); **Indicates a significant result (p ≤ 0.01**).